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Full text of "The Labour gazette July-December 1959"

CANADA 



Industrial Accidents, pages 698, 701 



Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LIX 
JULY 31, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Assistant Editor 

W. R. Channon 



810 



V\o.1-IE 



Circulation Manager 

J. E. Abbey 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



LIBRARY 

73624? 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Vol. LIX, No. 7 CONTENTS July 31, 1959 

Employment Review 661 

Collective Bargaining Review 674 

Notes of Current Interest 680 

Items of Interest to Labour from House of Commons 685 

88th Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association . . 687 

Vocational Training for Married Women 695 

General Wage Increases, October 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959 696 

Early Post-Graduate Years in Technical, Scientific Professions 697 

Industrial Fatalities in Canada during First Quarter of 1959 . . 698 

Industrial Accidents in the United Kingdom 701 

Ontario Plans New School for Deaf 707 

Some Solutions to Older Worker Problem 708 

Homemaker Services in the United States 709 

50 Years Ago This Month 710 

International Labour Organization: 

Canadians Address IL0 Conference 711 

Appeals Board Gives Communist Delegates Right to Vote 715 

Teamwork in Industry 716 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 717 

Conciliation Proceedings 720 

Labour Law: 

Royal Commission on N.S. Workmen's Compensation Act . . 730 

Legal Decision Affecting Labour 738 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 738 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 740 

Decisions of the Umpire 741 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 745 

Prices and the Cost of Living 750 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 752 

Labour Statistics 756 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing with 
subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 
25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per year, single copies 50 cents each; Send remittance by 
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advance. Special Group Subscription Offer — Five or more annual subscriptions, $1 per 
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countries. Change of Address — Please attach label showing previous address. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT REVIEW 



ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Current Situation 

Employment reached an all-time record level in June. An estimated 
6,053,000 persons had jobs, 201,000 more than the previous month and 
174,000 than in June the year before. The increase in employment from May 
to June occurred almost entirely in nonfarm industries. Regionally, it was 
fairly well distributed across the country. The rate varied from just under 3 
per cent in Ontario and the western provinces to 7 per cent in the Maritimes. 
Seasonal factors normally exert a greater influence in eastern Canada than in 
other parts of the country so that more than proportionate increases in employ- 
ment are not unusual in these regions. 

In June, 183,000 more persons held jobs in nonfarm industries than the 
year before; farm employment was down slightly. The labour force continued 
to expand slowly and was 84,000 higher than a year before. 

The month-to-month increase in employment was considerably larger than 
usual. A major share of the improvement occurred in the distributive industries, 
particularly in trade, which had been remarkably stable for about two years. 
Between May and June, employment in trade rose by some 56,000 compared 
with an average increase of 11,000 during the corresponding period in the 
past four years. Hirings in construction and logging increased sharply, as 
usual; in both industries employment levels were roughly the same as a year ago. 
Factory employment advanced more slowly than in May but there was further 
clear evidence of improvement in most lines of manufacturing. Consumer pur- 
chases have risen sharply during recent months, providing a strong support 
for the upward trend in output and employment. The upturn in consumer 
demand appears to have been influenced to a considerable extent by increased 
purchasing power. Labour income in the first quarter of 1959 was more than 
7 per cent higher than in the comparable period last year. 

Unemployment declined markedly between May and June as the rise 
in employment more than kept pace with the expansion of the labour force. 
The number of persons without jobs and seeking work declined by 100,000, or 
30 per cent, leaving a total of 234,000. The decline over the year amounted 
to 90,000, of which 77,000 were males and 13,000 were females. The number 
of temporary layoffs in June stood at 14,000, practically unchanged from the 
year before. The "seeking work" figure was 3.7 per cent of the labour 
force, compared with 5.2 per cent in June 1958. 

661 

72787-5—1 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - CANADA 

1957-58 1958-5? 




5, 600.000 t \ J T * 

5,500,000 ^ -jf 



The gain in June more than made up for the previous month's pause in 
this year's employment advance. In the six-month period ending in June, total 
nonfarm employment (seasonally adjusted) increased by more than 3 per cent. 
With this increase, employment is currently about 2 per cent above the previous 
peak in mid- 195 7. 

The most impressive employment 
increase stemmed from the recovery in 
manufacturing production. The main 
strength came from durable goods: activ- 
ity increased noticeably in motor vehicles, 
primary steel, household appliances, wood 
products, and railway rolling stock. In- 
creased consumer purchases of motor 
vehicles, lumber and building materials 
contributed strong support to the upswing 
in manufacturing employment this year. 
In the first five months of 1959, motor 
vehicle sales were 10 per cent ahead of 
the comparable period last year while 
sales of lumber and building materials 
were 6 per cent ahead. 

A noticeable weakness was apparent 
in housing construction during the second 
quarter, resulting principally from the ces- 
sation of direct loans to builders by 
Central Mortgage and Housing Corpora- 
tion. Owing to the great increase in new 
units started last winter, total volume of 
residential work underway remained 
higher than last year. However, the 
number started was down sharply from 
last year in all regions except the Atlantic provinces. With the renewal of 
CMHC direct loans in September, recently announced, another upturn in 
housing can be expected during the fall and winter months. 

Recent developments in other key areas of the economy seem to support 
the view that the recovery has been gaining momentum. The Trade 
and Commerce mid-year investment survey shows that spending plans in the 
business sector have increased considerably since the beginning of the year. 
All major categories of business showed significant increases in investment 
intentions, compared with plans formulated in January. On the whole, the 
results of the mid-year survey of investment intentions reflect increasing business 
confidence. More new projects are being initiated this year than in 1958 and 
there is strong evidence that spending on machinery and equipment will 
reverse the downward trend evident last year. 

Business inventories are also displaying renewed strength. Manufacturing 
inventories have increased steadily since the beginning of the year, reversing 
the downward trend of the previous year. The current build-up of stocks can 
be attributed, in part, to increased business confidence. A continuation of the 
upward trend in inventories can be expected, since the ratio of inventories to 
shipments is still at a fairly low level. 




J ASONOJ FMAMJ 



662 



Labour Force Participation 

The labour force rose more slowly 
than usual this season. During the first 
half of 1959 the increase over the cor- 
responding period of 1958 averaged 
only 84,000. This increase amounts 
to just over 1 per cent, compared with 
a rate of nearly 4 per cent in 1957 and 
a long-time average of 2 per cent. 

A reduction in immigration par- 
tially explains the change in the labour 
force growth. Total intake during the 
first quarter of the current year was 
down 20 per cent from the intake 
during the first quarter of 1958, 
which, in turn, was well below the 
equivalent figure for 1957. 

Another factor slowing down 
the growth of the labour force was a 
reduction in the proportion of the 
population that comprises the labour 
market. The participation rates (i.e., 
proportions of the civilian non-institu- 
tional population, 14 years and over, 
that are either working or seeking 
work) for ten specific groups are illus- 
trated on these two pages. Shown on 
the charts are the average annual par- 
ticipation rates for the past six years, 
along with the monthly values, ad- 
justed for seasonal movements, for 
the past two years. 

The decline in the participation 
rate of the total labour force has been 
small — from an average 53.5 per cent 
in the first half of 1958 to 53.3 per cent 
in the first half of 1959. There were 
significant changes over the year, how- 
ever, in certain age groups. Participa- 
tion rates were unusually low this 
year for males 24 and under, for males 
65 and over, and for females 19 and 
under. The rates for women over 45, 
on the other hand, were significantly 
higher in this period than previously. 
No appreciable change was evident for 
men 25 to 64 years nor for women 20 
to 44 years, groups which together 
account for close to three quarters of 
the total labour force. 

72787-5— li 



LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES - FEMALES 



ANNUAL AVERAGES SEASONALLY ADJUSTED 

1953 TO 1958 MONTHLY DATA 1957 TO DATE 



14 TO 19 YEARS OF AGE 



'l^H. 



. * w~/V" 



25 TO 44 YEARS OF AGE 



25 



45 TO 64 YEARS OF AGE 

30 , 30 



65 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER 
15 mmaitmm t . 15 



1953 '54 '55 '56 '57 '58 1957 1958 1959 



663 



LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES - MALES 



ANNUAL AVERAGES SEASONALLY ADJUSTED 

1953 TO 1958 MONTHLY DAT A 1957 TO DATE 



14 TO 19 YEARS OF AGE 



• : 








• • 


v>N 


\j 


* 






V 


V 



20 TO 24 YEARS OF AGE 

100 , 100 



*■• *« *W\/' S *-N/Vl y 



25 TO 44 YEARS OF AGE 

105 105 



j 



65 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER 

40 40 



•■•■'■ Vx 



1953 '54 '55 '56 '57 '58 1957 1958 1959 



The decline in the participation rate 
among males in the 14 to 19 age group 
appears to be a continuation of the steady 
downward trend that has been present 
through the entire postwar period. Two 
factors appear to account for this trend. 
One is related to a change in the age 
composition of this group. The proportion 
of 14-, 15- and 16-year-old boys within 
the 14 to 19 age group became larger each 
year until 1957 as a result of the higher 
birth rate of the early war years. These 
14-, 15- and 16-year-old boys accounted 
for slightly more than half the total popu- 
lation of this age group in 1950. The per- 
centage rose from 51.0 in 1953 to 52.1 in 
1955 and levelled off at 53.5 in 1957. After 
moving fractionally higher in 1958, the per- 
centage was back at 53.5 in 1959. The 
greater proportion of very young within 
the 14 to 19 age group has tended to pull 
the participation rate for this group down, 
since proportionately few of the very 
young enter the labour market. 

The other factor that depresses the par- 
ticipation rate of the 14 to 19 age group 
is the steady rise in the proportion of 
boys and girls of these ages who are going 
to school. Persons in this age group at 
school (both sexes) increased from 52.1 
per cent in 1950 to 54.7 per cent in 1953 
and to 55.8 per cent in 1955. Between 
1957 and 1959 a further large increase 
occurred, from 57.6 to 62.0 per cent. 

The increase in the participation rate of 
women over 44 seems to be related to the 
rapid growth of the trade and service 
industries in recent years. The number of 
women working in trade increased 15.4 per 
cent from May 1955 to May 1959, while 
the concurrent increase in male workers 
was 6.6 per cent. At the same time the 
number of women in service industries in- 
creased by 31.3 per cent while for men the 
increase was 20.5 per cent. The growth of 
total employment (of males and females) 
in this period was 9.2 per cent for trade, 
and 25.7 per cent for service. For all 
industries it was 9.0 per cent. 

In three age groups the recent drop in 
participation rates is a distinct departure 
from the stability of previous years. These 
groups are: males from 20 to 24, males 
65 and over, and females from 14 to 19. The 
recent recession may have been a factor in 
the participation rate of persons in these 
groups. It is the young and the old who 
have the greatest difficulty finding work 
when jobs are scarce. Consequently, the 
young tend to postpone their entry into the 
labour force and the old retire earlier than 
they might under different circumstances. 



664 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JUNE 1959 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 





LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 






Halifax 


— >-CALGARY 








— >*QUEBEC-LEVIS 


— >EDMONTON 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




— >-ST. JOHN'S 


— -^HAMILTON 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 




Vancouver- 
New Westminster 
Windsor 


— ^MONTREAL 

Ottawa-Hull 
— ^TORONTO 
— ^WINNIPEG 






SYDNEY -<-— 


— >-CORNER BROOK 
— ^CORNWALL 

Fort-William- 
Pt. Arthur 
Joliette 
— >-LAC ST. JEAN 


— >BRANTFORD 
— >FARNHAM- 
GRANBY 

Guelph 
— >-KINGSTON 

Kitchener 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Moncton 


London 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 60 




New Glasgow 


—^NIAGARA 




per cent or more in non-agri- 




— >-ROUYN-VAL D'OR 


PENINSULA 




cultural activity) 




Saint John 
Sarnia 
— >SHAWINIGAN 
Sherbrooke 
Timmins- 

Kirkland Lake 
Trois Rivieres 
Victoria 


— >-OSHAWA 

— ^PETERBOROUGH 

— ^SUDBURY 








Barrie 


Brandon 








— ^RIVIERE DU LOUP 


— ►CHARLOTTETOWN 








— >-THETFORD- 


— ^CHATHAM 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 




MEGANTIC- 


Lethbridge 




AREAS 




ST. GEORGES 


Moose Jaw 




(labour force 25.000-75,000; 40 




Yorkton 


North Battleford 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






— >>PRINCE ALBERT 
— >-RED DEER 

Regina 

Saskatoon 
















— >-BATHURST 


— >-BRACEBRIDGE 








Beauharnois 


— >BRIDGEWATER 








Belleville-Trenton 


— ->CENTRAL 








>*BRAMPTON 


VANCOUVER 








— >-CAMPBELLTON 


ISLAND 








Chilliwack 


— >*CRANBROOK 








— >-DAUPHIN 


— ►DRUMHELLER 








— »-DAWSON CREEK 


Gait 








Drummondville 


Goderich 








— >-EDMUNDSTON 


—►GRAND FALLS 








— >FREDERICTON 


— ►KAMLOOPS 








— >-GASPE 


Kitimat 








Kentville 


— >-LACHUTE- 








— >-MONTMAGNY 


STE. THERESE 








— ^NEWCASTLE 


— ^LINDSAY 




MINOR AREAS 




— >-OKANAGAN VALLEY 


Listowel 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 




Portage La Prairie 

— >-PRINCE GEORGE 
— ^QUEBEC NORTH 

SHORE 
— >-RIMOUSKI 
— >-ST. STEPHEN 
— >>SOREL 
— >>SUMMERSIDE 

Trail-Nelson 
— >-VALLEYFIELD 

Victoriaville 
— »-WOODSTOCK 


Medicine Hat 
—►NORTH BAY 

—►OWEN SOUND 
—►PEMBROKE 
— ►PRINCE RUPERT 
— ►STE. AGATHE- 
ST. JEROME 
— ►ST. HYACINTHE 
— ►ST. JEAN 

St. Thomas 
— ►SAULT STE. MARIE 

Simcoe 

Stratford 

Swift Current 
— ►TRURO 

Walkerton 

Weyburn 

Woodstock-Ingersoll 
— ►YARMOUTH 





►The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 

moved. For an explanation of the classification system used, see page 339, March issue. 



665 



Employment Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ATLANTIC 

1957-58 1958-59 




JASONOJ FMAMJ 



Employment in the Atlantic region 
showed a larger than seasonal increase 
between May and June; the number of 
persons with jobs in the region was esti- 
mated to be 533,000, an increase of 
35,000 from the previous month and 
29,000 from the previous year. All of 
the increase during the month occurred 
in non-farm industries; farm employment 
showed the usual decline with the com- 
pletion of spring seeding. 

The June increase in total employ- 
ment was centred largely in outdoor acti- 
vities. Logging, lumbering and construc- 
tion were active during the month; these 
industries figured prominently in the 
year-to-year improvement. Employment 
gains in fishing, fish processing, trucking, 
trade and service were about normal for the season. Mining was still a major 
source of weakness: temporary closures of from one to three weeks duration 
occurred at three of the Dominion Coal Company's mines in Sydney; iron ore 
mines at Bell Island, Newfoundland, were idle for one week. 

Most of the 21 areas in the region registered sharp decreases in unemploy- 
ment during the month. An exception was Sydney, which moved to a category 
denoting higher unemployment as a result of production cutbacks in the 
important coal mining industry. At the end of June, the area classification was 
as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, 1 (9); in 
moderate surplus, 15 (12); in balance, 5 (0). 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. Unem- 
ployment remained considerably higher than the long-term average in this area, 
because of continuing weaknesses in mining and trade. Iron ore production 
reached a very low level during the month as the ore mines at Bell Island were 
closed for one week as part of a series of scheduled shutdowns resulting from 
reduced sales; close to 600 workers were released from No. 6 Mine at the 
end of April when it closed for an indefinite period. Manufacturing employ- 
ment showed little change during the month and was somewhat lower than last 
year. Construction activity increased sharply during the month, reaching a much 
higher level than a year ago. 

Halifax (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Layoffs at the Halifax shipyards 
slowed the employment expansion in this area. Approximately 300 workers 
were involved in the layoff. Total employment was considerably higher than 
last year; all of the larger industries shared in the advance. 



666 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate Balance 


Labour Shortage 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 


4 




June 
1959 


June 
1958 


June 
1959 


June 

1958 


June 
1959 


June 
1958 


June 
1959 


June 
1958 




1 


3 

10 
2 
12 


5 
15 

4 
27 


7 
13 

4 
36 


7 
10 
10 
31 


2 
3 
8 
10 


- 




















Total 


1 


27 


51 


60 


58 


23 


— 









Corner Brook (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 
Unemployment declined sharply in this area during June as a result of increased 
hirings in construction and logging. The local newsprint mill continued to 
operate on a reduced scale but stepped-up operations were expected to occur 
early in August. 

Sydney (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Coal 
mining continued to be a major source of weakness but prospects appear to 
have improved: reports from the area indicated that the mines were scheduled 
to operate steadily for the remainder of the year, bringing to an end a series 
of periodic shutdowns that began early last summer. Recent orders at the local 
steel plant were expected to boost employment during the next few months. 
Steel output was expected to show a particularly sharp rise between June 
and August. 

Charlottetown, Grand Falls, Bridgewater, Truro and Yarmouth (major agricul- 
tural and minor) were reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Summerside, Bathurst, Camphellton, Edmundston, Fredericton, Newcastle, 
St. Stephen and Woodstock (minor) were reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 



QUEBEC 

Employment showed a further sea- 
sonal rise in the Quebec region between 
May and June as nonfarm industries 
continued to expand. At June 20, the 
number of persons with jobs was esti- 
mated at 1,660,000, an increase of some 
66,000 from the previous month and 
27,000 from a year earlier. The gains in 
nonfarm employment during the month 
were shared by most of the industry 
groups. Demand for loggers increased 
for the river drives and for summer cut- 
ting operations; employment was some- 
what higher than in June 1958. Con- 
struction employment was maintained at 
much the same level as last year. The 
opening of the tourist season contributed 
largely to the rise in employment in the 
distributive industries. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 

1957-58 



- QUEBEC 

1958-59 



— Labour Force 




J ASONDJFMAMJ 



667 



Manufacturing showed further evidence of employment strengthening dur- 
ing June. The improvement was widespread and was most noticeable in the 
heavy industries: railway rolling stock, aircraft, shipbuilding and primary iron 
and steel provided most of the strength. Seasonal layoffs occurred in primary 
and secondary textiles but the general level of employment in these industries 
was higher than a year ago. Plants producing building materials were very 
active during the month. Employment in the aluminum industry showed a 
continuing slight improvement. 

Unemployment declined further during the month and was considerably 
lower than last year at this time. Fifteen of the 24 labour market areas in the 
region were reclassified during the month, all to categories denoting lower 
unemployment. At the end of June, the area classification was as follows (last 
year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, (11); in moderate surplus, 
18 (13); in balance, 6 (0). 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Unemploy- 
ment declined markedly during the month as a result of increased job oppor- 
tunities throughout the area. Seasonal employment gains occurred in service, 
construction, trade and finance. Manufacturing employment advanced con- 
siderably during the month as the result of an improvement in certain industries 
that were a major source of weakness earlier in the year. A notable example 
was aircraft manufacture, which was very active during June. Activity in the 
iron and steel products industry increased during the month to a slightly higher 
level than last year. The building materials industries were very active, 
reflecting the high volume of construction that is taking place. 
Quebec-Levis (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 
Employment increased in Quebec during the month as construction and forestry 
became very active. Employment in the leather industry improved but textile 
plants showed virtually no change from the month before. 
Farnham-Granby (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Lac St. Jean, Rouyn-Val d'Or and Shawinigan (major industrial) were reclassi- 
fied from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Riviere du Loup and Thetford Mines-Megantic-St. George (major agricultural) 
were reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Gaspe, Montmagny, Rimouski, Quebec-North Shore, Sorel and Valleyfield 
(minor) were reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Lachute-Ste. Therese, St. Agathe-St. Jerome, St. Hyacinthe and St. Jean (minor) 
were reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

ONTARIO 

The Ontario region experienced a more-than-seasonal rise in employment 
during the month. The number of persons with jobs at June 20 was estimated 
to be 2,239,000, an increase of 57,000 from the previous month and of 58,000 
from the previous year. About three-quarters of the month-to-month increase 
occurred in non-agricultural industries. The rate of increase was considerably 
greater than during the past two years. 

The June increase in economic activity was fairly widespread both indus- 
trially and geographically. Most labour market areas reported substantial 

668 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 



1957-58 



2, 350,000 


Labour Force 




1 


^- 










1 






SONDJFMAMJ 



declines in unemployment and increased 
vacancies, resulting in some local short- 
ages of skilled mechanical and construc- 
tion workers. Gains in production and 
employment were particularly apparent 
in the durable goods producing indus- 
tries. The iron and steel industries 
continued the upward movement that 
began in February, recovering most of 
the employment losses of the past two 
years. Steel-making operations remained 
at close to capacity levels; orders to 
steel mills were high as wholesalers and 
industrial consumers sought to build up 
their inventories. Extensive provincial 
and municipal road-building programs 
provided a further stimulus to the pro- 
duction of heavy road construction 
machinery. Export and domestic demand for farm machinery remained strong, 
although there were some seasonal layoffs in the second half of the month. 
Motor vehicle production recovered the ground lost in May; output in June 
rose by some 12 per cent and total production for the first half of the year 
was 13 per cent above last year's level. The construction industry as a whole 
was active, causing local shortages of bricklayers, first-class carpenters and 
experienced labourers. The increased activity was chiefly in highway con- 
struction and engineering and was offset in part by the drop in housing 
construction. Weaknesses persisted in aircraft production and in textiles. 

Unemployment was greatly reduced during the month and was much 
below last year's level; the ratio of job seekers to the labour force was 2.6 
per cent, compared with 4.1 per cent a year earlier. Seventeen of the 34 
labour market areas in the region were reclassified during the month, all to 
categories denoting less unemployment. The area classification at the end 
of June was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, 
(3); in moderate surplus, 7 (21); in balance, 27 (10). 



Local Area Developments 

Metropolitan Areas Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3 — Hamilton: Em- 
ployment showed a substantial gain during the month, considerably exceeding 
last year's level. Shortages of skilled and semi-skilled labour appeared in 
many industries. The iron and steel industry was very active. However, a 
seasonal layoff of about 300 men occurred at the farm implement plant. 
Toronto: Improved economic conditions resulted in a sharp reduction in 
unemployment and an increase in job vacancies. Higher production levels 
in light manufacturing and food processing were responsible for most new 
hirings. Construction activity remained high; the value of building permits 
between January and May rose 6 per cent above last year's figure. 
Metropolitan Areas with Classification Unchanged — Ottawa-Hull (Group 3): 
The heavy demand for labour continued, with shortages of farm and con- 
struction workers in prospect. The construction industry in Ottawa has reached 
record production levels. In the Hull area sawmills were operating at peak 



72787-5—2 



669 



capacity and the paper industry remained stable. Windsor (Group 2): Em- 
ployment showed a marked increase over last year. There was fresh demand 
for labour, particularly in agriculture, and new hirings occurred in the auto- 
mobile industry. An automobile manufacturer and a large food processing 
plant plan a significant expansion of their productive capacity. 

Cornwall (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Brantford, Kingston, Niagara Peninsula, Oshawa, Peterborough and Sudbury 

(major industrial) were reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

Chatham (major agricultural) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Brampton (minor) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Bracebridge, Lindsay, North Bay, Owen Sound, Pembroke and Sault Ste. Marie 

(minor) were reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



PRAIRIE 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PRAIRIE 



1958-59 



,™-,„ 





Employment rose more than sea- 
sonally between May and June. Expan- 
sion in the non-agricultural work force 
more than offset the small decline in 
agriculture which is usual at this time 
of year. The total increase was esti- 
mated at 29,000, bringing the number 
employed to 1,073,000, an increase of 
32,000 from June 1958. 

At the end of June crop prospects 
were improved by nearly four inches of 
precipitation in the parts of the region 
most affected by drought earlier in the 
year. Manpower reductions took place 
on dry-land farms as seeding was com- 
pleted, but these were nearly balanced 
by movements of workers to jobs in 
irrigated areas, where more labour is 
needed in the summer months. 
A high level of farm cash income in the first quarter of this year added 
buoyancy to economic conditions in the region. Comparison with the same 
period in the last two years shows 1959 first-quarter cash receipts above 1958 
by 5 per cent and above 1957 by 18 per cent. Receipts from field crops in 
1959 were down 3 per cent from 1957 and up 10 per cent from 1958. First- 
quarter receipts from livestock sales, the other main source of income, were 
down fractionally in 1959 from 1958 but up 33 per cent from 1957. 

Output of the petroleum industry in the first quarter of this year was 
also well ahead of the same period in 1958. Crude oil production was 9 per 
cent higher and natural gas jumped 41 per cent. But the number of oil-drilling 
rigs in operation was at times as much as 15 per cent below the year-earlier 
level, with an adverse effect on employment. In Alberta, the main producing 
area, average employment in the first quarter was down 6 per cent from last 
year. The number of geophysical crews was also reduced; only two-thirds of 
last year's number were in the field in June. 



JASONDJFMAMJ 

. — 



670 



Widely distributed employment gains in almost all nonfarm industries 
raised nonfarm employment to 784,000: 31,000 more than the May figure 
and 49,000 more than in June 1958. Shortages of well-qualified, experienced 
tradesmen became more pronounced. Construction tradesmen, automotive 
mechanics, nurses and stenographers were in heavy demand. Metal mining 
was firm and the recall of woods workers continued. Summer help was needed in 
holiday industries such as motels, service enterprises in parks, and restaurants. 
Near the end of the month students completing their high school studies began 
to enter the labour force. In western Alberta they were able to obtain work 
in vacation establishments quite readily, but opportunities were less numerous 
farther east. 

Unemployment declined in the month to well below last year's level. 
Eight of the 20 labour market areas in the region were reclassified to categories 
indicating reductions in unemployment, and at the end of June the area 
classification was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in substantial 
surplus, (1); in moderate surplus, 5 (7); in balance, 15 (12). 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg (metropolitan) were reclassified from Group 2 
to Group 3. Production of beverages and of food, particularly meat processing, 
was at a high level. Other manufacturing was strong and construction activity 
moved towards its seasonal peak. 

Prince Albert, Red Deer (major agricultural) were reclassified from Group 2 
to Group 3. 

Drumheller (minor) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Unemploy- 
ment was reduced by the general pick-up in construction and services and by 
an increase in oil drilling in the district. A number of coal miners laid off 
as a result of mine closures this spring were still experiencing difficulty in 
obtaining other work. 
Dauphin, Dawson Creek (minor) were reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

PACIFIC 

The first five months of this year were a period of high economic activity 
in the Pacific region. From the winter trough, employment rose by more than 
8 per cent compared with 5 per cent in 1958, establishing new records. 
Although most major industries shared in the improved production and 
employment, gains were particularly pronounced in logging and sawmilling. 
The demand for lumber products frequently outstripped the supply. Construc- 
tion activity as a whole kept pace with these developments, although residential 
construction had begun to level off in March. 

This general trend continued in June. Labour demand in the region 
remained buoyant throughout most of the month. Employment in most indus- 
tries was considerably above last year's level and job opportunities were 
continuously rising, resulting in labour shortages in a number of skilled and 
semi-skilled occupations. In mid- June, however, hirings dropped sharply as 
the chances of an early settlement of labour-management disputes diminished. 
As a result, total employment since mid-May has increased only seasonally, 

72787-5— 2 J 671 



— — 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 

1958-59 



1957-58 




575,000 
550,000 
525,000 





Persons 
With Job* 




^N 








1 •* ^^VJ -^ 


*'"' 


500,000 


>"ir^r~- 


»* 









with the number of persons with jobs 
at June 20 estimated at 548,000, some 
14,000 higher than the previous month 
and about 28,000 higher than last year. 
The uncertainty regarding the out- 
come of the prolonged wages nego- 
tiations was reflected primarily in the 
logging and lumbering industries. Al- 
though logging operations continued at 
a high level, the possibility of a strike 
had the effect of keeping hirings and 
turnover at a minimum. Manpower 
shortages did not develop to the extent 
expected last month. A similar situa- 
tion prevailed in the sawmill industry, 
where, in addition, temporary interrup- 
tions in some areas were caused by 
impassable log roads and scattered indus- 
trial disputes. Employment in mining increased during the month and qualified 
men were becoming scarce. Additional hirings occurred at the Kitimat and 
Trail smelters. Extensive exploration and development work was taking place 
on new mining properties. Total construction activity remained high although 
housing starts snowed a slight decline from May. 

Unemployment declined seasonally and was much lower than last year. 
Six of the 11 labour market areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month, all to categories denoting less unemployment. At the end of June, 
the area classification was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in 
substantial surplus, (3); in moderate surplus, 6 (7); in balance, 5 (1). 







With Jobs: 

on-Agriculture ^^^ 




K 




"*" "-^> 




^ — * 

















AS N D J 



M A M J 



Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Economic 
activity continued high but development was hampered by strikes and strike 
preparations. Operations in the woods products industry increased over the 
month although hiring fell off as employers awaited the outcome of the wage 
negotiations. Fishermen and shore workers were preparing for strike action. 
Construction continued very active, absorbing all available tradesmen and 
causing shortages in a number of construction occupations. A strike of steel 
erectors on June 23 tied up several major projects. 

Victoria (major industrial) remained in Group 2. The employment situation 
continued to improve. Logging operations proceeded at a normal pace. Con- 
struction activity remained high but home construction continued to lag 
behind last year. 

Cranbrook, Central Vancouver Island, Kami oops. Prince Rupert (minor) 
reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

Okanagan Valley, Prince George (minor) were reclassified from Group 1 to 
Group 2. 



672 



Current Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1959) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 
Total civilian labour force (a) . 

Persons with jobs 

Agriculture 

Non- Agriculture 

Paid Workers 



Usually work 35 hours or more 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours, or not at 
work due to short time and turnover. . . 

for other reasons 

Not at work due to temporary layoff. . . . 
Usually work less than 35 hours 



Without jobs and seeking work. 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Claimants for Unemployment Insurance bene- 
fit 



Amount of benefit payments. 



Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100). 



Immigration 

Destined to the labour force . 



Conciliation Services 
Number of cases in progress. . 
Number of workers involved . 



Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved. 
Duration in man days. . . 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) .... 
Total labour income $000,000 



Industrial Production 
Total (average 1949 = 100) . 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



June 20 
June 20 
June 20 
June 20 
June 20 

June 20 
June 20 

June 20 
June 20 
June 20 
June 20 

June 20 



June 18 
June 18 
June 18 
June 18 
June 18 
June 18 



May 29 
May 

April 
April 



1st Qtr. 1959 
1st Qtr. 1959 



March 
March 



June 
June 
June 



April 

April 

April 

April 

June 

April 

April 



May 
May 
May 
May 



6,287,000 
6,053,000 
731,000 
5,322,000 
4,899,000 

5,691,000 
5,363,000 

58,000 
256,000 

14,000 
362,000 

234,000 



41,300 
98,600 

104,300 
39,500 
37,200 

320,900 



279,431 
$40,446,281 

115.6 
109.4 



16,955 
8,056 



761 
132,156 



43 

8,432 
57,320 



$73.26 

$1.72 

40.7 

I 70.02 
125.9 
133.8 
1,395 



165.2 
150.6 
153.3 
148.4 



+ 1.6 

+ 3.4 

+ 1.0 

+ 3.8 

+ 4.3 

+ 4.1 
+ 3.5 

- 7.9 

+27.4 
-30.0 

- 6.2 

-30.0 



-52.7 
■50.7 
-36.0 
-48.0 
-37.3 
-45.2 



-54.3 
-32.6 

+ 1.7 

+ 0.9 



+ 11.3 
+ 6.3 



+34.4 
+57.3 
- 5.8 



+ 0.9 

+ 1.0 

+ 0.9 

+ 0.2 

+ 1.0 

+ 1.8 



+ 2.0 

+ 2.9 

+ 3.2 

+ 2.8 



+ 1.4 

+ 3.0 

- 1.2 

+ 3.S 

+ 4.2; 

+ 3.1 

+ 3.1 



+ 



25.7 

12.8: 

12.5 

1.4 



- 27.8 



39.2 
41.4 
37.0 
33.4 
43.4 
39.1 



49.3 
21.7 



0.9 
0.6 



- 20.2 

- 23.0 



2.2 
46.2 



+ 7.5 
+ 7.5 
- 46.2 



+ 6.6 

+ 5.9 

+ 5.1 

+ 6.7 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour 
Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also page 339, March issue. 

(b) See page 339, March issue. 

673 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



The cessation of the prolonged strike at the Polymer Corporation high- 
lighted the collective bargaining scene in eastern Canada during June. On the 
West Coast, a loggers' strike developed early in July and an unsettled situation 
exists in the fishing industry, among structural steel workers, and in coastal 
navigation. The United Steelworkers of America is currently engaged in several 
important negotiations: a settlement was reached between this union and 
Noranda Mines during June, and negotiations are now underway with the 
Dominion Bridge Company affecting its plants across the country. 

A strike of some 27,000 British Columbia coastal woodworkers began 
on July 5, following prolonged negotiations between the International Wood- 
workers of America and 138 companies engaged in logging and the processing 
of lumber. The bargaining agency for the 138 companies is Forest Industrial 
Relations Limited. The collective agreement between the companies and 
the IWA is known as the master agreement and has industry-wide application. 
However, each company has a separate agreement with the union which 
is a copy of the master agreement, along with an attached wage supplement 
applicable to wage rates in the operation concerned. The coastal area to 
which the master agreement applies is that part of the province west of the 
summit of the Cascade Mountains, including all of Vancouver Island, the 
Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland region from the international 
boundary in the south to the Alaska border in the north. 

A government-sponsored strike ballot was conducted on June 27 and it 
is reported that some 20,000 of the 27,000 eligible employees voted, and 
that 90 per cent of the vote favoured strike action if necessary. The union 
rejected the majority report of the conciliation board that reported on June 
15. The union's demands include a 20-per-cent increase on the present base 
rate of $1.72 an hour, an upward revision of all tradesmen's rates, the 
implementation of a job evaluation plan in the plywood plants, an additional 
statutory holiday (making nine altogether), and provision in the agreement to 
apply all wages and conditions of the master agreement where part of an 
operation is contracted or subcontracted. 

In supporting its demands for improved wages and working conditions, 
the union in its submission to the board of conciliation laid considerable stress 
on what it claimed was the improved condition of the lumber industry in 
1958 compared with 1957. The union said that orders had risen, production 
was up, there was an increased backlog of orders, and prices were advancing. 
The union rejected the argument that wage increases would force the industry 
out of competitive foreign markets; it held that the rapid implementation of 
more efficient techniques would both increase the workers' productivity and 
reduce the number of workers required. It countered the employers' claim 
that the U.S. market is precarious by pointing to "the tremendous boom in 
housing starts in the United States." 

674 



The employers offered an increase of 7 cents an hour during the first 
year and a further 5 cents an hour during the second year of a two-year 
agreement, with an extra 6 cents an hour for tradesmen. They also proposed 
that the rate charged employees for board and lodging in camp boarding 
houses should be increased from $2.50 to $4 a day. The employers rejected 
the union's wage proposal on the ground that such wage increases would 
seriously undermine the industry's competitive position in foreign markets. 
Altogether, the industry exports some 70 per cent of its annual production 
and claims that it has already suffered serious setbacks abroad as a result of 
the influence of the high Canadian wage levels on the prices of Canadian 
lumber exports. It was stated that the B.C. Coast lumber industry must now 
depend on the American market as its principal buyer. The submission to 
the board of conciliation said that although 41 per cent of shipments went 
to the United States and the American market was "of supreme importance to 
us," the Americans were not dependent on this source, since less than 3 
per cent of their total requirements came from the Canadian West Coast. "If 
for any reason our shipments could not reach the U.S. hardly a ripple would 
result in the American lumber market," the submission claimed. At the time 
of writing, the work stoppage was still underway. 

Uncertainty in the British Columbia fishing industry resulting from a 
report by the Director of Investigation and Research under the federal Com- 
bines Investigation Act has been cleared up by an amendment to that Act 
passed at the last session of Parliament. The amendment exempts collective 
bargaining between the Fisheries Association of B.C. and the United Fisher- 
men and Allied Workers' Union from the operation of the Act until the end 
of 1960. 

The Fisheries Association, representing a number of fish-canning com- 
panies in the province, was reluctant to engage in bargaining with the Union 
over the price to be paid to fishermen for salmon and herring until the legal 
status of these negotiations was cleared up. It is expected that bargaining 
between the parties will now get underway. 

A large volume of construction is reported to have been held up as 
a result of a strike by members of the International Association of Bridge, 
Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers affecting a number of firms in Van- 
couver and district. The strike began on June 23 to back up demands for pay 
increases. Only 97 workers are directly involved in the work stoppage. 

West Coast industrial relations are further complicated by a strike affect- 
ing the Northland Navigation Company which was called on June 26 by the 
National Association of Marine Engineers in support of demands for higher 
wages. It is reported that the engineers are seeking a 20-per-cent increase in 
their current wage scale, which ranges upwards from $330 a month. The 
strike tied up the 11 vessels owned by the company, which are reported to 
supply the only regular scheduled freight service to numerous communities 
along the coastline. The situation was confused by the fact that while the 
company obtained an injunction to prohibit picketing by the Marine Engineers, 
no longshoremen turned up to work because their union, the International 
Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, supported the strike and in turn 
put up their picket lines, which have since been barred by another court 
injunction. On the other hand, the Seafarers' International Union has not 
supported the strike and the ships' crews have not observed the picket lines. 

675 



The 96-day strike involving the Polymer 
Corporation in Sarnia, Ont., and the Oil, 
Chemical and Atomic Workers International 
Union was settled on June 23, following con- 
ciliation by Eric Taylor, who was appointed 
by the federal Department of Labour as an 
industrial inquiries commissioner. The 
strike began on March 18 and affected some 
1,600 workers. The resulting collective 
agreement will last for one year, expiring 
June 23, 1960. The settlement included a 
9-cent increase to all hourly paid workers 
with retroactive pay reported to be 6 cents 
an hour extending from January 1 to the 
date the strike started (March 18), with 
the provision that no person was to receive 
more than $28 in back pay. There is pro- 
vision for three weeks vacation after 10 
years continuous service, to come into effect 
in 1960. Shift differential is to be in- 
creased by 1 cent for the afternoon shift 
and 2 cents for the night shift. The union 
agreed to the management request that the 
agreement be modified to give the employer 
freedom to contract out work as required 
without interfering with the rights of em- 
ployees; a guarantee is included that such 
contracting out will not cause layoffs. 

Noranda Mines and the United Steel- 
workers of America reached a settlement 
on June 19 without the services of a con- 
ciliation board. The settlement terms in- 
clude a H-per-cent wage increase effective 
from the date of signing, with a minimum 
increase of 3 cents an hour, followed by 
a 2i-per-cent increase a year later with a 
minimum of 5 cents an hour. It is reported 
that the labour rate under the new agree- 
ment, following the first increase, will be 
$1.55 an hour, with the rate for miners 
$1.97 and the top trade rate $2.17. The 
addition of Good Friday brings the total 
number of paid holidays to six a year. The 
agreement also includes improved benefits 
under the sickness and accident benefit plan, 
increased employer contributions to the 
medical insurance plan, and liberalized pro- 
visions under the savings and pension plan. 

Nation-wide negotiations are currently 
underway between the Dominion Bridge 
Company and the United Steelworkers of 
America. Plants affected are located in 
Lachine, Ottawa, Toronto, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton. In an 
effort to co-ordinate negotiations, the union 
is reported to have reached an understand- 
ing that no one local will sign with the 



company until settlement terms have been 
worked out at all locations. In each case 
negotiations have reached or are soon ex- 
pected to reach the conciliation stage. A 
strike involving the same union and the 
John Inglis Company plant in Toronto fol- 
lowed the rejection by the union negotiating 
committee of the majority report of the con- 
ciliation board. It is reported that the 
union asked for a wage increase of 35 cents 
an hour over three years; the majority re- 
port recommended a three-year agreement 
with increases totalling 17 cents over the 
three years plus 1 cent for inequities. It 
is also reported that the Co-operative Wage 
Study program, advanced by the union, is 
a major issue in this dispute. The com- 
pany had earlier agreed to the job descrip- 
tion phase of the program but is now said 
to find it too costly for their operations. 
Meanwhile, negotiations continue between 
the Steelworkers and the Dominion Steel 
and Coal Corporation in Sydney, N.S., 
where the union is seeking a wage increase 
of 7 cents an hour to gain wage parity with 
the Steel Company of Canada in Hamilton 
and the Algoma Steel Corporation in Sault 
Ste. Marie. 

The Co-operative Wage Study program 
mentioned above is reported to be emerg- 
ing as a major bargaining issue in negotia- 
tions involving the Steelworkers. It is said 
to be effective at present for some 82 local 
unions in Canada covering 40,000 workers. 
The program is a union-management plan 
for the evaluation and classification of jobs 
in the bargaining unit according to estab- 
lished criteria set out in the CWS manual. 
When all the jobs have been evaluated, each 
one is placed in one of the job classes and 
a differential in terms of cents per hour is 
established between each job class. One 
issue in bargaining over CWS has been the 
union's request that the cents-per-hour dif- 
ferential between job classes be increased. 
CWS has been reported as an issue in ne- 
gotiations at the John Inglis Company and 
at American Standard Products, both in 
Toronto, while an agreement recently 
reached between the Steelworkers and 
Robertson-Irwin Limited in Hamilton, Ont., 
included an understanding that by April 1, 
1960, the CWS plan would be established 
with a base rate of $1.75 and a differential 
between job classes of 4 cents. 



676 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more workers, excluding agreements 
in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During July, August and September 1959 

(Except those under negotiation in June) 
Company and Location Union 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Automatic Electric (Can.), Brockville, Ont Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ont. and 

Que.) Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) (crafts 

and services) 
Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ont. and 

Que.) Traffic Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Bell Telephone, company- wide (chiefly Ont. and 

Que.) Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) (clerical 

empl.) 
Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ont. and 

Que.) Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) (equip- 
ment salesmen) 

Bicroft Uranium Mines, Bancroft, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bindery Room Employers, Toronto, Ont Bookbinders (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Canadian Marconi, Montreal, Que Salaried Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Consumers Glass, Montreal, Que Glass Bottle Blowers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Continental Can, New Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

de Havilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Distillers Corp., Ville LaSalle, Que Distillery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Glass, Montreal, Que Glass, Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Duplate Canada, Oshawa, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Northspan Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont CLC-chartered local 

Pacific Press, Vancouver, B.C Typographical Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Saskatchewan Government, Regina, Sask Civil Service Assoc. (Sask.) (CLC) 

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Regina, Sask Wheat Pool Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Trans Canada Air Lines, company-wide Air Line Pilots (Ind.) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During June 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Algom Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec, 

Que Services Fed. (CCCL) (female) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec, 

Que Services Fed. (CCCL) (male) 

B.C. Electric, Vancouver, B.C Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cab companies (various), Vancouver, B.C Teamsters (CLC) 

Can. Cement, Montreal, Que Cement Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Acme Screw & Gear, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Broadcasting Corp., company-wide Stage Empl., Moving Picture Operators (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. General Electric, Montreal, Que Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Airlines, Vancouver, B.C Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alta Nat. Union Public Empl. (CLC) (outside 

empl.) 

City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alta Nat. Union Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical 

empl.) 

City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alta Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cluett, Peabody, Stratford, Ont Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper Corp., Les Escoumins, Que. Pulp, Paper Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Consumers' Gas, Toronto, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Bridge, Vancouver, B.C Bridge, Structural Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel & Coal Corp., Sydney, N.S Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Dom. Wabana Ore, Bell Island, Nfld Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Donohue Bros. Clermont, Que Carpenters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dress Mfrs.' Guild, Toronto, Ont Int. Ladies' Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Electric Tamper & Equipment, Montreal, Que Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fairey Aviation, Dartmouth, N.S Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fish canning cos. (various), B.C. coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (fishermen) 

Fraser Companies, Cabano, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Hotel Chateau Frontenac (CPR), Quebec, Que. Bro. RR Transport, General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Chateau Laurier (CNR), Ottawa, Ont Bro. RR Transport, General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Empress (CPR), Victoria, B.C Bro. RR Transport, General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Vancouver (CNR & CPR), Vancouver, 

B.C Bro. RR Transport, General Wkrs. (CLC) 

John Murdock, St. Raymond, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

677 



Company and Location Union 

New Brunswick Telephone, New Brunswick Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Manitoba Rolling Mill, Selkirk, Man Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Norton Company, Chippawa, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Okanagan Federated Shippers Assoc, Kelowna, 

B.C Okanagan Fed. of Fruit & Vegetable Wkrs. 

(CLC) 

Pulp and paper mills (various), B.C Pulp, Sulphite Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Rowntree Co., Toronto, Ont Retail Wholesale Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

St. Raymond Paper, Desbiens, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Taverns & hotels (various), Toronto, Ont Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Walter M. Lowney, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Conciliation Officer 

Aluminum Co. of Can., Kingston, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

L' Assoc. Patronale du Commerce, Quebec, Que. Commerce Empl. (CCCL) 

Atlas Asbestos, Montreal, Que Asbestos Wkrs. (CLC) 

Automobile dealers (various), Vancouver, B.C. Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
Communaute des Soeurs de Charite de la Pro- 
vidence, Montreal, P.Q Services Fed. (CCCL) 

Dunlop Canada, Toronto, Ont Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hamilton Cotton, Hamilton, Ont Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hamilton General Hospitals, Hamilton, Ont Nat. Union Public Empl. (CLC) 

Int. Harvester, Chatham, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Normetal Mining, Normetal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Price Bros., Kenogami, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Quemont Mining, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Trans Canada Air Lines, Montreal, Que Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Conciliation Board 

British Rubber, Lachine, Que CLC-chartered local 

Cdn. Industries, Millhaven, Ont Oil, Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (Western Region) Mont- Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

real, Que 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (Eastern Region) Mont- Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

real, Que 

City of Calgary, Alta Nat. Union Public Empls. (CLC) 

City of Hamilton, Hamilton, Ont Nat. Union Public Empls. (CLC) 

Crane Ltd., Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Bridge, Lachine, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Textile, Montmorency, Magog, Sherbrooke, 

Drummondville, Que Textile Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Dom. Textile, Montreal, Que United Textile Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fish canning companies (various), B. C. coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (cannery wkrs.) 

Fish canning companies (various), B.C. coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (salmon tendermen) 

Fry-Cadbury, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Garment Mfrs.' Assoc, of Western Canada, Win- 
nipeg, Man Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

John Inglis, Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Lumber companies (various), B.C. coast Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Miner Rubber, Granby, Que CLC-chartered local 

Post Conciliation Bargaining 

(no cases this month) 
Arbitration Board 

Metro. Board of Commissioners of Police, 
Toronto, Ont Metro. Police Assoc. (Ind.) 

Work Stoppage 

(no cases this month) 

Part III— Settlements Reached During June 1959 

(A summary of the major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Coverage 
figures are approximate.) 

B. F. Goodrich, Kitchener, Ont. — Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 1-yr. agreement covering 
1,100 empl. — 7i0-an-hr. general increase, and i^-an-hr. to cover job inequities. 

Can. Iron Foundries, Three Rivers, Que. — Moulders (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement 
covering 600 empl. — 70-an-hr. general wage increase retroactive to May 1, 1959 and 90-an-hr. 
eff. May 1, 1960. 

Cdn. Car & Foundry, Montreal, Que.— RR Carmen (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,200 empl. — 50-an-hr. wage increase retroactive to Oct. 1, 1958, 100-an-hr. increase, 
June 4, 1959, and 60 on October 1, 1959; 3 weeks paid vacation after 3,000 accredited work 
days (formerly 3 weeks after 3,125), and 4 weeks vacation after 5,000 work days (formerly 4 
weeks after 6,000 days); 2 days bereavement leave. 

Cdn. Cottons, Cornwall & Hamilton, Ont. — Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) : agreement 
covers 2,100 empl. — 5^-an-hr. general increase; 1 additional statutory holiday to make 7. 

678 



Cdn. Nat. Railways, North Sydney, N.S. — Int. Assoc. Longshoremen (CLC): 3-yr. agreement 
eff. July 1, 1958 — 40-an-hr. general wage increase retroactive to July 1, 1958, 260-an-hr. increase 
July 1, 1959, and 20 Jan. 1, 1960, bringing rate to $1.83; work day reduced from 10 to 8 hrs., 
making 40-hour week; call system to be reduced by giving 50% of empl. full employees' status. 

Cdn. Sugar Factories, Raymond, Alta CLC-chartered locals: 1-yr. agreement eff. July 1, 

1959 covering 700 empl. — 50-an-hr. wage increase for 200 permanent empl., and 20-an-hr. for 
approx. 500 casual empl. during peak season; 3 weeks paid vacation after 8 yrs. (formerly after 
10 yrs.) 

Cdn. Vickers, Montreal, Que. — 4 unions (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement eff. March 6, 
1959 covering 500 empl. — 40-an-hr. wage increase retroactive to March 26, 1959, 10 June 26, 1959, 
and 70 November 1, 1959; reduction in hrs. on July 29, 1960 from 421 to 4H hrs. a wk.; 3 
weeks paid vacation after 15 years for 1960 vacations (formerly no 3-wk. vacations); triple 
pay on statutory holidays. 

City of Winnipeg, Man. — Nat. Union Public Service Empl. (CLC): 1-yr. agreement eff. 
April 1, 1959 covering 3,000 empl. — 5% wage increase retroactive to April 1, 1959, and 2% 
increase Oct. 1, 1959. 

Courtaulds (Can.), Cornwall, Ont.— Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 1,400 empl. — 50-an-hr. general wage increase, plus additional 60 for skilled tradesmen; 
70 for janitors; 30-an-hr. increase for afternoon shift wkrs. and 40 for midnight shift wkrs.; 
improved pension plan. 

Dairies (various), Toronto, Ont. — Teamsters (CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 1,700 empl. — 
$2-a-wk. general wage increase. 

David & Freres, Montreal, Que. — Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) : 1-yr. agreement covering 700 
empl. — new base rate of $1.13-an-hr. (formerly 990) for male empl. after 6 mos. service and 
female empl. after 1 yr.; 3 wks. paid vacation after Hi yrs. service (formerly after 13 yrs.). 

Dominion Rubber, St. Jerome, Que. — CLC-chartered local: 2-yr. agreement covering 1,000 
empl. — 2% general wage increase retroactive to Jan. 1, 1959, 30 increase Jan. 1, 1960; 3 wks. 
paid vacation after 11 yrs. service (formerly after 15 yrs.), 4 wks. after 25 yrs. (formerly no 4-wk. 
vacations). 

Hotel Licensees, Edmonton, Alta. — Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agree- 
ment eff. Jan. 1, 1959 covering 400 empl. — 60-an-hr. increase for tapmen retroactive to Jan. 1, 
1959, and 20-an-hr. increase July 1, 1959; 40-an-hr. wage increase for waiters retroactive to 
Jan. 1, 1959, and 20-an-hr. July 1, 1959. 

Heinz Co., Leamington, Ont. — Packinghouse Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement 

covering 1,400 empl 70-an-hr. general wage increase retroactive to February 1, 1959, 70 Feb. 

1, 1960; 4 wks. paid vacation after 25 yrs. service (formerly no 4-wk. vacations); 10-an-hr. 
increase in night shift premium retroactive to Feb. 1, 1959; 100% employer contribution to 
hospital and medical plan (formerly 50% employer contribution). 

Hyde Park Clothes, Montreal, Que.— Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 500 empl. — 50 to 100-an-hr. wage increase, depending on qualifications; 1 additional 
statutory holiday to make 6. 

Montreal Dress Manufacturers' Guild, Montreal, Que. — Int. Ladies' Garment Wkrs. (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) : 1-yr. agreement covering 8,000 empl. — sick benefits to include maternity. 

Noranda Mines, Noranda, Que. — Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement covering 
1,800 empl. — H% (with 30 minimum) increase 1959, 2\% (with 50 minimum) 1960; 1 additional 
holiday to make 6; sickness indemnity $35 a wk. (formerly $30) for 13 wks.; $3-a-mo. employer 
medical plan contribution. 

Polymer Corp., Sarnia, Ont. — Oil, Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 1,600 empl. — 60-an-hr. (maximum $28) retroactive increase, 90-an-hr. increase June 
1959. 

R.C.A. Victor, Montreal, Que.— Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agree- 
ment eff. March 30, 1959 covering 435 empl. — 60-an-hr. general increase retroactive to March 30, 
1959, 60 April 1, 1960. 

Sangamo Company, Leaside, Ont. — Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement covering 
500 empl. — 5i0-an-hr. increase for day wkrs. and 70-an-hr. for incentive wkrs. on June 13, 1959, 
4.90 increase for day wkrs. and 6i0 for incentive wkrs. on Jan. 23, 1960. 

Scott Clothing, Longueuil, Que. — Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) : 1-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — 
employer contribution to pension plan increased to 70-an-hr. (formerly 60). 

Steep Rock Iron Mines, Steep Rock Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. 

agreement covering 800 empl. — 3i0-an-hr. general increase June 1, 1959; 70 July 1, 1960; 80 July 
1, 1961; improved life insurance and sickness indemnity. 

Steinbergs, Montreal, Que. — Empl. Protective Assoc. (Ind.) : 1-yr. agreement covering 3,000 
empl. — $2 to $5-a-wk. wage increase depending on classification; 1 additional holiday to make 8. 

Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ont. — Building Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : agree- 
ment expiring Dec. 31, 1960, covering 1,000 empl. — $8-a-wk. general increase June 1, 1959 and 
$7 on January 1, 1960; 40-hr. wk. (reduced from 44) August 1, 1959. 

Trans Canada Air Lines, Montreal, Que. — Empl. Assoc. (Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 
1,600 empl. in sales dept. — 3% wage increase eff. July 1, 1959 and 5% January 1, 1960. 

Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, B.C. — Nat. Union Public Empl. (CLC) : 2-yr. 
agreement eff. July 1, 1959 covering 1,200 empl. — 7% general wage increase July 1, 1959 and 4% 
July 1, 1960. 

Late Report: May Settlement 

Dunlop Canada, Whitby, Ont.— Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 
700 empl. — 60-an-hr. general increase on May 1, 1959 and additional 50-an-hr. for skilled 
wkrs., and 10-an-hr. shift premium increase; 70-an-hr. general increase May 1, 1960 plus 20 
shift premium increase. 

679 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Labour Minister Starr Awarded 
Employment Security Citation 

An award for his "outstanding contribu- 
tion in the field of employment security in 
Canada" was presented to Hon. Michael 
Starr, Minister of Labour, at the 46th 
annual meeting of the International Asso- 
ciation of Personnel in Employment Secur- 
ity, held in Boston last month. 

The award was in the form of a scroll. 
Mr. Starr was selected for the award by 
the IAPES Citation Committee for his 
"interest in employment security, his ener- 
getic follow-up on plans to promote it and 
a spectacular rise in the morale and interest 
of all those engaged in employment activi- 
ties". 

The Committee also noted that last year 
Mr. Starr called a nation-wide conference 
to study Canada's winter unemployment 
problems. 



New Brunswick Eighth Province 
To Join Hospital Insurance Plan 

New Brunswick on June 27 became the 
eighth province to enter into an agreement 
with the federal Government under the 
Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services 
Act. In a ceremony at Ottawa, the Minister 
of National Health and Welfare, the Hon. 
J. Waldo Monteith, and New Brunswick's 
Minister of Health and Social Services, the 
Hon. J. F. Mclnerney, signed a document 
authorizing commencement of the province's 
hospital insurance plan on July 1. 

As outlined in the agreement, New 
Brunswick's plan will be operated by a 
Hospital Services Commission and will pro- 
vide comprehensive hospital services for 
every resident of the province. In addition 
to the basic list of services to patients in 
hospital required by the federal Act, the 
plan embodies a broad range of out-patient 
services. These include laboratory pro- 
cedures as specified by the Commission and 
furnished by the Provincial Laboratory, 
services for emergency diagnosis and treat- 
ment of injuries resulting from accidents, 
diagnostic and treatment services required 
for medical rehabilitation, and other diag- 
nostic and treatment services as specified 
by the Commission. 

The federal Government will share in 
the cost of the New Brunswick plan accord- 



ing to a formula which authorizes federal 
assumption of 50 per cent of costs on a 
national basis. The provincial share will 
be derived from premiums. Administration 
will be handled by a Hospital Services 
Commission under the chairmanship of 
Dr. Mclnerney. 

With New Brunswick's entry, the hos- 
pital insurance program now encompasses 
all but two provinces. British Columbia, 
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and New- 
foundland began operations on July 1, 1958; 
plans in Ontario and Nova Scotia came into 
being on January 1, 1959. 



U.S. Government Urged to Help 
Older Workers Stay on Job 

The United States Government was 
urged by Charles E. Odell, Director of the 
Retired Workers' Department of the United 
Automobile Workers, to exert more effort 
towards making it possible for those who 
are willing and able to work to do so, to 
make pension rights continuous from job 
to job, and to educate workers to accept 
retirement. 

Speaking in Washington last month 
before the Senate Sub-Committee on the 
Ageing, Mr. Odell asserted that organized 
labour was not responsible for mandatory 
retirement clauses in negotiated contracts. 

"Once you get a pension plan," said 
Mr. Odell, "management insists on such 
clauses. When pension plans are initiated, 
actuaries like a system on which it is 
possible for them to compute costs rather 
than get the maximum economy return on 
the business dollar." 



CLC's Donald MacDonald Given 
Honorary Doctorate of Laws 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred on Donald MacDonald, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Canadian Labour 
Congress, by St. Francis Xavier University, 
Antigonish, N.S., at its 106th Commence- 
ment on May 20. 

The citation, read by Msgr. M. J. 
McKinnon, Executive Vice-President of the 
University, referred to Mr. MacDonald as 
"a dedicated and impeccably honest labour 
leader, a man of vision and conviction". 



680 



CLC Suspends Seafarers' Union 
For Raiding Marine Engineers 

The Seafarers' International Union was 
suspended by the Canadian Labour Con- 
gress on June 18. The announcement by 
CLC President Claude Jodoin said the 
suspension decision was based on action of 
the SIU in raiding the National Association 
of Marine Engineers, another CLC affiliate. 

In a letter to Hal Banks, Vice-President 
in Canada of the SIU, the CLC said: 

"At its meeting on April 29, 1959, the 
Executive Council of the Canadian Labour 
Congress received a report regarding the 
complaint filed with the Congress by the 
National Association of Marine Engineers, 
an affiliate of the Congress, on October 27, 
1958, and again on February 9, 1959. As 
you know, a full inquiry of this complaint 
was made by the Congress and representa- 
tives of your union and of the National 
Association of Marine Engineers were 
accorded hearings before officers of the 
Congress on November 24, 1958, the 
Executive Committee of the Congress on 
February 27, 1959, and the Executive 
Council itself on April 29, 1959. 

"After fully considering the report of 
the respective hearings and of the full 
inquiry made, the Executive Council, by 
unanimous vote, adopted the following 
resolution on April 29, 1959: 

That the Seafarers' International Union 
withdraw immediately from any organizing 
campaigns in the jurisdiction of the National 
Association of Marine Engineers, that it restore 
to the National Association of Marine En- 
gineers all collective agreements covering em- 
ployees within the latter's jurisdiction, and 
that unless the Seafarers' International Union 
demonstrates co-operation with this decision 
within 30 days of notification, it shall stand 
suspended by order of the Executive Council 
of the Canadian Labour Congress. 

"At a meeting held in Montreal on 
May 28, 1959, attended by you, Inter- 
national President Paul Hall of the SIU, 
General Vice-President Frank Hall of the 
CLC and myself, this decision was con- 
veyed to you orally and you confirmed 
that the Canadian District of the SIU was 
prepared to comply with all requirements 
of the CLC Constitution. The actions of 
your union since that time created serious 
doubts as to whether this assurance was 
genuine. You were therefore asked to 
appear before the Congress Executive 
Committee. 

"In view of the position taken by you 
before the Executive Committee in which 
you emphatically stated your refusal to 
abide by the decision of the Executive 



Council, the Seafarers' International Union 
stands suspended from affiliation with the 
Canadian Labour Congress." 

The SIU may appeal its suspension to 
the next CLC convention at Montreal in 
April 1960, which can confirm the suspen- 
sion and order expulsion or reinstate the 
union. 

Since formation of the CLC in 1956, 
two affiliates have been suspended and 
subsequently expelled for raiding activities 
(L.G., June 1958, p. 588). They were the 
American Federation of Technical Em- 
ployees and the International Union of 
Operating Engineers. 

The 1958 edition of Labour Organiza- 
tion in Canada showed the SIU with 10,450 
members in Canada. 



With 10 Members in Canada, 
Siderographers Join CLC 

The International Association of Sidero- 
graphers (AFL-CIO) has become affiliated 
with the Canadian Labour Congress, bring- 
ing the number of national and inter- 
national unions in the Congress to 104. 

The IAS has 10 members in Canada, 
all employed in Ottawa. Hamlyn Hall, a 
member of the Ottawa Local, is an inter- 
national Vice-President of the Association. 

Siderographers reproduce engravings on 
steel plates for the printing of banknotes, 
stamps, stock and bond certificates and 
similar documents. 



Office Employees' Union Wants 
Jurisdictional Rights Protected 

The Office Employees' International 
Union, at its biennial convention in Mont- 
real last month, asserted its exclusive right 
to recruit office and clerical workers. The 
convention unanimously voted to give the 
union's executive power to call a special 
convention to consider withdrawal from 
the central labour bodies in Canada and 
the United States unless its "jurisdictional 
rights" were protected. 

The OEIU wants the CLC and the 
AFL-CIO to recognize its exclusive rights 
to bargain for office and clerical workers, 
and to prevent other unions from encroach- 
ing; and it wants labour relations boards 
to recognize office employees as a craft 
"separate and apart" from production 
workers. 

The convention called on the CLC and 
the AFL-CIO to help the union initiate a 
nation-wide organizing campaign among 
white-collar workers. 



681 



Nfld. Labour Federation Urges 
"Second Look" at Recent Laws 

The Newfoundland Government was 
urged to have "a second look at its legis- 
lation and amendments to the province's 
Labour Relations Act with a view to hav- 
ing it completely removed from the statute 
books," in the annual brief of the New- 
foundland Federation of Labour (CLC). 

Up to mid-June, the brief had not been 
presented to the provincial Cabinet but 
copies were released to the press. In a 
statement, the NFL reported that its 
request for a hearing, made April 30, had 
not been answered. 

The brief noted that labour and other 
segments of the population in Newfound- 
land had shown "great concern" over the 
province's Labour Relations (Amendment) 
Act and the Trade Union (Emergency Pro- 
visions) Act. The first empowered the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to dissolve 
any trade union if a substantial number of 
its international officers have been con- 
victed of certain crimes; the second decer- 
tified two locals of the International Wood- 
workers of America (L.G., April, p. 360). 

"Strong protests and resentments have 
been expressed for the unjust treatment 
and discriminatory action taken by the 
Government in this particular instance," 
the Federation's brief says. 

The NFL said the "most serious problem 
facing our people at present is the lack 
of employment" in the province. Despite 
large-scale construction in 1958 there has 
been "an alarming number of unemployed 
throughout the whole year," it said. 

The Federation urged amendment of the 
Judicature Act to remove labour disputes 
entirely from the application of ex parte 
injunctions. 

Other matters dealt with in the brief 
included public services, sales tax, educa- 
tion and vocational training, and obscene 
literature. 



"Flags of Convenience" Called 
Shippings Biggest Problem 

The rapid increase in the number of 
ships flying "flags of convenience" has 
become "the biggest problem world ship- 
ping has ever faced," Omer Becu, General 
Secretary of the International Transport 
Workers Federation, stated at a press con- 
ference in Washington last month. 

"I regard this development as one of 
the most ominous events of the last 
decade," said Mr. Becu. He asserted that 
it threatened the living standards of sea- 



farers and the economic stability of the 
whole community of maritime nations. 

One thousand United States ships have 
now shifted to foreign registry, he said. 
American-owned "runaways" make up 42 
per cent of the 16 million gross tons sailing 
under the flags of Panama, Liberia, Hon- 
duras and Costa Rica, he said, and this 
amounts to 15 per cent of total world 
tonnage. 

Mr. Becu headed an ITWF delegation 
which filed protests with the U.S. Secre- 
tary of Labor and the Chairman of the 
U.S. Senate's Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce Committee. 

Mr. Becu described last December's 
world-wide boycott of ships under flags 
of convenience (L.G., Jan., p. 18) as "a 
gigantic success". He made it clear, how- 
ever, that the ITF had never suggested that 
boycott alone could solve the problem, 
and declared that such a solution could be 
found "only at the government level". 



Newspaper Guild Says Publishers 
Trying to "Break Down" Unions 

Charges that publishers were trying to 
break down newspaper unions by "massive 
retaliation" against strikers were made at 
the 26th annual national convention of 
the American Newspaper Guild, held in 
New York City during the week June 22 
to 26. 

Joseph F. Collis, Guild President, told 
the 300 delegates that these tactics meant 
that "when one union on one paper strikes, 
all the employees on all papers in the same 
town are thrown out of work". 

Mr. Collis said that the newspapers were 
enjoying a period of prosperity, and that 
"this is the time we should prepare to get 
our fair share of these profits". 

William J. Farson, Executive Vice-Presi- 
dent, asserted that "publishers are protected 
by strike insurance, assisted by profes- 
sional strike-breakers and supported by an 
increasingly complaisant National Labor 
Relations Board." 

The extent of a newspaperman's right 
to refuse to disclose his confidential sources 
of information was one of the most im- 
portant and controversial questions debated 
by the convention. A motion was placed 
before the meeting which supported a 
policy of limited privilege for newspaper- 
men. This policy was recommended by a 
majority report of the Guild's interna- 
tional executive board. A minority report 
favoured absolute privilege. The original 
resolution called for a statement of "the 
right of newsmen to protect the confiden- 
tial sources of their information in all 
matters affecting the public interest." 



682 



A substitute resolution, which was 
adopted by the narrow margin of 2131 
votes to 204i, called for a reaffirmation 
of the Guild's statement of principle, 
written into its Code of Ethics in 1934, 
that reporters "shall refuse to reveal con- 
fidences or disclose sources of confidential 
information". 

Those who favoured absolute privilege 
likened the position of a newspaperman 
to that of a priest or a lawyer, the con- 
fession of whose parishioners or clients 
are protected. 

A merger between the craft unions in 
the printing trades and the Guild was sug- 
gested by Francis G. Barrett, President of 
New York International Typographical 
Union No. 6. 

Arthur Rosenstock, library supervisor 
at the New York Post, was elected Presi- 
dent of the Guild for a two-year term, in 
succession to Joseph Collis, who was 
elected a Vice-President at large. William 
J. Farson was re-elected Executive Vice- 
President, and Charles A. Parlik, Jr., was 
re-elected Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Guild chose Vancouver as the site 
of its 1961 convention; next year's con- 
vention will be in Chicago. 



As a result of the increase in hours, 
average weekly earnings in factories ex- 
ceeded $90 for the first time. Earnings 
in the durable goods sector averaged $98 
a week, and in the nondurable goods sector 
the average was $80. 



U.S. Employment at Record High 
After Unusual Rise in Month 

Total civilian employment in the United 
States rose by 1,000,000 during May to 
66,000,000 — a record for that month — 
with an unusually large increase in the 
number of nonfarm jobs, as well as a 
further seasonal rise in agricultural em- 
ployment, according to a joint statement 
by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce and 
the Secretary of Labor. 

Nonagricultural employment rose 500,- 
000 during May, this being one of the 
largest increases recorded for that month 
since World War II. 

Unemployment dropped by 240,000 dur- 
ing May to 3,400,000. Usually it does not 
change significantly at this time of the 
year. Recalls of factory workers continued 
to be the main reason for drop. 

Insured unemployment under the regu- 
lar state programs dropped by 300,000 
between April and May to 1,500,000. As 
in recent months, this decrease was sharper 
than usual. 

Total unemployment in May was 1,500,- 
000 below the level of a year earlier but 
was still 700,000 higher than in the same 
month two years earlier. 

The work week in manufacturing con- 
tinued to rise, increasing by 0.2 hours to 
40.5 during May. This was the longest 
work week for May since 1955. 



First Quarter Imports Rise 
Above Year-Earlier Total 

Imports into Canada in the first quarter 
of 1959 were valued at $1,242,000,000, 
a total 4.4 per cent higher than the $1,189,- 
200,000 in the first quarter of 1958 but 
somewhat smaller than the total for the 
same period in 1956 and 1957, the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics announced 
last month. 

In each month of the quarter, imports 
exceeded corresponding figures for 1958. 

As there was a moderate decline in 
average import prices in the first quarter 
of 1959, the physical volume of imports 
rose even more than their value. 

Among the main commodity groups 
imported into Canada in the first quarter 
of 1959 the largest absolute, but not rela- 
tive, increase was in iron and steel goods. 
There were also gains in chemicals, non- 
metallic minerals, animal products, wood 
products. i 

Fractional declines were registered for 
agricultural and vegetable products, tex- 
tiles and non-ferrous metals. 

Among the leading commodities im- 
ported, the most substantial value and 
percentage increases occurred in auto- 
mobiles and automobile parts, farm imple- 
ments and machinery. 

Most of the increase to $66,100,000 in 
imports from Europe was accounted for by 
automobiles. 



Consumer Spending Helps Boost 
Gross National Product by 2% 

Canada's gross national product, sea- 
sonally adjusted at annual rates, reached 
$33.4 billion in the first quarter of 1959. 
This represents a gain of 2 per cent over 
the fourth quarter of 1958. 

At annual rates, the gross national pro- 
duct in the first quarter was running at 
a level about 4 per cent above the average 
for 1958 as a whole, the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics announced last month. 

Business inventory accumulation and 
consumer spending were the two major 
causes of the economy's expansion during 
the first quarter. Other major components 
of demand, seasonally adjusted, showed 
little change or were lower during the 
quarter. 



683 



Canada Provides Social Worker 
For U.N. Assignment in France 

Canada is providing an expert social 
worker for a six-month assignment in 
France under the United Nations expanded 
program of technical assistance. She is 
Miss E. R. Godfrey of Toronto, who will 
leave for Paris on September 1. 

France has contributed every year to 
the U.N. program, provided experts and 
accepted students for training in the coun- 
try; this is the first time France has asked 
for an expert to be sent there. 

In France, Miss Godfrey will advise on 
social welfare problems. She will advise 
the Committee of Schools of Social Work 
on methods of casework and teaching at 
selected schools, help set up an in-service 
training program for social workers em- 
ployed in social agencies, and direct courses 
for supervisors. 

Miss Godfrey has a degree in social 
work (child welfare) from the University 
of Toronto and has completed the Master 
of Arts degree in psychiatric social work 
at the University of Chicago. After serv- 
ing with the Canadian Army as a social 
service officer for two years, in 1946 she 
joined the staff of the School of Social 
Work, University of Toronto, where she 
supervised students' field work during 
their course. She has also assisted in a 
variety of in-service training programs for 
federal and provincial civil servants and 
staff of nongovernmental child welfare 
agencies. From 1952 to 1957 she took 
a major part in carrying out a five-year 
program of this type for the Government 
of Newfoundland. 



Warn U.K. Trainmen of Layoffs 
But Agree to Pay Compensation 

Introduction of modern types of motive 
power and equipment must lead to a reduc- 
tion in the existing fleet of steam locomo- 
tives and rolling stock, and reductions in 
workshop capacity will have to be made, 
the British Transport Commission has 
warned railway unions. 

Reduction of workshop capacity will be 
done by phases and, as far as practicable, 
will be accomplished by closing complete 
works or parts of works rather than by 
over-all reductions affecting many works, 
the Commission announced. 

"While it is essential, in view of the 
present state of the Commission's finances, 
to bring the policy into effect immediately, 
everything possible will be done to miti- 
gate hardship to individual members of 
the staff," the unions were assured. "Re- 
cruitment will be controlled with due 



regard to normal staff wastage, consistent 
with the preservation of an effective age 
structure." 

The Commission estimated that during 
the next three years more than 8,000 
men — about 6 per cent of the employees 
in railway workshops — may be displaced. 
The displaced men will not necessarily 
have to leave the industry but many may 
have to move their homes. 

About a month before the Commission's 
announcement it had concluded an agree- 
ment with the National Union of Railway- 
men and the Confederation of Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Unions that provides for 
payment of a man's present rate if he 
has to be downgraded and makes provision 
for compensation for those who lose their 
jobs altogether. 

These payments will be based on two 
thirds of a man's pay, less unemployment 
benefit. The minimum qualification is three 
years' service. A worker with the mini- 
mum qualifying service would get com- 
pensation covering two weeks; one with 
40 years' service would get an amount 
covering 13 weeks. 

If a worker had not found a job within 
the period covered by his compensation, it 
could be paid for up to double the period 
for which he was qualified. 



Keep Boys and Girls in School, 
NES Urges as Result of Survey 

A startling relationship between unem- 
ployment and lack of education was re- 
vealed in a survey conducted in 1955 by 
the National Employment Service, Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission, of the 
educational standing of unemployed per- 
sons registered with its 200 local offices 
across Canada. 

This prompted the Commission, in order 
to acquaint young people and parents with 
the facts brought to light by the survey, 
to publish a booklet entitled, Are You 
Thinking of Leaving School? 

This booklet, the foreword says, pre- 
sents what the Commission believes to be 
"compelling arguments in favour of young 
people obtaining all the education they can 
possibly get" — arguments that become 
even more true "with every passing year 
of technological development". 

The survey showed that in 1955, when 
jobs were fairly easy to find, two out of 
every three of the unemployed had not 
gone beyond Grade 8 in school, although 
the average education of all working peo- 
ple was much higher than this. The book- 
let adds that "people with only one or two 



684 



years of secondary school are nearly as 
likely to be unemployed as those who 
have only Grade 8". 

Of persons seeking work in NES offices, 
the survey showed that 63.5 per cent had 
Grade 8 schooling or less, whereas the 
proportion of the total working force who 
had only this amount of education was 
50.4 per cent. 

Interspersed in the reporting of the sur- 
vey findings are statements and exhorta- 
tions to young people and parents, of 
which the following are examples: 

The more schooling you have, the 
quicker you will be able to find a job and 
the better will be your chances of keeping 
it. 

The more schooling you have, the more 
occupations will be open to you and the 
wider will be your choice of jobs. 

The best way for young people to pro- 
tect themselves against periodic layoffs and 
job insecurity is to get a good education, 
both in school and by trade training. 

Schooling is like money in one sense: 
the more you have the easier it is to add 
to it. 

The booklet concludes with this recom- 
mendation: "Let's keep our boys and girls 
in school." 



Jobs Scarce, U.K. Youth Advised 
To Continue Their Education 

A marked decrease in the number of 
jobs available to young persons in Britain 
was noted in the latest report of the Youth 
Employment Service in London, published 
by the London County Council. 

On September 1, 1955 there were 21,225 
vacancies for young workers registered 
with the London service, but by August 
31, 1958 the number had decreased to 
5,676. 

The shrinkage coincided with the rising 
number of young persons becoming avail- 
able for work and made it necessary for 
the Services' officers to actively canvass 
employers for work. 

The number of boys and girls in London 
registered as unemployed rose from 660 
on September 1, 1955 to 1,362 on August 
31, 1958. 

The proportion of boys and girls staying 
at school after the age of 15 increased 
considerably in the 1955-58 period, due 
partly to the appreciation that employers 
were requiring a higher standard as the 
supply and demand position changed. 

In 1958 the Service advised 41 per cent 
of the boys and 38 per cent of the girls 
interviewed to continue their education. 



Items of Interest to Labour from House of Commons 



May 25 — Restrictions on Canadian trucks 
carrying goods in bond over United States 
highways have been removed, the Prime 
Minister announced. 

The Minister of Labour declined to pro- 
duce minutes of several meetings of the 
Unemployment Insurance Advisory Com- 
mittee convened on August 19, 1958. By 
a vote of 130 to 27, the House supported 
his stand. 

Ethnic origin was not the reason for the 
order to deport a Haitian couple, the Minis- 
ter of Citizenship and Immigration replied 
in answer to a question. The man had 
entered Canada as a student but since 1956 
had not been a bona fide student and, under 
immigration regulations, was not admissible 
as an immigrant. 

Bill C-49 to establish National Energy 
Board debated but the House adjourned 
without question put. 

May 26 — Estimate that only 67,500 
houses will be built in Canada this year was 
in extremely poor guess, the Minister of 
Public Works told a questioner. He declined 
to make an estimate of his own. 

Interest rates on NHA loans will not be 
increased, the Minister assured the same 
questioner. 



Economics of the Chignecto Canal are 
being studied by the Economics Division 
of his Department, the Minister of Trans- 
port replied to a question. 

Debate on Bill C-49 continued but the 
House adjourned without question put. 

May 21— National Energy Bill (C-49) 
debated but question not put. 

May 28 — Question of disallowing New- 
foundland legislation "that is of such a 
controversial nature" is still under con- 
sideration, Prime Minister told a questioner. 

June 12 — Consideration of motion for 
second reading of Bill C-8 was resumed. 
The purpose of the Bill is to establish a 
minimum wage rate of $1.25 an hour with 
respect to all employees in Canada who 
come under federal labour jurisdiction. The 
hour for consideration of private bills 
expired before the question was put. 

June 15 — Chairman of the Royal Com- 
mission appointed to inquire into the activi- 
ties of Canada's railways had advised him, 
the Prime Minister said, that the target date 
for the completion of the Commission's 
survey would be met. 

Bill C-43 to amend the Unemployment 
Insurance Act considered in committee and 
progress reported. 



685 



June 16 — Consideration in committee of 
Bill C-43 to amend the Unemployment In- 
surance Act resumed and progress reported. 

Consideration of motion for second read- 
ing of Bill C-10 to amend the Canada 
Elections Act (voting at advance polls) 
resumed from March 6 but the hour for 
private members' bills ended before the 
question was put. 

June 17 — The Minister of Labour de- 
clined to comment on the statement of the 
Premier of Quebec that employees of the 
provincial Government should not seek to 
be included under the provisions of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act introduced in 
1940. 

Consideration in committee of Bill C-43 
resumed and progress reported. 

June 18 — Consideration of Bill C-43 in 
committee concluded. The House agreed 
to give it third reading at the next sitting. 

June 19 — Japan has suspended issue of 
new export licences for a broad range of 
textile items to Canada, the Minister of 
Finance announced. The action is to be 
welcomed, the Minister said, as it would be 
an important additional step towards the 
development of a more orderly and effec- 
tive system of export controls relating to 
trade in textiles between Japan and Canada. 

Hal Banks, Vice-President in Canada of 
the Seafarers' International Union, has 
Canadian domicile, and there are no pro- 
visions or regulations under the (Citizen- 
ship) Act by which his deportation could be 
ordered, the Minister of Citizenship and 
Immigration told a questioner. 

Bill C-49 to establish a national energy 
board given second reading and sent to 
committee; progress made in clause by 
clause consideration. 

May 29 — Government loans to the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Fund this year total 
about $75 million, the Minister of Finance 
informed a questioner. 

Consideration in committee of Bill C-49 
resumed and progress reported. 

June 1 — Setting up health and welfare 
benefits by employers and employees on a 
participation basis is a matter for collective 
bargaining, the Minister of Labour told a 
questioner who wanted to know why a 
Winnipeg company did not grant medical 
benefits to its employees. 

Provision of alternate employment to the 
workers of plants that close down is a 
continuing problem that receives the Gov- 
ernment's fullest consideration, the Prime 
Minister told a questioner. The question 
related to a Hamilton textile plant. 

Further consideration was given Bill C-49 
and progress reported. 



June 2 — Government loans to the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission this year 
amounted to $72 million, the Minister of 
Finance reported. 

Consideration in committee of Bill C-49 
concluded. 

June 3 — Bill C-49 given third reading 
and passed. It authorizes establishment of 
a National Energy Board for Canada. 

June 9 — Only 70 students from the 
United Kingdom will be coming to Canada 
under the Commonwealth Migration Coun- 
cil plan with a view to securing summer 
employment, the Prime Minister informed 
a questioner. A press report had placed 
the number at 500. The Council had been 
advised that only students who were assured 
of employment in advance could come, he 
added. 

June 10 — The Minister of Labour 
acknowledged receipt of a telegram from 
a miners' union in Nova Scotia requesting 
that the waiting period regarding unemploy- 
ment insurance be waived. The request 
was brought to the attention of the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission and a reply 
outlining the position of the request as it 
relates to the Unemployment Insurance Act 
had been sent to the union. 

Bill C-43 to amend the Unemployment 
Insurance Act read the third time and 
passed. 

June 22 — Bill C-50 to amend the Veterans' 
Land Act to provide further assistance for 
home construction was considered in com- 
mittee, read the third time and passed. 

June 23 — Pilot for the Royal Yacht had 
been appointed because of his competence 
"and no other reason," the Minister of 
Transport said. A member had suggested 
that Captain Leighton Crawford had been 
appointed "as a reward for heading a strike- 
breaking group last year against the Great 
Lakes Pilots' Association". 

Motion for immediate debate on charges 
that political influence had been brought to 
bear on the management of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation was ruled out of 
order. 

Debate was continued on Bill C-16 to 
amend the Canada Elections Act in respect 
to absentee voting but the hour for con- 
sideration of private members' bills expired 
without question put. 

June 24 — Full production would begin 
June 29 at all mines in the New Waterford, 
N.S., area, the Minister of Labour said he 
had been advised by officials of Dominion 
Steel and Coal Company. He was replying 
to a suggestion that the town of New Water- 
ford be declared a depressed area. 



686 



88th Annual General Meeting of the 

Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Speakers at the Industrial Relations Conterence, one ot three comprising the 
meeting, discuss the implications to management ot current trends in labour 
relations, the legal immunities ot trade unions. Nfld. Attorney-General speaks 



The 88th Annual General Meeting of 
The Canadian Manufacturers' Association 
was held June 7, 8 and 9 at St. Andrews, 
N.B. The theme this year was "Build 
Industry — Build Canada". 

In addition to the business sessions, the 
meeting consisted of three conferences: 
Industrial Relations, World Trade, and 
Management. The Industrial Relations Con- 
ference, which is reported fully here, had 
as its theme, "Building More Effective 
Industrial Relations". This conference was 
opened by Hon. L. R. Curtis, QC, Attorney- 
General of Newfoundland. There were two 
other speakers, Carroll E. French, Presi- 
dent of Industrial Relations Counselors 
Service Inc., New York, who spoke on 
"Implications to Top Management of Cur- 
rent Trends in Labour Relations"; and 
Norman L. Mathews, QC, of Toronto, who 
spoke on "The Legal Immunities of Trade 
Unions". 

W. H. Evans, President of Honeywell 
Controls Ltd., Toronto, was elected Presi- 
dent of the Association for 1959-60. T. R. 
Mclagan, President of Canada Steamship 
Lines Ltd. and Davie Shipbuilding Ltd., 
became First Vice-President. F. D. Mathers, 
President of Royal City Foods Ltd. and 
Delnor Frozen Foods Ltd., Vancouver, was 
elected Second Vice-President. 

President's Address 

"Nothing organized labour can do would 
contribute more to slashing the ranks of 
the jobless than to commit itself for a 
limited period — let us say two years — to 
holding the wage line," said outgoing Presi- 
dent Ian F. McRae in his presidential 
address. 

He was commenting on the fact that 
Canada had inflation and unemployment 
at one and the same time. To this problem, 
he said, there was a two-fold answer: a 
national tariff policy designed to discourage 
imports of those things we already make 
ourselves and those things we can and 
should make, and recognition by everyone 
that the cure for unemployment lies in our 
own hands. 

This is a job for management, labour and 
government, he declared. Management must 
apply itself to improving the efficiency of 
its operations; government must do all it 
can to promote an economic climate that 



is right for expansion without runaway 
inflation; and labour must realize that to 
go on as it has been is to invite still higher 
prices and still more unemployment. 

If management, labour and government 
work to achieve a stable cost and price 
structure, surely we are justified in looking 
to the public to make its contribution by 
preferring Canadian-made products when- 
ever and wherever possible, Mr. McRae 
said. 

In asking labour to hold the wage line 
he was not asking unions to abdicate their 
legitimate functions. "I am saying that 
there can be no price stability and no 
prospect of a great increase in job oppor- 
tunities unless they, too, join in a national 
offensive to reduce costs." 

Mr. McRae warned that unless labour 
made some such commitment, "the country 
itself might very well insist that govern- 
ment step in and impose controls, which 
neither management nor labour would find 
to their liking". 

Here he digressed to make some remarks 
about strikes. "Most Canadians are sick 
and tired of strikes and the threat of 
strikes," he thought. The cost of strikes 
was measured not only in terms of lost 
production, wages, company earnings and 
employment, but also in terms of loss of 
individual liberty and of respect for the law. 
There was also "the legacy of bitterness 
and permanent scars that often remain long 
after the strike is over". 

During strikes, the law was frequently 
brought into contempt, he continued, "by 
shocking examples of violence, terrorism 
and intimidation". These excesses — "infrac- 
tions of the Criminal Code" — should be 
punished with the greatest severity, he said. 

He had earlier emphasized the need to 
reduce costs by pointing out that, as a rule, 
the imported product has no quality advan- 
tage over the Canadian-made product but 
often has a price advantage resulting either 
from low labour costs or a low unit cost 
of production because of greater population 
in the countries of origin. "Our own costs 
continue to go up and up even in a period 
of economic recession." 

In view of the union attitude that every 
contract must be better than the preceding 
one, "is it any wonder that we are finding 



687 



ever-increasing difficulty competing in home 
and world markets?" he asked. "At a time 
when we should have been doing everything 
in our power to narrow the gap between 
our production costs and those of other 
industrial countries, we have actually been 
widening it still further," he declared. 

What Canada earns from exports falls 
short of paying for imports by several 
hundreds of millions of dollars a year, Mr. 
McRae reminded the meeting. And 75 
per cent of our imports are fully manu- 
factured goods — "goods that can and should 
be made in Canada". 

He began his address by calling attention 
to the significance of the manufacturing 
industry's role in the Canadian economy. 
Nearly one in every four working Canadians 
depends on the manufacturing industry for 
his pay cheque, and it is the source of 
nearly one third of the total annual labour 
income. 

But the great industrial expansion in the 
postwar years has not kept pace with the 
growth of the population and the labour 
force. 

There are nearly five million more people 
in this country today than there were in 1945, 
and H million more in the labour force. Thus, 
the population has increased by more than 40 
per cent and the labour force by 35 per cent; 
but, in the same period of time, employment 
in the manufacturing industry has gone from 
1,250,000 to only 1,400,000, an increase of no 
more than 12 per cent. 

This provided a clue to the heavier-than- 
usual unemployment of the past two years 
and an explanation why every winter many 
who work in seasonal jobs are idle for lack 
of alternative employment. There must be 
the widest possible diversification of indus- 
try, thus assuring that the closing down of a 
single local industry does not automatically 
threaten the community with impoverish- 
ment. Too many of our people are working 
in industries that are subject to seasonal 
factors and to the caprice of foreign 
demand. Unemployment will always be a 
problem as long as this is true, Mr. McRae 
said, and raising jobless benefits and apply- 
ing a variety of other palliatives provide no 
enduring solution. 

To conclude, the retiring CMA President 
summed up. "Excessive imports of the 
things we make ourselves, punitive taxes, 
spiralling costs, unrest and extravagant 
demands on the labour front, our small 
population — these are the weeds that inhibit 
industrial growth and promote chronic 
unemployment." 



General Manager's Report 

The report of J. C. Whitelaw, CMA 
General Manager, is a review of the Asso- 
ciation's activities during the preceding 12 
months. In it he summarizes the submis- 
sions made to governments on a wide range 
of subjects. 

Among these were several "important" 
submissions that included recommendations 
concerning unlawful strikes, picketing, 
secondary boycotts and jurisdictional dis- 
putes, union security and right-to-work, 
availability of judges to serve as chairmen 
of conciliation and arbitration boards, and 
unemployment insurance. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, Mr. Whitelaw pointed 
out, has very limited application to manu- 
facturers because it applies to companies 
with interprovincial operations. But because 
the Act has historically been the model for 
provincial legislation, and in view of the 
recommendation of the Canadian Labour 
Congress that it be broadened into a 
national labour code covering all basic 
industrial companies with plants in more 
than one province, the Act is of special 
interest to manufacturers. 

"It is hoped that the problems of picket- 
ing and secondary boycotts will be dealt 
with by changes in the Criminal Code," 
Mr. Whitelaw said. 

The retention of the services of judges 
as chairmen of both conciliation and arbi- 
tration boards was recommended by the 
CMA, he reported. The need for judges in 
arbitration was emphasized, because arbi- 
tration boards are "primarily a judicial 
proceeding". The CMA expressed the hope 
that judges would be able to continue to 
act as chairmen of arbitration boards if 
they were no longer to be available for 
boards of conciliation. 

"Despite persistent rumours in the press 
and elsewhere that federally appointed 
judges and provincially appointed magis- 
trates would shortly not be available any 
longer as chairmen for either conciliation 
or arbitration, it is expected that their 
withdrawal from the field of conciliation will 
be gradual to allow time for the training 
and development of competent persons to 
take their place," Mr. Whitelaw said. 

"Nevertheless, their eventual withdrawal 
from conciliation must be anticipated and 
may have to be accepted." 

After the report in September of an 
"alarming drain" in the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund, the Association recom- 
mended to the Government that there 
should be a complete investigation of the 
unemployment insurance scheme. When it 



688 



learned that the Government was consider- 
ing an increase in both employer and em- 
ployee contributions, the CMA made a 
further submission. 

The Association took the position that no 
changes in the (Unemployment Insurance) Act 
should be made until there had been a thorough 
re-examination of the whole scope of the Act 
by an independent body such as a Royal Com- 
mission. Such a review would include the 
questions of the payment of seasonal benefits 
out of the Unemployment Insurance Fund, the 
coverage of fishermen, loggers and other em- 
ployees in seasonal industries, and the payment 
of benefits to certain classes of married women 
and to pensioners. 

As an increase in contribution rates would 
impose a further financial burden on both 
employers and employees, especially in indus- 
tries employing a high proportion of skilled 
employees, it was emphasized that the addi- 
tional cost of unemployment insurance would 
make it more difficult to "hold the line" on 
costs and maintain steady year-round employ- 
ment as the Government urged Industry to do. 

In a section on inflation, "the dangers of 
which are still very much with us," Mr. 
Whitelaw said: 

In the face of the continual demands for 
wage increases, irrespective of improvements 
in productivity, and the mounting burden of 
taxation required to support still greater levels 
of government spending, control of production 
costs remains the most intractable problem of 
Canadian manufacturing industries. Failure to 
achieve such control can only result in broader 
and deeper penetration of the home market by 
foreign goods, displacing Canadian production, 
and in the loss of overseas sales volume by 
our export industries. 

Under the heading, "Education," Mr. 
Whitelaw reported that spokesmen for the 
Association had repeatedly stressed that 
progressive thinking and positive action 
must be taken if the country is to maintain 
its position among the nations. 

On immigration the CMA General 
Manager said the Association "believes and 
hopes" that the present slowdown in immi- 
gration will be temporary and that Canada 
should continue its liberal immigration 
policy. 

He reported that membership of the 
CMA increased by 491 to 6,426 in the 
past year. 

The Minister of Trade and Commerce 

"The Government is proposing to provide 
new facilities which should enable Canadian 
exporters to compete on even terms with 
exporters from other countries, where they 
are competitive in other respects," Hon. 
Gordon Churchill, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce, told the CMA at one of its 
dinner meetings. 

"The new powers proposed for the Export 
Credits Insurance Corporation are not as 
far-reaching as some of the interested 
parties suggested but they are considered 



appropriate to conditions in Canada at this 
time," he said. The Government's proposal 
will amend the Export Credits Insurance Act 
to enable the Corporation, when authorized 
by the Governor-in-Council, to provide 
direct guarantees to lenders on approved 
export transactions. 

burning to government action concerning 
the home market, which he said was "vital" 
for Canadian manufacturers, the Minister 
recalled that the Government had passed 
anti-dumping legislation "designed to defend 
Canadian producers against certain foreign 
trade practices". He pointed out that Cana- 
dian manufacturers produced 81 per cent 
of the $22 billion worth of manufactured 
goods purchased in Canada in 1958, said 
that the Canadian market is expanding more 
rapidly than that of any other industrialized 
country, and forecast that in 15 years the 
domestic market for Canadian-manufac- 
tured articles will have almost doubled in 
volume and in value. 

The promotion of diversification of Cana- 
dian manufacturing is another field in which 
the Government has been active, he said. 
His department was placing emphasis on 
the development of manufacturing of lines 
not now produced in Canada. 

He pointed out that our imports of fully 
manufactured articles exceed our exports 
by hundreds of millions of dollars each year. 

Government policy has been directed 
along several ether lines, Mr. Churchill 
continued. These included the shielding of 
the domestic market against disastrous 
dumping practices, the sponsoring of trade 
missions abroad, the promotion of Com- 
monwealth economic conferences, and the 
steady development of export trade by the 
maintenance of an active trade commissioner 
service in 45 foreign countries. 

Earlier in his address, when reviewing 
the difficulties that the manufacturing indus- 
try has met, he said the main problems 
seem to be: rising costs of production, 
increased foreign competition at home and 
abroad, the need for larger markets and 
the lack of adequate financing for export 
sales. 

On the subject of costs, Mr. Churchill 
said there was a belief in some quarters 
that rising costs were pricing Canadian 
manufactured goods out of world markets. 
"This may be true in some particular 
fields," he conceded, "but is not true as a 
generality." He pointed out that Canadian 
exports, which set a record in 1957, were 
maintained at practically the same dollar 
level in 1958 and with a slight increase in 
volume. 



689 



There can be no sharp division between 
labour and management in the matter of 
costs. "There should be a clear understand- 
ing that our fortunes hinge upon keeping 
our economy competitive," he declared. 

He acknowledged that opportunities in 
foreign markets open to Canadian manu- 
facturers have been limited during trfe 
entire postwar period by continuing ex- 
change difficulties and barter deals by state 
trading agencies, and by more liberal export 
financing facilities, extensive use of sub- 
sidies, lower labour rates and increased 
manufacturing activity in foreign countries. 

The home market also has been affected. 
"New modern plants built since the war, 
the use of the latest techniques resulting 
from intensive research, lower labour rates 
and large-volume runs have enabled manu- 
facturers in West Germany, the United 
Kingdom, The Netherlands and Japan to 
invade successfully the domestic markets of 
both Canada and the United States," he 
said. 

But the Canadian manufacturing industry 
has met the challenge. The creation of new 
capacity, improvement of plants, installa- 
tion of new equipment — much of it auto- 
matic — increased emphasis on research, and 
very heavy capital expenditures over the 
last decade have caused a significant rise 
in productivity with a corresponding fall 
in unit costs and have equipped Canadian 
manufacturers to compete effectively in 
world markets. 

Once again the tempo of new plant con- 
struction and the installation of new equip- 
ment is rising, the Minister declared. The 
prospects in the future appear to be bright. 
The optimism expressed by the Prime 
Minister when he addressed last year's 
annual meeting (L.G., July 1958, p. 731) 
was fully justified, Mr. Churchill concluded. 

Hon. L. R. Curtis, QC 

Hon. L. R. Curtis, QC, Attorney-General 
of Newfoundland, gave the opening address 
of the Industrial Relations Conference at 
the meeting. 

In an outline of events that led to the 
enactment of the Newfoundland Trade 
Union (Emergency Provisions) Act 1959, 
Mr. Curtis said that "in deference to public 
opinion in other provinces, Newfoundland 
will in due course take another look at this 
legislation". (This Act was again mentioned 
in a later address by Norman L. Mathews, 
QC (see below).) 

The Newfoundland Attorney-General told 
the delegates that if Canada is to build 
industry there must be a greater clarifica- 
tion and improvement in labour-manage- 



ment relations. "Here and there manage- 
ment may have to yield," he said. "Likewise 
labour must be prepared to make conces- 
sions. 

"Both sides have to work together if 
rising costs and expensive strikes are not 
to price the product of industry out of the 
market." 

Mr. Curtis said governments must help 
by keeping taxes at a minimum, and by 
passing legislation "as may be necessary to 
give a fair measure of security to both 
management and labour." 

The Newfoundland Attorney-General gave 
a step-by-step account of the recent labour 
unrest in the province. He told how the 
International Woodworkers of America had 
won a representation election at the Anglo 
Newfoundland Development Company, Lim- 
ited, and how a board of conciliation 
unanimously reported in favour of the union 
after the parties were unable to agree on 
a first collective agreement. 

"The value of this report, however, was 
considerably weakened when it was stated 
by the company that the proposals, if 
accepted, would have cost $1,200,000 a 
year, which the company stated it could 
not afford; whereupon all members of the 
board themselves expressed uncertainty as 
to their own findings," Mr. Curtis said. 

For the ensuing strike vote, only 1,200 
of a normal 4,000 workers were in the 
woods and only 800 voted to strike. "Al- 
though this must be considered a small 
vote — 20 per cent only of the total A.N.D. 
Company loggers — the strike was, under 
existing law, though hardly justifiable, 
strictly legal," he said, adding that "up 
to this time there could be no legal objec- 
tion to the actions of the IWA." 

Then, Mr. Curtis charged, the union and 
the strikers stole company food supplies, 
attacked non-strikers, trespassed on com- 
pany properties, and dumped loads of wood 
bound for the mill. 

"I want to state and state emphatically 
that the action of Premier Smallwood and 
his government was dictated solely by the 
action of the IWA in grossly violating the 
law. Had the IWA shown due respect for 
the law, the Premier would not have taken 
the stand he did, and the controversial 
legislation would never have been enacted." 

The legislation was necessary, Mr. Curtis 
explained, because the government-sponsored 
Newfoundland Brotherhood of Woods- 
Workers could not be certified until the 
IWA was decertified, which could be done 
only on the grounds of loss of majority 
support. To conduct a vote would have 
taken many months, and "unless the 



690 



required wood was cut before the spring 
drive, both paper companies would have 
been unable to operate during the balance 
of the year. 

"The operations of these companies are 
vital to Newfoundland. They represent one 
third of our economy, and any curtailment 
would be ruinous to Newfoundland's 
economy." 

The Attorney-General then made some 
recommendations based on "our experience 
in Newfoundland." He urged that all unions 
be made legal entities, responsible in law 
for their own contracts, with control of 
each union vested in a democratically 
elected directorate. He also suggested the 
appointment, by the federal and all provin- 
cial governments, of a "Chief Electoral 
Officer" responsible to Parliament or the 
provincial legislatures and not to any Minis- 
ter to be responsible for appointing return- 
ing officers in representation elections and 
strike votes, which should be by secret 
ballot. 

"Consideration should be given to the 
suggestion that there should be compulsory 
voting by all union members, with a penalty 
for not voting." 

He also called for the auditing by the 
Government of all union accounts, a review 
of the present method of appointing con- 
ciliation boards, and establishment of a 
Labour Division in each provincial supreme 
court with a right to appeal to a similar 
division of the Supreme Court of Canada. 

Carroll E. French 

"The next three to five years will be 
critical ones in the industrial relations arena, 
and the events of this immediate era will 
have much to do with determining the 
course of industrial relations for many years 
to come," said Carroll E. French, President, 
Industrial Relations Counsellors Service. 
Inc. He was speaking on "Implications to 
Top Management of Current Trends in 
Labour Relations". 

In this period of significant change and 
transition, he said, events have placed heavy 
strains on labour-management relations and 
have cast serious doubts on the adequacy of 
orthodox and traditional policies and prac- 
tices. 

Reviewing developments and emerging 
trends, Mr. French pointed out that 
organized labour, going through a period 
of stresses and strains, is becoming more 
militant and aggressive, and that manage- 
ment, faced with new problems calling for 
hard decisions, is stiffening its attitudes 
and with increasing frequency taking the 
initiative and assuming the offensive in 
collective bargaining. 



The stresses and strains to organized 
labour, he said, were the result of failure 
of pre-existing rivalries to abate after 
merger, the "revolt" of the skilled trades, 
restiveness on the part of local unions over 
the dominance and control of international 
unions, and concern over trends in union 
membership. 

Quoting from the Labour Gazette, he 
pointed out that union membership in 
Canada, although it had more than doubled 
from 1946 to 1958, was still 32 per cent 
of the nonagricultural labour force, as it 
had been in 1957. In 1954 it was 33 per 
cent. 

In spite of the worries of labour leaders, 
the labour movement in both Canada and 
the United States is powerful and aggres- 
sive, and "in emergencies can usually count 
on sympathetic treatment by government". 

Among the problems of management 
was the necessity, because of steadily rising 
costs even in the recent recession, to cut 
costs, shut down marginal plants and opera- 
tions, contract out work, and concentrate 
on the maximum utilization of mechanized 
and automatic processes. All these moves 
have inevitably necessitated substantial lay- 
offs of employees, discontinuance of long- 
established jobs, curtailment of job oppor- 
tunity, and, in many cases, drastic reduc- 
tions in employee earnings. 

More serious than all, management's efforts 
to curtail losses, to keep on a competitive 
basis, and to operate at a profit have met head 
on with the stone wall of traditional trade 
union job policies, so-called featherbedding 
union practices, and tenacious resistance by the 
unions to manpower adjustments, regardless of 
how necessary or reasonable. 

Management's manpower adjustments and 
cost reductions could not be avoided, Mr. 
French said, but were not understood by 
the employees immediately concerned or 
by the communities affected, who therefore 
have generally supported union resistance 
to these decisions and, time after time, 
management had no alternative but to 
undergo a strike. 

The rising militancy and aggressiveness 
of the Canadian labour movement is 
reflected in a growing unwillingness of the 
unions to accept findings of conciliation 
boards and their tendency to strike for 
further gains and concessions. He quoted 
statistics from the Labour Gazette showing 
that the number of man-days lost through 
labour disputes in 1958 was almost double 
that in 1957. 

"One of the most significant developments 
currently taking place in collective bargain- 
ing is the increasing emphasis given by 
labour unions to seeking concessions in the 
area of managerial functions and control," 



691 



he said. "This approach is in character 
with the attempts of unions to counter, or 
offset the effects of, mechanization and the 
advancing use of labour-saving devices." 

The struggle to retain firemen on diesel 
locomotives is an example of union efforts 
to resist the elimination of outmoded jobs, 
he said. 

No longer can collective bargaining be con- 
sidered as being concerned primarily with 
wages, hours and working conditions. Manage- 
ments from here on must be prepared to be 
confronted at the bargaining table with all 
types of issues involving the operation of the 
enterprise, from the right to select supervisors 
and staff new positions, all the way to profit 
sharing and price determinations. 

Mr. French considered management's tak- 
ing the initiative and assuming the offensive 
in collective bargaining to be "one of the 
most heartening and potentially promising 
developments" of the recent period. Pre- 
viously management had neglected oppor- 
tunities to eliminate costly contract pro- 
visions or win desirable improvements. 

New management devices have included 
prenegotiation publicity, notices of inten- 
tion to terminate the contract if no settle- 
ment is reached, rejection of retroactive 
application of contract terms, operation 
of the business without a contract when 
negotiations bog down, and unilateral action 
in initiating wage adjustments and changes 
in seniority and grievance policy. "In the 
implementation of such approaches," Mr. 
French said, "management objectives have 
been to bring pressures to bear on the union 
leadership without jeopardizing or impair- 
ing the rights and proper interests of em- 
ployees." 

He warned the delegates that resort to 
communication with employees only in time 
of crisis reduces its effectiveness. Employer- 
employee communication should be a nor- 
mal and continuing process, he said. 

All the trends he had described have 
"significant and serious" implications for 
management. His conclusions and forecasts 
based on his analysis of them included: 

1. The traditional management concept 
that tended to divorce employee relations 
problems from its responsibilities and dele- 
gate them to a professional staff will no 
longer serve satisfactorily. Concern with 
day-to-day labour relations, with collective 
bargaining and with over-all relations with 
employees must be an integral part of 
running the business. 

2. Exclusive reliance on high wages, 
liberal pensions and other fringe benefits, 
and on competently staffed industrial rela- 
tions departments, will not by themselves 
assure the results that will be needed in 
the future. 



3. Failure to achieve satisfactory em- 
ployee relations and a sound employee 
understanding of management problems and 
objectives will weaken a management's 
power at the bargaining table. A structure 
of industrial relations raised on present 
foundations will not be adequate to meet 
the burdens arising from advancing tech- 
nological and engineering progress. 

4. The time is ripe for a new concept 
of labour-management relations based on 
the development among all employees of 
a confidence in management motives. 

Norman L. Mathews, QC 

"Unions now have such power, not only 
over industry but over the workers as well, 
and have so many immunities not enjoyed 
by other segments of the population that 
in some cases workers are being exploited 
to as great an extent by unions as they 
ever were by employers," declared Norman 
L. Mathews, QC, in an address titled, "The 
Legal Immunities of Trade Unions". 

"In my opinion," he added, "steps must 
be taken to remove many of the immunities 
that are now enjoyed exclusively by trade 
unions . . . The position of unions should 
be neither more nor less privileged than 
that of other segments of the community." 

Mr. Mathews then suggested that the 
federal government and other provincial 
governments enact legislation similar to the 
new British Columbia Trade-unions Act 
passed March 19 (L.G., April, p. 360). 
This, he said, would make trade unions 
legal entities for the purpose of duties and 
responsibilities instead of, as now, being 
legal entities mainly for the purpose of 
exercising rights and privileges, and would 
assist in making a trade union responsible 
for the acts of its members or agent* 

He also suggested that secondary boycotts 
or picketing other than in support of a 
lawful strike be made a criminal offence, or 
at least an offence subject to prosecution 
under provincial labour relations acts. 

A final recommendation was that no 
employee be deprived of his job or refused 
employment because his membership in a 
trade union is terminated or refused on 
any ground other than his failure to pay 
dues. 

Mr. Mathews began by reviewing the 
history of labour legislation from the "harsh 
and oppressive" Combination Act of 1799, 
through the 1870's, when "the pendulum 
began to move the other way," to the 
present, when trade unions, previously 
looked upon as criminal, not only have had 
the taint of criminality removed from them 
but have been "placed in a preferred posi- 



692 



tion in society by being granted immunities 
not available to other members of society". 

He then listed "some of the immunities" 
enjoyed only by unions: 

— Immunity from claims for damages for 
conspiracy to injure, an "exception to the 
general rule of law". 

— Immunity from prosecution or from 
civil action for conspiracy in restraint of 
trade, another exception. (He explained 
that he was referring not only to the 
restraint of trade brought about by strike 
action but more particularly to the "mono- 
polistics practices" brought about by union 
shop and closed shop provisions.) 

— Immunity from prosecution under the 
Combines Investigation Act and the corre- 
sponding sections of the Criminal Code. 

— Immunity from payment of corporation 
or income tax, although many international 
unions have assets and yearly income in 
excess of those of the majority of Cana- 
dian corporations. (He remarked here that 
it was probably because of this immunity 
that the Canadian Labour Congress in its 
submission to the Cabinet each year urges 
the imposition of higher corporation taxes.) 

— Immunity, for all practical purposes, 
from actions for damages for torts or 
wrongs committed. (He pointed out that 
merely making a trade union a legal entity 
would not in itself be the complete answer 
to acts of violence by pickets; it would also 
have to be shown that the acts were 
authorized by the union or were done by 
union officials acting within the scope of 
their authority. "The only effective way 
to deal with this type of situation is by 
the securing of an injunction . . ." 

(Supporters of this immunity state that 
actions for damages might be used to 
destroy unions, which should be guarded 
against a "potentially crushing liability". 
No other groups of persons has protection 
against liability for wrong-doing on the 
ground that it might crush them financially, 
he pointed out.) 

— Immunity for violation of collective 
agreements. 

— Immunity from damages for expulsion 
from membership. (Even where it is pos- 
sible to succeed in an action against the 
officers of the union, the union itself still 
enjoys this immunity, he said.) 

— Immunity from enforcement of the 
criminal law. ("Even individual officers and 
members of a trade union seem in many 
instances to be able to commit crimes of 
violence and to escape punishment when, 
for the same crimes, any other citizen 
would suffer serious consequences.") 



The new Trade-unions Act of British 
Columbia has in it a presumption of liability 
which clashes with the traditional presump- 
tion of innocence which is a hallmark of 
British justice, says a report of the civil 
liberties committee of the British Columbia 
Division of the Canadian Bar Association. 

The report, presented to the Division's 
convention in Nanaimo at the end of June, 
urges revision of the statute in the spirit 
of the basic principles of British law, 
rather than "a policy of convenience at the 
expense of the liberty of the subject". 



These immunities show how far the 
pendulum has swung, he went on. But 
unions can no longer be looked upon as 
weak, defenceless organizations, requiring 
government assistance to bring about equal- 
ity in bargaining strength with employers. 
"Rather, unions have been nourished to such 
an extent that the immunities they now 
enjoy have placed them in a preferred posi- B 
tion and have placed too much power in 
the hands of a few union leaders," Mr. 
Mathews declared. 

That the pendulum has begun to swing 
back is indicated by the Trade Union 
(Emergency Provisions) Act 1959 passed 
by the Newfoundland Legislature and the 
Trade-unions Act pased in British Columbia. 

"No sensible employer would want the 
pendulum to swing back to the harsh days 
of the Combination Acts," he said. "On 
the other hand, public opinion will undoubt- 
edly force legislation that will enable the 
pendulum to find its proper place, as it 
did in Newfoundland . . . 

"It was because public opinion recoiled 
from the abuse by the trade unions of the 
immunities that they had enjoyed that the 
Government was able to pass, with the full 
approval and co-operation of the Opposi- 
tion, the extreme legislation that it con- 
sidered necessary . . ." 

This, and the B.C. Act, in Mr. Mathews' 
opinion was a "realistic approach" in dealing 
with trade unions. 

E. C. Gill 

"Nothing could be more dangerous than 
the assumption that a little bit of inflation 
each year is good for the economy, in other 
words, a creeping inflation. 

"No inflation will creep for long or 
forever; it will soon gallop," said E. C. Gill, 
President, the Canada Life Assurance Com- 
pany, in an address to the Management 
Conference at the meeting. 

He quoted the following paragraph from 
a recent report by the Committee for 
Economic Development, an organization of 
United States businessmen. 

We know too that even at a creep it (infla- 
tion) is intolerable because it erodes the value 
of long term fixed money obligations and 



72787-5—3 



693 



crucifies the weaker groups in our society. Nor 
is a rising price level essential to real growth 
and sustained productive employment. In fact, 
by distorting the normal incentives for effi- 
ciency in business and increased productivity 
of labour, it may well endanger the sustain- 
ability of growth. There is danger of long 
term inflation in this country, but it is not 
inevitable. The nation can have both stable 
prices and 'high employment, if it is willing to 
adopt the policies required to make them 
consistent. We do not have to sacrifice high 
production to avoid inflation. The only thing 
we need to give up is an illusion, the illusion 
that we can get more out of the economy 
than we put into it, that we can consume 
more than we can produce. 

Today's inflation is unlike any that has 
been encountered before, Mr. Gill went on. 
Historically, inflation had resulted from 
too many dollars chasing too few goods; 
but the cause of today's inflation is entirely 
psychological: "Too many people believe 
♦ that inflation is inevitable." 

He listed three places where this psy- 
chology turned up: 

1. In the inflation-minded stock market. 
J 2. In federal government deficits. 
' 3. In labour's demand for wage increases 
beyond the increase in productivity. 

The inflation in the stock market is the 
classical kind: too many dollars chasing 
too few stocks. And it could be cured if the 
great companies would issue a lot of addi- 
tional common stock, he said. 

Balanced federal budgets as soon as they 
can be attained are an absolute necessity, 
he declared. "Certainly the deficits of the 
year just past were justified, because that 
was a year of recession in business, and 
tax collections went down, and it was right 
that there should be deficits, or else there 
would have been a much deeper recession . . . 

"The balancing of the budget next year — 
the fiscal year commencing April 1, 1960 — is 
of the utmost importance in the battle to 
save the purchasing power of the Canadian 
dollar." 



"The disingenuous argument of some 
union spokesmen that the benefits of higher 
productivity belong as of right to organized 
labour is utterly fallacious, even ridiculous," 
said W. H. Evans, President of the Cana- 
dian Manufacturers' Association, in an 
address to the 52nd annual convention of 
the Canadian Gas Association in Victoria 
last month. 

Improved productivity simply means 
greater industrial output with less effort 
and less cost, Mr. Evans said. This depends 
basically on technological advance and 
results from the provision of modern 
machinery and more efficient tools of pro- 
duction. 



If labour's demands go beyond the 
increase in productivity, "we are in trouble," 
he warned. 

Wage rates are high both in the United 
States and Canada, and on the average there 
is no reason why they cannot continue to rise 
at the same rate as the increase in total output 
per man-hour. In other words, machinery is 
more efficient. A man can produce more goods 
in an hour, and that factor can in many years 
justify a wage increase of between 2 and 3 
per cent. 

He concluded with the advice that what 
we can do "is to believe that inflation is 
not inevitable and say so, and act accord- 
ingly. Advocate balanced government bud- 
gets. Resist wage demands in excess of 
productivity gains." 

Carl A. Pollock 

In a speech to the Management Con- 
ference at the meeting, Carl A. Pollock, 
President, Dominion Electrohome Industries 
Limited, said that "the generous use of 
committees at all levels of a manufacturing 
operation, including labour-management 
production committees, can solve innumer- 
able problems." 

He was discussing human and business 
relations as part of the environment in 
which work must be carried on to achieve 
"the right product at the right price," which 
was the title of his address. 

"With many authorities and responsibili- 
ties in a modern manufacturing operation," 
he explained, "a means of co-ordination 
and co-operation must be provided. This 
job the committee can do effectively and 
they can bring out ideas from men by colla- 
boration and exchange of thoughts. They 
help, too, to give credit to those who have 
the brain waves. 

"Committees must always be advisory to 
someone who has authority and respon- 
sibility to put the resolved advice into 
action. No man or group can properly be 
responsible to a committee." 



The fact that the money for these means 
to increased productivity is found by the 
company — not those who work for it — 
shows the fallacy of the union argument, 
he continued. "This is not to say that 
labour ought not to share in these benefits, 
but the net effect of a company's work force 
swallowing up all the resultant productivity 
gains would be to leave the company, the 
shareholder and the consumer worse off 
than before. The company would have had 
a nil return on its heavy investment in 
new plant and equipment, the shareholder 
would have gained nothing from having 
foregone part of his dividends, and the 
consumer in such circumstances could only 
look forward to higher prices." 



694 



Vocational Training for Married Women 

Director of Women's Bureau reports on comments received from eight national 
women's organizations and 11 local councils of women on proposals for action 
dealing with the problem of older married women re-entering the labour force 



At the 27th meeting of the Vocational 
Training Advisory Council in October last 
year, Miss Marion V. Royce, Director of 
the Women's Bureau of the Department of 
Labour, read a paper entitled, "Vocational 
Training for Older Married Women Re- 
entering the Labour Force". This paper was 
then printed in the Labour Gazette 
(December 1958, p. 1355) and reprints were 
distributed to national women's organiza- 
tions and to local councils of women with 
an invitation to submit comments, par- 
ticularly on the four suggestions made by 
Miss Royce in her report. In a speech to 
the annual meeting of the National Council 
of Women on June 15, Miss Royce gave a 
summary of replies received. 

Five preliminary steps are essential 
before effective action can be taken towards 
vocational training for mature married 
women re-entering the labour force, it was 
generally agreed by the eight national 
women's organizations and eleven local 
councils of women who replied to an 
enquiry from the Women's Bureau of the 
Department of Labour, Miss Marion V. 
Royce, Bureau Director, told the annual 
meeting of the National Council of Women. 

They are: 

1. Finding how many women in the 
community need or want to learn market- 
able skills and the number of existing or 
anticipated job opportunities for them. 

2. An inquiry into the attitudes of such 
women towards training and into the 
experience of women who have taken 
training during maturity. 

3. Consultation with local employers to 
find out how they regard the employment 
of mature women and to ascertain the 
job possibilities for those who have had 
re-training. 

4. Inventory of available training facili- 
ties and consideration of the advisability, 
and means, of developing and expanding 
them. 

5. Enquiry into means of improving 
counselling services for such women. Volun- 
tary agencies must take the lead, it was 
agreed, and although professional leader- 
ship and counselling are essential, the use 
of volunteers should not be overlooked. 

Since the replies were received, Miss 
Royce announced, the Women's Bureau 
has taken steps to find out what light was 



thrown on the value of training by the 
experience of mature women who have 
registered in schools of social work since 
1950, and to ascertain the opinion of em- 
ployment officers of the National Employ- 
ment Service regarding the attitudes of 
mature women applicants towards training. 
The Toronto YWCA has been approached 
regarding a special project in individual 
and group counselling, making use of avail- 
able voluntary assistance. 

The four suggestions that the organiza- 
tions were asked to comment on were 
proposals for: the setting of pilot projects 
for training, counselling and placement of 
mature married women; providing informa- 
tion regarding existing training plans and 
programs; special training for women quali- 
fied to become teachers; and provision of 
counselling services for women of advanced 
education who are considering further 
education to prepare them for employment. 

The need for inventories of training 
facilities was endorsed almost unanimously 
by the respondents, Miss Royce reported. 
"The replies reflect considerable feeling that 
existing facilities for training are not being 
used to full advantage." 

The Director of the Women's Bureau 
in her summary drew largely on what she 
described as the "outstandingly comprehen- 
sive" report sent in by the Montreal Coun- 
cil of Women. This report, she said, dealt 
with a number of points common to many 
of the replies. 

The Montreal report divided promising 
occupations for mature women into three 
categories. In the first category were such 
occupations as teaching, nursing, social 
work, library work, occupational therapy, 
pysiotherapy and church work, which were 
considered to require more than average 
academic education. Training for middle- 
aged women who wanted to enter these 
occupations was found to be already avail- 
able. There was, however, considered to 
be a need for vocational counselling. 

In the second category were business 
occupations, including secretarial work, 
stenography, clerical work, and sales and 
service posts. It was found that training 
for a considerable variety of jobs of this 
kind was obtainable. In some kinds of 
business jobs, however, it appeared that 
older women, even if trained, might be at 



72787-5— 3£ 



695 



a disadvantage in obtaining employment, 
partly owing to the existence of pension 
plans. There was also evidence of a ten- 
dency to reserve permanent positions for 
younger women and hire older women on 
a daily or weekly basis because they are 
"at a disadvantage in coping with the 
volume and speed-up of peak periods". 

In sales and service occupations, on the 
other hand, the mature married woman's 
knowledge of and interest in the needs of 
the homemaker were considered to be an 
advantage. In such consulting services as 
interior decorating and personal shopping, 
which often appeal to older women, em- 
ployment opportunities are apt to be limited, 
the Montreal Council found. It warned 
also that in such highly competitive occu- 
pations as public relations, investment, real 
estate, broadcasting, newspaper work, cater- 
ing and food services, opportunities for 
women were few, except for those who had 
very special qualifications. 

"The unfailing job opportunities for 
nursing assistants and in hostess and house- 
hold administrative work in hotels, motels, 
and boarding institutions," were pointed 
out, Miss Royce said. Another council also 
emphasized the growing opportunities of 
employment for mature women in Home- 
maker Services. 

A third group of occupations — those that 
require technical training and manipulative 
skills — was labelled "trades". This group 
included such work as hair-dressing, fashion 
designing and sketching, and domestic and 
homemaking skills. "Training in this last 
field is available at nominal cost in special 
schools operated by the Quebec Govern- 
ment," the report pointed out. Training in 
the "fashion arts" and in hair-dressing could 
be obtained either in public or private 
institutions, it said. 

The importance of counselling as well as 
training was emphasized in most of the 
replies, Miss Royce reported. 



"A number of the answers question 
whether mature married women who are 
seeking jobs are interested in further train- 
ing to improve their status as workers," 
she said. "Several are doubtful whether a 
good many of the applicants have the neces- 
sary educational background to undertake 
further training. One of the most frequent 
observations is that unemployment occurs 
most often among the uneducated and 
untrained. 

"One of the national organizations points 
to the need of experimentation with part- 
time employment for married women, 
including investigation of the difficulties 
involved in employing full-time and part- 
time people on the same staff doing the 
same work," the speaker reported. 

"Almost all of the reports mentioned 
the need and importance of keeping in 
touch with the National Employment Serv- 
ice in further planning and action ... In 
most instances local councils had depended 
upon the advice of the women officers of 
the Service in their communities. The 
unanimity of opinion regarding the import- 
ance of continuing co-operation was, I felt, 
a striking tribute to the competence and 
co-operation of the Service across Canada," 
Miss Royce said. 

The reply of the Canadian Federation of 
Business and Professional Women's Clubs 
stressed the importance of basing recruit- 
ment on the qualifications rather than the 
age of candidates, she said. 

All the national organizations that 
responded had expressed interest and wil- 
lingness to help with further study or 
action directed towards counselling and 
training for mature women. The local 
councils had also taken an active interest in 
the matter, several having organized special 
meetings to discuss it. 



General Wage Increases Reported, 

October 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959 

35 per cent of establishments surveyed reported general wage increase in period 
October 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959. Increases of 5.1 to 9.9 cents most common 



General wage increases in the period 
October 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959 were 
reported by 35 per cent of the establish- 
ments that responded to the latest semi- 
annual survey of wage changes by the 
Economics and Research Branch. A general 
wage change is defined as one that affects 



50 per cent or more of the employees in 
an establishment. 

The percentage reporting increases is 
greater than in the corresponding period of 
1957-58, when 26 per cent of the respond- 
ing establishments reported general wage 
increases. 



696 



SIZE OF WAGE INCREASES REPORTED, OCT. 1 TO MARCH 31, 1958 AND 1959 

Establishments Establishments 

Responding to Responding to 

Size of Increase in Cents an Hour 1958 Survey 1959 Survey 

No. % No. % 

Less than 5*5 87 9 63 6 

5tf 29 3 70 7 

5.1 to 9.90 90 9 163 16 

100 13 1 19 2 

10.1 to 14.90 21 2 29 3 

150 and over 24 2 9 1 

No general increase 764 74 668 65 

Total 1,028 100 1,021 100 

The largest number of wage increases in establishments in the sample are of all 

the period October 1, 1958 to March 31, sizes and represent most major industrial 

1959 was in the range 5.1 to 9.9 cents an groups. In the April 1959 survey, 1,021 

hour; 16 per cent of reporting establish- establishments responded; in April 1958, 

ments gave increases in this range. In the 1,028 establishments. 

corresponding period of the previous year, The accompanying table lists the wage 

9 per cent of the reporting establishments changes by size m cents an hour that were 

. . .. . b reported m the April 1959 and April 1958 

gave increases in this range. surveys Some rf fee increases reported 

The survey of wage changes is conducted were deferred wage increases negotiated in 
in April and October each year. A sample collective bargaining before the period 
of 1,080 establishments is surveyed. The covered by the survey. 



Early Post-Graduate Years in the 

Technical and Scientific Professions 

New bullelin in Professional Manpower series reports experience of 1954 class 
of engineer and scientist graduates in the three years after their graduation 



A study of the experience of the 1954 
graduating class of engineers and scientists 
from Canadian universities and colleges 
during the three years following their 
graduation is the subject of a new Depart- 
ment of Labour publication entitled, The 
Early Post-Graduate Years in the Tech- 
nical and Scientific Professions in Canada. 
The report, which was prepared by the 
Economics and Research Branch, is No. 6 
in the Professional Manpower Bulletin 
series, and is available from the Queen's 
Printer at 25$ a copy. 

The study is based on the replies to a 
questionnaire sent in 1957 to 2,386 grad- 
uates. Of these, 1,706 replied — a rate of 
return of 71i per cent. In preparing the 
study the information contained in the 
replies was compared with that given in 
similar returns for 1954. 

The report shows that "by 1957 almost 
four fifths of the respondents were em- 
ployed full-time at jobs requiring a technical 
and scientific background. Such employ- 
ment was notably higher among engineers 
than among scientists . . . The major reason 
for a lower employment rate among the 



scientists was that a great many had 
pursued post-graduate studies which were 
not completed in time for them to enter 
the labour market in 1957. A considerably 
smaller proportion of the engineers were 
still students." 

Fewer than 1 per cent of the respondents 
were reported to be out of jobs and seeking 
work, but about 5 per cent were holding 
what they considered to be non-scientific, 
non-technical jobs. 

"More than 75 per cent of the graduates 
were employed by industry, approximately 
17 per cent by government, and 8 per cent 
by educational institutions. The engineers 
were very heavily concentrated in industry, 
while the scientists were more evenly dis- 
tributed through the three sectors," the 
report says, pointing out that the employees 
of crown corporations were considered as 
belonging to industry. 

In 1957 the largest proportion (20 per 
cent) of the graduates were engaged in 
production, maintenance and exploration 
work; 19 per cent were employed in research 
and development. About 7 per cent of all 



697 



the graduates were teaching; but while 25 
per cent of the scientists were engaged in 
that profession, fewer than 3 per cent of 
the engineers were so employed. 

On the subject of geographic mobility, 
the report says, "It seems that . . . there is a 
reluctance or inability on the part of the 
graduates to move away from either their 
home province or from the province in 
which they studied." It also arrives at the 
conclusion that "a large majority of the 
students chose and succeeded in entering 
a university in the province of their per- 
manent residence." 

Statistics given show that out of a group 
of 771 engineers, 62 per cent studied in 
their home province, and only 10 per cent 
of these left to work in other parts of 
Canada after graduation. Of 392 scientists, 
72 per cent studied in their home province, 
and only about 13 per cent of the 72 per 
cent had jobs in other parts of the country 
in 1957. "By 1957, 11 per cent of the 
1954 engineering and science graduates 
were living in foreign countries," but half 
of these were engaged in further studies, 
the report shows. 

A study of the remuneration being 
received by the graduates showed that 
engineers in general were getting higher 
pay than scientists. Mining engineers were 
the best paid, with a median salary of 
$6,125, aeronautical engineers came next 
with a median of $5,875, and petroleum 
engineers were getting a median salary of 
$5,736. The average median salary of all 
the graduates was $5,142. 

"The median salary varied little from 
function to function, except for teachers, 



whose salary was about $1,000 below the 
over-all median, and testing and laboratory 
services, which also carry with them a 
significantly lower starting salary. This 
high degree of uniformity is likely a 
peculiarity of the short-run period follow- 
ing graduation . . .," the report states. 

The graduates employed in industry were 
the best paid, with a median salary of 
$5,301. Those employed by governments 
received 12 per cent less, their median 
salary being $4,676, and those in educa- 
tional institutions received 25 per cent less 
than those in industry (median $3,945). 

Variation in salary from one industry 
to another was small, the highest paid being 
those employed in public utilities, with a 
median of $5,588, and the lowest paid being 
those in transportation, with $4,964. "In 
government service, those employed by 
municipalities received the highest median 
salary ($5,050) and those in the employ of 
provincial governments the lowest ($4,370)." 
Variations between salaries being paid in 
different parts of Canada were found to 
be insignificant. 

The bulletin is divided into three chap- 
ters: Employment, Remuneration, and Post- 
Graduate Study. Aspects of the graduates' 
experience dealt with in the bulletin but 
not reported here are suggested by the 
following section headings: Changes in 
Specialization, Work Experience, Mobility 
of Single and Married Graduates, Salaries 
Related to Further Training, Salaries Re- 
lated to Change of Job, and Variations 
Between Engineers and Scientists. 

The bulletin contains four full-page charts 
and 16 tables. 



Industrial Fatalities in Canada 

during the First Quarter of 1959 

Deaths from industrial accidents decreased to 244 from 342 in previous quarter 
and from 251 in first quarter of 1958. Construction tops list by industries 
with 42; Ontario heads listing by provinces with 83 deaths from job accidents 



There were 244* industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1959, accord- 
ing to the latest reports received by the 
Department of Labour. This is a decrease 
of 98 from the previous quarter, in which 
342 were recorded, including 41 in a sup- 
plementary list. In the first quarter of the 
previous year, 251 fatalities were recorded. 

During the quarter under review there 
were four accidents each resulting in the 
deaths of three or more persons. 



On February 9, the captain and 15 mem- 
bers of the crew of the trawler Blue Wave 

* See tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. The 
number of fatalities that occurred during the first 
quarter of 1959 is probably greater than the figure 
now quoted. Information on accidents which occur 
but are not reported in time for inclusion in the 
quarterly articles is recorded in supplementary lists 
and statistics are amended accordingly. The figures 
shown include 48 fatalities for which no official 
reports have been received. 



698 



INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA 

First Quarter of 1959 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



Construction 1 



Mining and Quarrying 

Transportation, Storage 
and Communications 




BY INDUSTRY 



70 80 90 100 



Struck by Machinery, 
Moving Vehicles, etc. 

Collisions, Derailments, 
Wrecks, etc. 

Falls and Slips 

Conflagrations, Temperature 
Extremes and Explosions 

Inhalations, Absorptions. Asphyx- 
iation and Industrial Diseases 

Caught In, On or Between 
Machinery, Vehicles, etc. 

Electric Current 



Miscellaneous Accidents 



Over-Exertion 

Striking Against or 
Stepping on Objects . 




BY CAUSE 



Source: Economics and Research Branch, Deportment of Labour. 



699 



The industrial fatalities recorded in these 
quarterly articles, prepared by the Eco- 
nomics and Research Branch, are those 
fatal accidents that involved persons gain- 
fully employed and that occurred during 
the course of, or which arose out of, their 
employment. These include deaths that 
resulted from industrial diseases as reported 
by the Workmen's Compensation Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are com- 
piled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners and 
certain other official sources. Newspaper 
reports are used to supplement these data. 
For those industries not covered by work- 
men's compensation legislation, newspaper 
reports are the Department's only source 
of information. It is possible, therefore, 
that coverage in such industries as agricul- 
ture, fishing and trapping and certain of 
the service groups is not as complete as 
in those industries which are covered by 
compensation legislation. Similarly, a small 
number of traffic accidents which are in 
fact industrial may be omitted from the 
Department's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



were lost during a storm 65 miles south- 
west of Cape St. Mary's, Nfld. 

One accident cost the lives of five per- 
sons. A seaplane carrying five men to a 
logging camp crashed on Redonda Island, 
B.C., on February 29. 

Two accidents were responsible for the 
loss of three lives in each case. On January 
19, three men working in a manhole in 
Hamilton, Ont., collapsed and died after 
being overcome by fumes, and on March 
11, a helicopter on an oil surveying trip 
crashed near Fort Nelson, B.C., killing its 
three occupants. 

Grouped by industries (see chart page 
699), the largest number of fatalities, 42, 
was in construction: 21 in highways and 
bridges, 15 in buildings and 6 in other 
construction. Fatalities recorded in this 
industry for the same period in 1958 num- 
bered 60 — 27 in highways and bridges, 20 
in miscellaneous construction and 13 in 
buildings. During 1958's fourth quarter 51 
fatalities were listed: 22 in highways and 
bridges, 17 in buildings and 12 in miscel- 
laneous construction. 

During the quarter, accidents in the min- 
ing industry resulted in the deaths of 37 
persons: 26 in metal mining, 6 in coal 
mining and 5 in non-metallic mineral min- 
ing. During the same period last year, 40 
deaths were reported: 22 in metal mining, 
8 in coal mining and 10 in non-metallic 
mineral mining. Accidents during October, 
November and December of last year 
resulted in the deaths of 114 workers; 25 
in metal mining, 79 in coal mining — 75 of 
which were the result of the one disaster, 



the air blast (bump) in a Springhill, N.S., 
coal mine — and 10 in non-metallic mineral 
mining. 

There were 37 fatalities in the transporta- 
tion industry also. They included 15 in 
steam railways, 7 in local and highway 
transportation, 5 in storage and 4 each in 
the water and air transportation groups. 
During 1958's first quarter, 24 deaths were 
reported: 9 in steam railways, 8 in local 
and highway transportation, 5 in water 
transportation and 1 each in air transporta- 
tion and storage. During 1958's fourth 
quarter, 43 deaths were reported, of which 
14 occurred in steam railways, 13 in water 
transportation, 8 in telegraph services, 6 
in local or highway transportation and 2 
in air transportation. 

During the quarter under review, there 
were 33 fatalities in logging, an increase of 
4 from the 29 that occurred during the 
same period in 1958. During the fourth 
quarter of last year, 37 lives were lost 
in this industry. 

There were 33 fatalities recorded in 
manufacturing also. Of these, 13 were in 
iron and steel, 8 in wood products and 3 
in paper products. In the same period of 
the previous year there were 41 fatal acci- 
dents; these included 12 in iron and steel, 
10 in wood products, 7 in transportation 
equipment and 4 in paper products. Work 
injuries in manufacturing during October, 
November and December of last year 
accounted for 37 deaths. Of these, 11 
occurred in iron and steel, 6 in transpor- 
tation equipment, 5 in wood products and 
4 in each of the foods and beverages and 
non-metallic manufacturing groups. 

There were 17 industrial fatalities in the 
fishing and trapping industry during the 
quarter under review, an increase of 13 
from the 4 reported for the same period 
last quarter. In the fourth quarter of 1958, 
accidents in the fishing and trapping indus- 
try resulted in 3 deaths. 

An analysis of the causes of the 244 
fatalities recorded during the first quarter 
(see chart p. 699) shows that 83 (34%) 
were under the heading "struck by". Of 
these, 47 were in the category "other ob- 
jects", 26 were caused by "moving vehicles" 
and 10 the result of being "struck by tools, 
machinery, cranes, etc.". "Collisions, derail- 
ments, wrecks, etc." were responsible for 
62 deaths. These included 20 accidents 
involving automobiles or trucks, 18 water 
craft — 16 the result of the loss of the 
trawler Blue Wave — and 15 involving air- 
craft. In the classification "falls and slips" 
30 fatalities were recorded, all but five of 



700 



which were caused by falls to different 
levels. Twenty-three fatalities were recorded 
in the "conflagrations, temperature extremes 
and explosions" category; of these 9 were 
conflagrations, 5 as a result of the explosion 
of gasoline and/ or oil and 3 caused by 
explosions (blasting accidents). 



By province of occurrence, the largest 
number of fatalities was in Ontario, where 
there were 83. In British Columbia, there 
were 51; in Quebec, 40; and in Alberta, 21. 
During the quarter under review there 
were 73 fatalities in January, 105 in Feb- 
ruary and 66 in March. 



Industrial Accidents in the United Kingdom 

Industrial accidents in the United Kingdom in 1957 declined to lowest total 
since 1935; both tatal and non-fatal accidents decreased 5 per cent from 1956, 
according to statistics given in Annual Report of Chief Inspector of Factories 



Industrial accidents in the United King- 
dom in 1957 declined to the lowest level 
since 1935, the Report of the Chief Inspec- 
tor of Factories states. Both fatal and non- 
fatal accidents decreased 5 per cent from 
1956; in the building industry fatalities 
were 16 per cent fewer than in the previous 
year. 

The Factories Act applies to factories, 
225,937 of them in 1957, and also to docks, 
warehouses and construction sites. An 
inspectorate, which numbered 388 at the 
end of the year, made 253,881 visits to 
premises under the Act in 1957. An acci- 
dent to an employee in premises under the 
Act must be reported to the district factory 
inspector if it causes loss of life or disables 
the employee for more than three days 
from earning full wages at the work at 
which he was employed. Such reports and 
the work of the inspectorate enable the 
Chief Inspector each year to give a com- 
prehensive picture of the incidence of 
accidents and the efforts that are made to 
prevent them in the United Kingdom. 

The 1957 Report — shortened and sim- 
plified, with major changes in content — has 
one section analyzing accident statistics and 
trends, another reviewing developments of 
the year, two sections dealing with special 
subjects (in 1957 these are "Research" and 
"Safety Training"), and a final section deal- 
ing with activities of the Department. The 
shortening of the report has meant the 
omission of the accounts of particular acci- 
dents and problems encountered by inspec- 
tors in the course of their duties that 
appeared in earlier reports. Data on par- 
ticular accidents continue to be given in 
the quarterly report published by the 
Factory Inspectorate, "Accidents, How They 
Happen and How to Prevent Them". 

Statistics and Trends 

From 1956 to 1957 the number of fac- 
tories declined by 2,300 to 225,937 but 
the number of persons employed remained 



fairly constant. The tendency of smaller 
factories to disappear in favour of larger 
factories has therefore continued in 1957. 
The number of factories without mechanical 
power decreased from 16,309 in 1956 to 
14,660 in 1957. 

Reported accidents in all premises subject 
to the Factories Act declined from 184,785 
in 1956 to 174,713 in 1957; fatal accidents, 
which have declined yearly since 1951, 
dropped from 687 to 651. The most impor- 
tant factors responsible for the continued 
improvement in accident figures, the Report 
says, are better and safer working methods, 
better and safer machinery and equipment, 
a greater awareness of the demands of 
safety when new equipment is being de- 
signed and installed, and the implementation 
of effective safety measures. 

Accidents by Industrial Groups 

There were proportionate reductions in 
accidents in almost all industrial groups but 
the decline in fatal accidents from 186 to 
156 in the building industry was the only 
pronounced drop in any single industry. 
An analysis of the trend of accident statis- 
tics by industries from 1948 to 1957 shows 
that the number of accidents for docks, 
warehouses, building operations and con- 
struction work has tended to increase but 
that there has been a steady downward 
trend in fatal accidents. 

Causes of Accidents 

The development of power-driven lifting 
machinery in factories and on building sites 
and docks has increased during the postwar 
period. This is reflected in the total acci- 
dent figures for this category, which have 
risen from 4,349 in 1948 to 4,816 in 1957; 
the number of fatal accidents, however, has 
declined. Accidents associated with other 
classes of power-driven machinery show a 
steady reduction from 27,256 in 1948 to 
20,389 in 1957. Since there has been a 
considerable increase in the use of power- 



72787-5—4 



701 



driven machinery in industry, the figures 
indicate a substantial improvement in stand- 
ards of safety. 

In other categories, the number of trans- 
port accidents was lower in 1957 than in 
1955 and 1956 but higher than in earlier 
years. Accidents caused by hand tools con- 
tinued to decline in 1957, dropping to about 
two-thirds of the 1948 figure. Accidents 
due to persons falling decreased little from 
1948 to 1957 but fatal accidents have 
decreased sharply, to about two-thirds of 
the 1948 figure and less than half of that 
for 1939. The number of eye injuries 
declined from 9,584 in 1948 to 7,098 in 
1957, but the Inspectorate considers that 
improvement in the provision and use of 
eye protection would result in a further 
marked decrease. 

The accident total for factories only 
(i.e., excluding docks, warehouses, building 
operations and engineering construction) 
decreased from 182,838 in 1948 to 150,437 
in 1957. The leading accident categories 
in 1957 were: handling goods (27.4 per 
cent), power-driven machinery (15.8 yer 
cent), and persons falling (13.8 per cent). 

Accidents at Building Operations 

The number of accidents at building 
operations in 1957 was 14,568, showing 
little change from figures for recent years. 
Falls are the main cause of accidents in 
this industry; a high proportion of acci- 
dents resulting from falls in connection with 
demolition work are fatal — 7.55 per cent of 
falls during demolition work were fatal in 
1957, compared with 1.9 per cent for all 
falls in connection with building operations. 
Accidents due to the fall or collapse of the 
sides of excavations were fatal in 5.6 per 
cent of cases, compared with fatalities of 
1.07 per cent for all building accidents. 

Electrical Accidents 

During 1957 there were 687 electrical 
accidents reported, a lower figure than in 
recent years, with 32 of them fatal. The 
number of electrical accidents associated 
with portable and transportable apparatus 
is a seriously large proportion of total 
electrical accidents each year; for fatal 
accidents in the former category the per- 
centage is 46; for all electrical accidents 
it is 32, excluding "eye-flash" injuries. A 
report, Electrical Accidents and their Causes, 
1957, is published separately. 

Nature and Site of Injury 

Machinery accidents, other than those 
caused by lifting machinery, most fre- 
quently caused hand and arm injuries; 79 
per cent of machinery injuries occurred 
to these parts of the body. 



Transport accidents were not concen- 
trated on any particular part of the body 
but about one-fifth of them involved the 
feet. This proportion was particularly high 
in the "non-rail" transport category, which 
includes the loading and unloading of goods 
onto vehicles. More extensive use of pro- 
tective footwear would result in a great 
reduction of injuries in this industry, the 
Report states. 

About 50 per cent of injuries due to hand 
tools were to hands and arms; hand tools 
also caused many head injuries, particularly 
to the eyes. 

Almost one-third of injuries caused by 
handling goods were to the trunk, and were 
mostly strains. 

Accident Frequency Rates 

Accident frequency rates are computed 
from returns submitted voluntarily by 
individual firms, and cover about 30 per 
cent of factory employees. The accident 
frequency rate is calculated as the number 
of lost-time accidents (disability beyond the 
day or shift of occurrence) per 100,000 
man-hours worked. The accident frequency 
rate of these firms declined by about 5i 
per cent, from 1.709 to 1.611, with a reduc- 
tion occurring in almost every industrial 
group. These figures, however, may not be 
typical of industry as a whole, because the 
firms submitting reports may include a 
higher proportion of the more safety con- 
scious, and are almost all among the larger 
production units; in addition, the figures 
relate to a much higher proportion of 
workers in some industries than in others. 

Industrial Health 

The number of cases of industrial poison- 
ing or disease reported was 516, including 
15 fatalities, compared with 492 cases and 
28 fatalities in 1956; there has been little 
change in the number of cases reported 
during the five years ending with 1957. The 
number of gassing accidents in 1957 was 
232, of which 22 were fatal, compared with 
236 accidents and 18 fatalities in 1956. 
A separate report on industrial health for 
1957 is summarized below. 

Developments of the Year 

Electrical and Chemical 

Safety codes for electrical control gear 
have in the past lagged behind the progress 
made in the general development of elec- 
trical equipment. Now, however, more 
attention is being given both by designers 
and on the factory floor, to the provision of 
safe and efficient methods for electrical 



702 



control of machinery that is either inherently 
dangerous or may become so under abnor- 
mal conditions. 

New automatic methods have resulted in 
potential dangers because some machines 
are not constantly attended. Photo-cell 
devices and gamma-ray interlock equipment 
have been introduced as safety measures 
to deal with these matters. 

An increasing number of "failure to 
safety" devices now ensure that if apparatus 
fails the "failed" condition is a safe con- 
dition. 

Flameproof battery trucks for transport- 
ing materials have been developed with 
special battery safety equipment. 

Recent developments in the oil industry 
have made available substantial quantities 
of light fuel oil known as primary flash 
distillate which can now be economically 
used in the production of town gas; because 
this fuel is volatile and has a low flash- 
point, the electrical equipment installed for 
the control and lighting of the plant has 
been receiving careful consideration. 

With reference to safety developments 
in the chemical field, a number of dangerous 
materials listed in the report have been 
replaced by others less dangerous. New 
types of respirators have also been developed 
against dust. 

Ionizing Radiations 

The hazard of ionizing radiations con- 
tinues to increase as industry makes greater 
use of radioactive sources. It is estimated 
that 85 per cent of such factories use sealed 
sources of radiation (x-rays are included). 
A draft code published in 1957 to safe- 
guard workers using sealed sources is dealt 
with in more detail in the summary of the 
report on industrial health below. 

Engineering 

Research and development have continued 
in connection with the fencing of die-casting 
machines and injection moulding machines, 
and the control and elimination of dust in 
foundries. In the design of nuclear power 
stations a great deal of attention is being 
given to the development of introscopes, 
television cameras and other devices which 
will allow remote inspection of internal 
surfaces in stations where there is a high 
level of radioactivity. The replacement of 
wrought iron chain, chain slings and other 
lifting appliances by appliances made of 
steel is making rapid progress. 

In the building industry several special 
scaffolds have been developed which can 
be erected quickly and easily. Pre-stressed 
concrete has been increasingly used in 



recent years; the accidents resulting from 
this have necessitated new accident preven- 
tion techniques. 

General Factory Conditions 

In industry generally, the Chief Inspector 
considered that there is insufficient appre- 
ciation of the legal requirments relating to 
first aid and emphasized that whatever the 
size of the factory the employer should see 
that a qualified person is in charge of the 
first aid services. 

More could also be done, the Report 
states, to control dust in factories, and the 
following precautions are suggested: 

Movement of the material should be reduced 
to a minimum by careful planning of the 
sequence and layout of the operations in the 
process. The method of transporting the material 
should be carefully chosen, bearing in mind the 
need to avoid unnecessarily vigorous movement. 
If practicable, the material should be made 
moist and this should be done as early as 
possible in the chain of operations. All con- 
tainers for material in transit should completely 
enclose the material; they should be impervious 
to dust, strong enough to resist damage and 
designed to prevent spillage. Conveyors should 
be totally enclosed and as in the case of all 
enclosed plant, it is often desirable to apply 
draught in order to maintain a negative pressure 
inside the enclosure and to prevent leakages; 
this is particularly important at transfer points 
in the conveyor system. Where access is required 
for filling hoppers or sacks, and also where 
containers are filled manually, points where 
dust may arise should be enclosed as far as 
possible and adequate exhaust draught applied 
to the enclosure. General cleanliness is most 
important and any spillage should be cleaned 
up immediately, preferably by using suction 
apparatus. 

The Report also points out that in the 
steel industry, expansion has resulted in 
greatly improved working conditions and 
welfare facilities in the new factories and 
extensions. 

Safety, Health and Welfare Organizations 

The Report outlines developments during 
the year in a number of organizations in 
industry and outside whose objective is the 
promotion of industrial safety, health and 
welfare. The British Safety Council, which 
aims to provide its members with various 
services, including a regular supply of 
posters and advisory literature, was estab- 
lished during the year. The Accident Pre- 
vention Committee of the Iron and Steel 
Federation has published reports on the 
safe coupling of ingot casting cars and scrap 
pan bogies, the prevention of gassing acci- 
dents, and the safe operation of bar reeling 
and straightening machines; it has also set 
up three sub-committees to consider acci- 
dents in hand mills, industrial health and 
medical supervision in the industry, and 



72787-5— 4* 



703 



crane accidents. The Accident Prevention 
Committee of the Aluminium Council gave 
special attention to precautions necessary in 
the handling of aluminium paste and pow- 
der. The Wool and Allied Textile Em- 
ployers' Council set up subcommittees to 
consider the fencing of rag grinders, woollen 
and worsted carding machines, gill boxes, 
looms and other textile machinery. 

Legislation 

Several new and revised safety codes were 
under consideration in 1957, including draft 
regulations concerning Building (Safety, 
Health and Welfare) (Amendment), Power 
Presses, Ionizing Radiations, Shipbuilding 
and Ship-Repairing, and Abrasive Wheels. 
The Work in Compressed Air Special Regu- 
lations were completed during the year and 
issued in January 1958. 

Research 

The Department continued to co-operate 
with outside bodies and individuals in 
research in connection with field tests of 
apparatus, plant and processes used in 
industry; this has resulted in considerable 
progress in accident prevention, in the main- 
tenance of industrial health and in the 
development of safe practices. 

Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research 

During 1957, the Department of Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research* did work on 
fire research, including factors influencing 
the ignition and development of flame and 
pressure build-up in mixtures of air with 
dust or inflammable vapours and gases; ex- 
plosion relief and flame arresters for use in 
plant where explosions of gas or vapour 
may occur; dangers in transfer of liquid 
petroleum gases from stock cylinders to 
small portable cylinders; smouldering of 
inflammable dusts; materials and techniques 
of fire extinction; and the spontaneous heat- 
ing and ignition of pyrites. 

The DSIR also conducted research in 
connection with the use of braided and 
similar slings, with the result that a formula 
of design and safe-working load determina- 
tion has been evolved. In addition, the 
DSIR carried out research on the safety of 
builders' plant and in the design of factory 
buildings as related to the safety and health 
requirements for factory personnel. 

*A Department of the Privy Council responsible 
for non-defence research in the national interest in 
all branches of natural science except medicine and 
atomic energy and in all industries except agricul- 
ture, fishing and forestry. Its research in the safety 
field has been of great value to the Factory Depart- 
ment. 



Industrial Research Associations 

A number of industrial research associa- 
tions have continued to do much useful 
research in connection with safety. The 
Report refers to the work of several of 
them, including, Electrical Research Asso- 
ciation, British Welding Research Associa- 
tion, British Cast Iron Research Association, 
British Steel Casting Research Association, 
British Cotton Industry Research Associa- 
tion, and the British Ceramic Research 
Association. 

Universities and Technical Colleges 

The Report draws attention to the safety 
research work performed by universities and 
technical colleges on such subjects as the 
general problems of the electrification of 
dust and other materials, including explo- 
sives; the investigation of ligament stresses 
in steam boiler drums; the problems of dust 
collection and removal in the foundry indus- 
try; and heating and ventilation problems 
outside the foundry industry. 

Other Safety Research 

The Report refers also to the safety 
research being done by the nationalized 
industries and statutory bodies, and deals 
specifically with the Atomic Energy Au- 
thority, the Central Electricity Generating 
Board, and the Gas Board. 

Many industrial associations, which exist 
to promote the welfare of their industry, 
continued to give assistance during the year 
in matters of accident prevention and the 
maintenance of industrial health by research 
in the design of machinery, machinery 
safety devices, process dangers and control 
of processes, and statistics concerning the 
causes of accidents and ill-health. The 
Report refers to several of these associations 
and their research activities. 

Various individual companies and em- 
ployers also made substantial contributions 
to safety and health research in connection 
with such matters as pressure vessels, lifting 
and carrying appliances, production machin- 
ery, transport, thermal environment in non- 
ferrous foundries, ventilation and ventilating 
apparatus, bakery machinery and wool tex- 
tile machinery. 

Safety Training 

The Report points out that it is only 
through systematic training and the stimula- 
tion of co-operation between workers and 
management that new habits of safety can 
be formed among workers and safety con- 
sciousness encouraged. It examines four 
main fields in which safety training has 



704 



recently been developed: technical colleges 
and schools, training in industry, safety 
training centres, and the job safety courses 
for trainers of supervisors developed by 
the Training Department of the Ministry 
of Labour. 

Technical Colleges and Schools 

The Report on Industrial Accident Preven- 
tion by the Industrial Safety Sub-Committee 
of the National Joint Advisory Council, 
published in 1956, made a number of sug- 
gestions about ways in which technical 
colleges and schools could contribute to the 
avoidance of accidents in industry; as a 
result, there has been increased collabora- 
tion in the matter of industrial safety 
between these educational institutions and 
the Factory Department. 

Discussions have also been held with 
the Ministry of Education's Inspectorate of 
Schools with the object of establishing closer 
contact between Inspectors of Schools and 
Inspectors of Factories in order to encour- 
age safety training in technical colleges and 
schools. 

The Report states that a high percentage 
of accidents are due to incorrect methods 
of handling goods. Physical education 
instructors can assist in considerably reduc- 
ing these accidents by giving instruction in 
connection with this matter in the schools. 

Training in Industry 

Safety training should be given to every 
worker, especially the apprentice or other 
young worker, when he begins a new job, 
and employers have been encouraged to do 
so. Many firms have induction courses 
which include instruction in safety matters. 
The curriculum of many training schools 
established by the nationalized industries 
and other branches of industry also include 
courses in accident prevention. Group 
training in safety has been tried by some 
organizations engaged in engineering, dress- 
goods manufacture, and cotton manufacture. 
To stimulate the interest of young people 
in safety, one works appoints two trainees 
in turn to serve on the Works Safety Com- 
mittee. 

Safety training is important not only for 
the young worker but also for others who 
may be entering industry for the first time 
or changing jobs. There is also a need for 
refresher courses, especially in some indus- 
tries where certain specific drills should be 
followed to prevent danger. 

Safety Training Centres 

Many firms are unable to conduct their 
own safety training courses. For these, 
the Industrial Safety Training Centre at 



Birmingham, organized in 1953 by the 
Birmingham and District Industrial Safety 
Group, provides practical safety training 
for general foremen, supervisory staff and 
apprentices in particular trades. Workers 
come to these courses from all parts of the 
country. It is believed to be the only centre 
of its kind in Europe. 

Job Safety Courses 

The Report on Industrial Accident Pre- 
vention recommended that a special safety 
training course incorporating Training 
Within Industry methods should be pro- 
vided for trainers of supervisors. A program 
for this course was developed by the Train- 
ing Department of the Ministry of Labour, 
and a number of courses were conducted 
during 1957, both for the Ministry's T.W.I. 
Training Officers and for representatives of 
32 firms. The representatives of these firms 
held job safety training courses for about 
500 supervisors, and there is already clear 
evidence that they are an effective way to 
stimulate interest in safety training and to 
help industry increase the safety conscious- 
ness of workers. Further courses were being 
planned. 

Activities of the Department 

The Report on Industrial Accident Pre- 
vention also recommended that a wider and 
more attractive range of publications should 
be provided by the Department. As a result, 
a new and revised program for publications 
has been drawn up. During 1957 new 
publications included reports on conditions 
in non-ferrous foundries, safety in the use 
of power presses, and dust in cardrooms. 

During the year the Department main- 
tained close contact with various accident 
prevention organizations, and its members 
served on numerous departmental, inter- 
departmental, industrial and other com- 
mittees. One of these committees, of which 
the Chief Inspector was a member, was 
the atomic energy Health and Safety Com- 
mittee whose function was to review the 
organization within the Atomic Energy 
Authority as a whole for control of health 
and safety, and to make recommendations. 
This Committee's report was published as 
a White Paper (Cmd. 342). 

The Chief Inspector also reports on the 
activities of the Industrial Health Advisory 
Committee, Industrial Safety Sub-Committee 
of the National Joint Advisory Council, and 
the Joint Advisory Committee on Safety 
and Health in the Building and Civil En- 
gineering Industries. In addition, he reviews 
the progress of Joint Standing and Joint 
Advisory Committees set up by him con- 
cerning safety, health and welfare matters 



705 



in connection with iron foundries, steel 
foundries, the drop forging industry, paper 
mills, power presses, the textile and cotton 
industries, and foundry goggles. 

Work continued on two industrial health 
surveys in 1957. One of these was a review 
of conditions affecting health in all factories 
in Halifax, and the other in the pot- 
tery industry. A report, Industrial Health: 
A Survey in Halifax, has been published 
and the pottery industry survey was almost 
completed at the end of 1957. 

A series of tables appended to the Report 
provides detailed statistics on accidents, 
dangerous occurrences, industrial diseases, 
gassing cases, dangerous trades, fitness for 
employment, prosecutions, and administra- 
tion of the Factories Act. 

1957 Report on Industrial Health 

The 1957 Annual Report of the Chief 
Inspector of Factories on Industrial Health 
has been published separately for the first 
time, a practice to be followed in future. 
It contains three main sections: a review of 
the year; industrial diseases, poisoning and 
gassing; and industrial dermatitis. 

In the first section, there is information 
on the draft of the Factories (Ionizing 
Radiations) Special Regulations, mentioned 
in the summary of the main report. The 
purpose of these regulations is to protect 
the health of workers from ionizing radia- 
tions from sealed sources by adequately 
enclosing the source of radiation or by 
restricting access to it to a safe distance. 
In processes where adequate shielding is 
impracticable, the source is shielded as 
much as possible and the time a person is 
exposed to radiation is kept within safe 
limits. The draft also provides for regular 
medical examinations and for recording the 
doses of radiation received by workers. A 
committee was also planning to prepare 
draft regulations for unsealed sources of 
radiation. 

In 1957, the Minister set up a Committee 
of Inquiry to consider precautions against 
anthrax. 

During 1957 also, the Pneumoconiosis 
Research Unit of the Medical Research 
Council in collaboration with the Ministry 
and other bodies conducted a survey in 
Staveley, a town with a high proportion 
of foundry workers. A census was taken 
to determine the number of men aged 55 
to 64 and 25 to 34 in the population and 
their occupation. Representative samples 
of those age groups, stratified by occupation, 
were medically examined and given phy- 
siological and radiological tests. 



The third interim report of the Joint 
Advisory Committee of the Cotton Industry 
on "Dust in Card Rooms" was published 
in 1957. It embodies the technical report 
on the Shirley Pressure-Point System, a 
method of removing the dust from carding 
engines. 

The first report of the Joint Standing 
Committee on Conditions in Non-ferrous 
Foundries was published in 1957. Among 
other matters, this report deals with the 
work done on heat radiation, resulting in 
a new design of furnace to prevent excessive 
radiation and exhaust dangerous fumes. 
This report also describes a device embody- 
ing the low volume high velocity method 
of dust extraction for portable grinding 
tools. A bibliography facilitates reference 
to all original work done in recent years 
on conditions in foundries. 

Two new methods of reducing the health 
hazard from lead were developed during 
the year. One was an automatic process 
for vitreous enamelling to improve control 
of the spray containing lead. The other 
was the use of air-line helmets by workers 
engaged in the mechanical discing of lead 
solder on motorcar bodies. A method of 
air-conditioning cabins for cranes used in 
connection with soaking pits of steel works 
was also developed. 

The Report also outlines methods of 
removing formaldehyde fumes from for- 
maldehyde-based resin used in making cot- 
ton cloths crease resistant. 

The section of the Report dealing with 
industrial diseases, poisoning and gassing 
relates mainly to case histories. In regard 
to workers exposed to ionizing radiations 
in luminising and other open sources, the 
Report states that air-borne contamination 
as indicated by spotting of film badges, 
especially in luminising establishments, still 
causes considerable concern. Clinical evid- 
ence of harmful effects, however, was slight. 
With respect to sealed sources of ionizing 
radiations, only one of 179 workers exam- 
ined showed clinical effects considered to 
be due to radiation. 

The annual figures for gassing accidents 
have varied little during the postwar period. 
However, the number of accidents due to 
carbon monoxide, the greatest single cause 
of gassing accidents, was the lowest in 
20 years, continuing the decline begun in 
1954. 

The section of the Report dealing with 
industrial dermatitis presents nothing new, 
but consolidates information on its cause 
and prevention. 



706 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



Ontario Plans New School for Deaf 

To cost $3,000,000, the new institution, second in the province, will be built 
at Milton, equidistant from Toronto, Hamilton and Guelph, and in the beginning 
will accommodate 250 pupils. Vancouver plans new service centre for the blind 



A $3,000,000 school for the deaf is to 
be built at Milton by the Ontario Govern- 
ment, Education Minister Dunlop and Public 
Works Minister Connell have announced 
Milton is in the centre of a triangle formed 
by Toronto, Hamilton and Guelph, being 
about 20 miles from each city. 

The school will be the second such 
institution in Ontario, the first being at 
Belleville. There is accommodation for 
445 students at the Belleville school; the 
new school will at first be able to accept 
250 pupils, but there will be provision for 
expansion. 

The announcement said that construction 
of a second school is necessary because it 
is undesirable to increase the size of the 
one at Belleville, already one of the largest 
in North America. "Present accommoda- 
tion makes it necessary to limit the admis- 
sion to those who are at least five years of 
age, but it is hoped when the new school 
is opened to reduce appreciably the age 
of admission to both schools," the Minis- 
ters said. 



A new $500,000 service centre for the 
blind which is to be built near Queen 
Elizabeth Hall in Vancouver, and is due to 
be finished next spring, will enable the 
Canadian National Institute for the Blind 
to employ about double the 25 persons it 
now employs on assembly jobs, said Capt. 
M. C. Robinson, Western Director for the 
CNIB, in a recent interview. 

Capt. Robinson said that blind persons 
could do many "nuisance jobs" which 
industry did not want to undertake. These 
included folding and stapling operations, 
packaging jobs and threading nuts on bolts. 

The centre will have a modern rehabili- 
tation section that will serve all blind 
persons in the province. Trainees will live 
at the Queen Elizabeth residence while 
learning to become accustomed to the loss 
of sight. In the centre's hobby shop the 
making of household repairs will be taught, 
and there will be a model kitchen for blind 
housewives. The centre will also have an 
auditorium, dining room, club, social and 
conference rooms, and storage for supplies 
for concession stands operated by the blind. 



Corridors in the building will have 
rounded corners and stairs will have special 
guards. There will be railings throughout 
the building. 

* * * 

A reorganization of health and welfare 
services in British Columbia that will 
involve the creation of a new department, 
Health Services and Hospital Insurance, has 
been announced. The new department will 
be made up of three branches: Health 
Services Branch, Mental Health Services 
Branch, and Hospital Insurance Branch. 

The Minister, Hon. Eric Martin, has a 
deputy minister for each branch of the 
Department. The Deputy Minister of 
Health Services is Dr. G. F. Amyot; Dr. 
A. E. Davidson is Deputy Minister of 
Mental Health Services, and Donald Cox 
is Deputy Minister of Hospital Insurance. 

The Welfare Branch, which was formerly 
linked with the Health Branch in the now 
dissolved Department of Health and Wel- 
fare, has been organized as the Department 
of Social Welfare under Hon. W. D. Black. 
E. R. Rickinson continues to serve as 
Deputy Minister of Welfare. 

Around the Provinces 

A new Rehabilitation Department in St. 
Vincent's Hospital, Ottawa, is equipped to 
deal with arthritic, paraplegic, hemiplegic, 
and neurological patients, as well as those 
who suffer from heart disease and other 
ailments. It is staffed by an experienced 
group of specialists in all branches of 
therapy, as well as social workers and 
volunteer helpers. 

The Canadian Council for Crippled Chil- 
dren and Adults announced in April the 
appointment of John P. van Soeren as 
Executive Director of Rehabilitation Serv- 
ices for the Co-ordinating Council for 
Crippled Children (Alberta) and for the 
Alberta Chapter of the Canadian Founda- 
tion for Poliomyelitis and Rehabilitation. 
Mr. van Soeren studied social sciences at 
Amsterdam University. He served as a 
Red Cross officer in The Netherlands, and 
in 1949 he was employed by the United 
Nations Refugee Organization as a re-estab- 
lishment officer in the United States zone 
of occupied Austria. 



707 



Older Workers 



Some Solutions to Older Worker Problem 

Regional conference of Public Personnel Association hears Len Douse of the 
Department of Labour describe efforts— by workers, employers and governments 
at all levels— that are needed to reach solutions to the older worker problem 



The older worker problem and what 
might be done to solve it — by the workers, 
employers, and governments at all levels — 
was discussed by Len Douse of the Depart- 
ment of Labour during a panel discussion 
at the Eastern Regional Conference of the 
Public Personnel Association. 

"Solutions to the many smaller problems 
involved in the larger over-all problem will 
be found only by the co-operative efforts of 
governments at all levels, industry, organized 
labour, voluntary organizations, and the 
sincere desire of the older worker himself 
to become more qualified to meet the 
demands of today's jobs," he said. 

North American populations are ageing, 
during the earlier part of the 20th Century 
at a fairly rapid rate. The percentage of 
the population in the United States aged 
45 and over rose from 17.8 per cent in 1900 
to 28.4 per cent in 1950, an increase of 
roughly 60 per cent in 50 years. The 
increase in the next seven years, from 1950 
to 1957, was from 28.4 to 28.9 per cent, 
far below that in the first 50 years of the 
century. Canadian experience was similar, 
Mr. Douse reported. 

This century's "accent on youth" resulted 
in the raising of barriers against the em- 
ployment of older workers. "Is it economic- 
ally possible to maintain a high standard 
of living if increasing numbers of older 
people are rejected or forced prematurely 
to withdraw from the productive section 
of society?" he asked. 

If the ability to consume goods and services 
add to the productivity of a nation, and the 
burden of taxation for these is sharply curtailed 
among the older segment of the population, 
the burden to be borne by the younger section 
of the productive population is sharply in- 
creased. If, at the same time, at the other 
end of the age-scale more young people are 
staying at school longer, the productive section 
of society that is carrying the bulk of the load 
gets smaller while the load gets heavier. 

Mr. Douse pointed out that the costs of 
Canada's old age security program and old 
age assistance are estimated at $630,000,000 
a year. 

It is quite plain, he said, that the most 
effective means of coping with this situation 
is to keep as many older persons as possible 
working and producing. A worker who is 
not steadily employed during the last 20 
to 25 years of his normal working life is 



likely to become a welfare case at age 
65, with the consequent added burden on 
the public purse. 

It has been found, Mr. Douse reported, 
that workers aged 45 to 64 who become 
unemployed have more difficulty finding 
jobs than younger workers. This fact raised 
two questions: (1) Does this mean that 
employers are becoming more prejudiced 
in favour of younger workers and more 
discriminatory against older workers? or 
(2) Does it mean that the workers in the 
45-64 age-group are not as well qualified 
for employment as workers in other age- 
groups? He did not know the answer. 

For years it was thought that employers' 
attitudes were the big obstacle to the 
employment of older workers. But in inter- 
views with employers he found that 90 
per cent of those he questioned thought the 
older worker was a satisfactory employee, 
as good as or better than younger col- 
leagues. 

Perhaps part of the difficulty an older 
worker has in getting a job lies in the fact 
that he is presenting to employers the 
standards of 15 to 20 years ago, which 
today are not considered adequate, he 
suggested. 

If this supposition is true, it means that 
educational efforts must be directed at 
workers to encourage them to keep up 
with the times and prepare themselves by 
training and education for present-day jobs. 
It means that employers must be encouraged 
to provide training on the job so that their 
employees can become more proficient and 
thus less likely to layoff. It means that 
public authorities, working in co-operation 
with Industry and Labour, must assume a 
certain amount of the responsibility for 
providing educational and vocational train- 
ing facilities. 

Ways must be found, Mr. Douse con- 
cluded, to surmount the obstacles to employ- 
ment of older workers raised by certain 
types of pension plans. 

Research must be stimulated to identify 
those jobs that older workers can do as 
well as or better than younger workers. 
And research is needed in the field of 
re-engineering and re-design of jobs for 
older workers. 



708 



Women's Bureau 



Homemaker Services in the United States 

Number of agencies providing homemaker services in the United States is slowly 
increasing but survey discloses need for expansion in the training of visiting 
homemakers. Indian Government publishes study of trends in women's employment 



Because of new developments in visiting 
homemaker services in Canada (L.G., 
March, p. 265), the conclusions of a recent 
study* of homemaker services carried out 
by the United States Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare are of interest: 

"The number of agencies providing 
homemaker services in the United States 
has been slowly increasing, to about 150 
at the end of 1958. The number of home- 
makers employed is small, less than 2,000. 
Yet this is an occupation where there is 
no shortage of available personnel. Nearly 
every community has large numbers of 
women experienced in homemaking who 
could be trained in a few weeks to provide 
direct home help services to families. 

"About 14,000 families were provided 
with homemaker services during 1957. 
About 2,200 families were served during 
one week early in 1958. In three out of five 
families the homemakers provide care for 
children; the others are adult families. 
Although in theory many agencies consider 
that their service is available to all economic 
groups the study shows that almost all of 
the service is to low-income families. To 
meet the needs of adult families as well 
as families with children, in all economic 
groups, requires considerable expansion of 
the present volume of services. New pro- 
grams will have to be developed and sup- 
ported if care is to be provided for even 
a small fraction of our rapidly growing 
population. 

"Four out of five families served by 
homemakers have sick or aged persons at 
home. Homemaker service can become an 
antidote for extended hospital, nursing 
home, or other institutional care for sick 
or aged persons and for unnecessary foster- 
care placements for children. From the 
viewpoint of both the family and the com- 
munity this service, while not a panacea, 
can become an important means of main- 
taining family life which is threatened with 
disruption by illness, death, or other serious 
problems." 



* Homemaker Services in the United States, 1958, 
A Nationwide Study, Public Health Service Publica- 
tion No. 644, United States Government Printing 
Office, Washington, 1958. 



Women's Employment in India 

A study of trends in the development of 
the employment of women in India between 
1901 and 1956 has recently been made by 
agencies of the Government of India.* 

A steady decline in the proportion of 
women in non-agricultural employment is 
the most striking tendency noted during the 
period. Industrialization has tended to alter 
the nature of women's employment in 
cities; in some instances the introduction 
of high-speed machinery has reduced the 
number of women employed by three- 
quarters. Legal restrictions on women's 
employment adopted since Independence are 
cited as a factor contributing to the decrease 
in the numbers of women employed, 
especially in heavy labour. 

A recent survey of manufacturing 
indicates that large numbers of women are 
at the present time employed in the ground- 
nut decorticating industry, tobacco and 
match manufacturing, cotton ginning, rice 
milling, fruit and vegetable processing and 
brick and lime manufacturing. In most 
cases women are employed in unskilled and 
semi-skilled work. 

The employment of women in agriculture 
has not been so affected by mechanization, 
with the result that at the present time 
activities related to farming occupy more 
than 80 per cent of the total women's 
labour force. 

The report records considerable improve- 
x ment, however, in the employment status 
of women in general in recent years. 
Women are more often found in public life; 
and increasing numbers are becoming 
teachers, nurses, radio officials, social serv- 
ice and community development workers, 
lawyers, business and commercial shop 
assistants and clerical workers. Most of 
these opportunities are developing for 
women in the literate middle classes. 

The report forecasts that industrializa- 
tion, with the related economic, social and 
cultural changes, will help to create more 
favourable attitudes on the part of em- 
ployers and of the general public towards 
women's participation in economic activity. 

* Women in Employment (1901-1956), Government 
of India, New D'elhi, August, 1958. 



709 



From the labour Gazette, July 1909 

50 Years Ago This Month 

Recovery from previous year's recession apparently complete by June 1909, and 
scarcity of labour reported in some centres. Several wage increases reported 



By June 1909, partly under the influence 
of good prospects for farm crops, industry 
generally appeared to have recovered from 
the recession that began towards the end 
of 1907. A number of reports of wage 
increases were published in the Labour 
Gazette for July 1909. 

Unskilled labour had been well absorbed 
in most parts of the country at the end 
of June. A scarcity was reported in a few 
centres, largely owing to the heavy demand 
for men in railway construction and on 
civic improvements. 

Plumbers in Hull, Que., had their wages 
increased from 33 to 35 cents an hour, and 
steamfitters from 38 to 40 cents an hour. 
Sheet metal workers in Ottawa received 
an increase of 5 cents an hour, which 
brought their rate to 30 cents. They were 
allowed Saturday afternoon off. Streetcar 
employees in Quebec City received an 
increase of 1 cent an hour. Teamsters em- 
ployed by the City of Ottawa had their 
wages increased from $3.85 to $4.32 a day. 
Corporation labourers in Sault Ste. Marie 
received an increase of 25 cents, which 
brought their wage to $2 a day. Wages 
of street railway labourers in Hamilton 
advanced to 17 cents from 15 cents an 
hour. 

An agreement between the Times and 
Herald Printing Companies of Hamilton, 
effective January 10, gave compositors, 
admen, makeups, bankmen, headingmen, 
and proofreaders on evening newspapers 
not less than $16 a week at January 1, 1909; 
$16.50 at January 1, 1910; and $17 in the 
same month of the following year. Over- 
time work was to be paid at time and a 
half. 

An agreement between shipping com- 
panies and longshoremen in Montreal for 
the season of 1909 gave a schedule of wages 
which ranged from 27 i cents an hour to 
37 i cents an hour. Sunday work was to be 
paid at double time. 

An agreement between the Builders' 
Exchange of the County of Waterloo, 
Ontario, and the Bricklayers, Masons and 
Plasterers Union gave wage rates which 
began at 40 cents an hour on July 1, 1909, 
and reached 45 cents an hour on May 1, 
1911, this latter rate continuing in force 
until April 30, 1912. Hours of work were 
nine hours a day from the date of the 



agreement until April 30, 1911, and eight 
hours thereafter. 

A strike of about 100 labourers employed 
on the excavation for "the proposed Grand 
Trunk Railway Hotel at Ottawa" occurred 
on June 4. The men demanded an increase 
of 25 cents a day to bring their wage to 
$1.75 for a 10-hour day. "The company 
refused the demand and in a few days it 
was reported to the department that all the 
men required had been secured by the com- 
pany at the old rate of wage. The wages 
asked by the men are current on corpora- 
tion work in the city of Ottawa and it was 
understood that most of those concerned 
found employment in that way," the Labour 
Gazette reported. 

A dining room for workmen employed 
by the McClary Stove Company, London, 
was opened in June. The men were pro- 
vided with hot water and towels, and tea, 
coffee and the necessary dishes were sup- 
plied free. Periodicals, playing cards and 
a quoiting ground were also provided. "The 
action of the firm is an effort to improve 
the health conditions of the men," the 
Gazette said. "Formerly they were in the 
habit of staying in the workrooms and 
eating their lunch in the odours that are 
a necessary adjunct of certain processes. 
Now the men are compelled to leave the 
works promptly at noon and are not per- 
mitted back again until 12.45." 

The Fourth Quinquennial Congress of 
the International Council of Women was 
opened in Toronto on June 24, 1909. The 
Honorary President of the National Coun- 
cil of Women of Canada, Lady Edgar, 
occupied the chair; and the opening meeting 
was addressed by Her Excellency, Lady 
Grey, and by the Countess of Aberdeen, 
President of the International Council of 
Women. The sessions continued until 
June 30. 

The International Council of Women had 
been formed in Washington in 1888, and 
had its first quinquennial meeting in Chicago 
in 1893. 

The objects of the Council were stated 
by the Labour Gazette to be: "(a) To 
promote greatest unity of thought, sym- 
pathy, and purpose between women workers 
of all classes, parties, and creeds; (b) To 
further the application of the Golden Rule 
to society, custom and law." 



710 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



Canadians Address ILO Conference 

Government, Worker and Employer Delegates all participate in debate on ILO 
Director-General's Report. Seventy-tour countries represented at 43rd Session 



The head of the Canadian delegation, the 
Canadian Worker Delegate to the 43rd 
Session of the International Labour Con- 
ference, which opened on June 3, have all 
spoken in the debate on the ILO Director- 
General's report. Seventy-four of the eighty 
ILO member countries have sent more than 
800 representatives to the meeting: 276 
delegates and 530 technical advisers. 

Head of the Canadian delegation is 
George V. Haythorne, Assistant Deputy 
Minister of Labour. The Worker Delegate 
is Stanley Knowles, an Executive Vice- 
President of the Canadian Labour Congress, 
and the Employer Delegate is W. A. Camp- 
bell, Vice-President and Secretary, Cana- 
dian Westinghouse Company Limited. 

Commenting on the opinion expressed 
in the Director-General's Report that reces- 
sions result largely from insufficient demand 
for goods and services, Mr. Haythorne said 
that this analysis was not entirely adequate 
to explain the relatively high level of unem- 
ployment in Canada over the past two 
years. "There was only a slight decline 
in general demand in Canada over this 
period," he pointed out. 

"A more important factor was an increase 
in the labour force much larger than usually 
occurs." 

Mr. Haythorne reminded delegates that at 
last year's conference a resolution concern- 
ing measures to promote employment and 
action against unemployment was sub- 
mitted by the Government of Canada. The 
resolution, adopted by the Conference with 
only one opposing vote, had been observed 
in both spirit and letter by the Canadian 
Government. 

He told the Conference of the National 
Winter Employment Conference held last 
July and of the Municipal Winter Works 
Incentive Program under which the federal 
Government during the winter months paid 
half of the total wage cost on projects 
undertaken by municipal governments that 
would not normally have been carried out 
during the winter. 



The program, in effect from December 1, 
1958 to May 31, 1959, provided employ- 
ment for more than 40,000 workers on-site, 
and many more off-site, on a large number 
of individual projects throughout the coun- 
try, he reported. 

Substantial moneys were made available 
by the federal Government to the housing 
industry, thus helping to have a record 
number of houses built in 1958. 

Social security payments had been in- 
creased; fiscal policies had been amended 
and continued efforts had been made to 
liberalize and expand international trade. 

Such measures, along with those taken 
by companies, industries and other groups, 
had made a positive contribution towards 
increasing employment which, following a 
slight dip in 1958, had continued to increase 
for some months until it was once again 
at a record level. 




— Garnet Hollington, NFB 

George V. Haythorne 



711 




— Rapid Grip and Batten. 

Stanley Knowles 

In answer to references to Canada's 
unemployment made by other speakers — 
"including some delegates from Eastern 
European countries" — Mr. Haythorne noted 
that the Canadian Government, in common 
with a number of others, has, in co-opera- 
tion with industries and those who work 
in them, amassed much more experience 
over recent years in dealing with ups and 
downs in economic activity on one hand, 
and with providing a large measure of sup- 
port to those who find themselves without 
jobs on the other. 

"These improvements in dealing with 
economic and employment fluctuations are 
being made, moreover, without any basic 
interference with individual freedom. The 
measures taken are also providing and 
bringing about a growing confidence on 
the part of Canadians that it is possible 
to deal with such matters effectively without 
individuals' suffering the hardships of earlier 
years," he declared. 

At the end of his address, Mr. Haythorne 
announced that the Canadian Parliament 
had, in June 1959, expressed its approval 
of the Abolition of Forced Labour Conven- 
tion, 1957, adopted at the Conference two 
years ago. 

Stanley Knowles 

Mr. Knowles, the Worker Delegate, also 
spoke of employment and unemployment 
in Canada. 

During the winter of 1957 to 1958, he 
noted, unemployment reached what was at 



that time a postwar peak. The usual sub- 
stantial pick-up in the summer months did 
not materialize during 1958 and by Novem- 
ber there were 65,000 more Canadians out 
of work than there had been a year earlier. 
In the early months of the past winter the 
number of jobless continued to increase and 
in January 1959 a new postwar unemploy- 
ment record was created: there were 538,000 
persons without jobs and seeking work, or 
nearly 9 per cent of the labour force. 

One change from the "regular" unem- 
ployment pattern had occurred during the 
year, Mr. Knowles observed. "The peak 
period of unemployment in 1959 occurred 
some weeks earlier than has usually been 
the case". It appeared, he said, that the 
movement out of the depth of the recession 
was under way. 

There was, however, a very substantial 
portion of Canada's labour force without 
work, he said, and quoted from the CLC's 
brief to the Cabinet in January this year 
(L.G., March, p. 246). 

We are not willing, and we do not think 
governments or employers or the public should 
be willing, to accept mass seasonal unemploy- 
ment as an inevitable feature of the Canadian 
economy. We cannot and will not accept the 
doctrine that governments are helpless in the 
face of unemployment. 

In its memorandum to the Government, 
the CLC had also dealt with "the efforts that 
have been made to pin the responsibility 
for inflation on labour," Mr. Knowles con- 
tinued. "We believe it is high time to call 
a halt to the popularly accepted legend 
that labour's legitimate demands for a better 
life are the cause of all the economic ills 
of our time. 

"Let us instead expose to public scrutiny 
certain factors that really produce inflation, 
such as administered prices and the credit 
and investment policies of our non-banking 
financial institutions," he said. 

In our part of the world we have rising 
unemployment and rising prices, he noted, 
which economists have taught us to believe 
do not go together. The economists' defini- 
tion of inflation — too much money chasing 
too few goods — may have to be changed, 
he suggested. "Today's inflation is a case 
of our people not having enough money to 
buy back the abundance of goods they are 
producing." 

Those of us who advocate higher wages and 
shorter hours; those of us who advocate higher 
pensions and the extension of public services 
in health and education are not proposing 
measures that will wreck our economy. These 
are measures that will do what has to be done; 
they will help to distribute today's abundance. 
They are measures that will make our economy 
work, and, best of all, they will make it work 
to meet human needs. 



712 



Because they know that only by raising 
living standards the world around can we 
make democracy secure and achieve a 
peace that will last, Canadian workers urge 
participation in "vast and imaginative pro- 
grams of assistance to underdeveloped 
areas". 

Speaking on the portion of the Director- 
General's Report dealing with the accept- 
ance of trade unions, Mr. Knowles noted 
that in Canada a very substantial number, 
perhaps the majority, of legitimate em- 
ployers and the majority of provincial 
governments — "which in our country have 
jurisdiction over labour relations for a large 
proportion of our people" — have accepted 
the existence of legitimate trade unions as 
a normal and appropriate feature of our 
economic and political life. 

"However, I am sorry to say that in this 
year 1959 we in Canada are still engaged 
in the battle for legal recognition and for 
the right to bargain collectively with some 
of our powerful corporations." 

He noted that Canadians had for many 
years prided themselves on the fact that 
by and large the battle for union recognition 
had been won in Canada; that Canadians 
are proud of their democratic institutions, 
of the high degree of political consciousness 
prevailing in the country, of the fact that 
many Canadian employers recognize that 
trade unions are permanent fixtures, and 
of the fact that the official position of all 
the political parties gives full recognition 
to the right of labour to organize in 
independent and free trade unions. 

This past year, however, has witnessed a 
concentrated attack on the rights of labour in 
Canada. Although it is still not possible to 
deny workers the formal right to organize and 
bargain collectively, new administrative and 
legislative devices have been concocted which 
make a mockery of the very principles of 
freedom of association and free collective bar- 
gaining established by long practice in our 
country and codified in ILO Conventions and 
Recommendations. 

Canada's Worker Delegate referred "in 
particular" to the decertification by New- 
foundland legislation of the International 
Woodworkers of America and the legislation 
that "virtually gives the Government the 
authority to outlaw certain unions" in that 
province. He also referred to the enact- 
ment in British Columbia of a bill "aimed 
at making strikes ineffective, prohibiting 
the publication of information about unfair 
labour practices of employers and laying 
unions open to damage suits for the acts of 
any member . . . This bill incorporates the 
presumption of guilt on the part of unions 
until the opposite is proven." 

The very principle of consultation with 
labour, "which we have come to regard 




W. A. Campbell 

as an accepted practice in Canada" is being 
challenged, Mr. Knowles declared. "Inter- 
pretations are being given to the term 'con- 
sultation' which in effect nullify this long 
established practice in the relations between 
government and organized labour." 

W. A. Campbell 

The Employer Delegate, W. A. Campbell, 
said that any form of compulsory union 
membership in collective agreements, in- 
cluding compulsory check-off, should be 
prohibited by law. 

Compulsory union membership, he stated, 
is of very grave concern to employers and 
employees, including trade union members, 
and to the general public in Canada 
"because it involves a serious infringement 
of human rights". 

The speaker thought that the Director- 
General might have gone further in his 
Report this year, and made it abundantly 
clear that the ILO believes that it is a basic 
human right for all individuals not to join, 
as well as to join, a trade union. 

The right not to join is a necessary corollary 
of the right to join — for without a right not 
to join there can be no such a thing as a 
right to join. Moreover it might have been 
stated that no trade union should have the 
right arbitrarily to deny membership or em- 
ployment to an individual anywhere in the 
world. 

This aspect of union security, compulsory 
union membership, is one that transcends the 
ordinary collective bargaining relationship be- 
tween employers and employees. The right of 



713 



freedom of association and the right to employ- 
ment are fundamental human rights. It is 
inconsistent with the concept of democracy and 
civil liberties that they should be threatened or 
denied by private contract as they are in 
Canada and other countries. 

The controversy over compulsory union 
membership in the United States and the 
concern with this issue in other countries, 
to which the Director-General referred in 
his Report, is ample evidence of the need 
for legislative and social action, he con- 
tinued. 

"As I have said, the problem is not 
confined only to these countries. It exists 
in Canada, where, I might add, a further 
problem may be created by the advent of a 
new political party sponsored and organized 
by labour." 

This raises a further question concerning 
human rights he said. "When labour finan- 
cially supports a particular political party 
using unions' funds obtained by compulsory 
methods, such disposition of the dues of 
individual union members is indeed ques- 
tionable. In the face of labour's attempt 
to organize a political party in Canada, 
the President of one of our largest em- 
ployers' organizations and other manage- 
ment spokesmen have already indicated that 
employers will be ill-disposed to continue 
to collect union dues under compulsory 
check-off arrangements if some of the 
money is to be used to establish and sup- 
port the new political party." 

Mr. Campbell described as a progressive 
step the shift in emphasis in the ILO from 
the traditional activity of standard-setting 
to technical assistance, education and pro- 
motion activities, "for which there is a 
recognized need today". 

Canadian employers have noted that the 
establishment of an institute for the purpose 
of providing a centre for the ILO's educa- 
tional program is also being considered. 
"And we share in the compliment to 
Canada in the appointment of a former 
Canadian Minister of Labour, Hon. Milton 
Gregg, VC, as a special consultant in the 
organization and establishment of the pro- 
posed institute," he said. 

Mr. Campbell reiterated the opinion of 
Canadian employers that it should be suffi- 
cient to hold sessions of the Conference 
once in every two years instead of annually. 

U.S. Secretary of Labor 

Speaking during the debate on the 
Director-General's Report, the Secretary of 
Labor of the United States, James P. Mit- 
chell, told the delegates that although the 



U.S. economy was "again operating at 
record levels and although our unemploy- 
ment is receding, we are still confronted 
with the problem of maintaining reason- 
ably stable prices, while we attain the 
economic growth necessary for full employ- 
ment and higher living standards". 

Mr. Mitchell said that in the United 
States they recognized that the simultaneous 
achievement of their goals depended on the 
attitudes and actions of workers, and the 
unions that represented them, and of the 
attitudes and actions of employers as well 
as of governments. 

"But we are aware from the discussion 
here and elsewhere that reconciling growth, 
full employment, and price stability is a 
problem that challenges every country and 
every economy. And we know that lasting 
solutions can be found only by the full 
collaboration of free workers, independent 
managements, and their governments." 

Conference President 

Erik Dreyer, Permanent Secretary, Minis- 
try of Social Affairs in Denmark, was 
unanimously elected President of the 43 rd 
Session. Mr. Dreyer, who has represented 
his country at ILO meetings for several 
years, has taken part since 1924 in 23 
International Labour Conferences. 

In his address to the Conference, Mr. 
Dreyer referred to the ILO's "potential 
influence to promote better labour-manage- 
ment relations". He said there was a 
need for better co-operation between those 
engaged in production as workers and as 
managers in all countries, irrespective of 
differences in their political and economic 
institutions. 

"For the so-called underdeveloped coun- 
tries," he went on, "this question of 
co-operation is of vital interest, and the 
other countries are bound to do their best 
to help them in solving their problems. The 
more developed countries should put their 
own experience at the disposal of the others, 
but at the same time they should not lose 
sight of the fact that they themselves have 
by no means achieved a final solution. Much 
remains still to be done in this field in 
the more developed countries, and they too 
need the help of the ILO in this matter. 

"The ILO's role is, as I understand it, 
not to secure acceptance of any particular 
system of industrial relations, but to pro- 
mote a better understanding of methods of 
co-operation and an exchange of experience 
between different countries." 



714 



Appeals Board Gives Communist Delegates Right to Vote 



Against the opposition of the non-Com- 
munist delegates of the Employers' Group 
at the International Labour Conference, the 
Appeals Board set up by the Conference 
on the recommendation of the ILO Govern- 
ing Body decided to seat employer dele- 
gates from the Communist countries as 
voting members of the Conference tech- 
nical committees. These countries were the 
U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, Albania, the 
Ukraine, Byelorussia, Bulgaria, Poland, 
Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia. 

As a result of the decision, Pierre Waline 
of France, Chairman of the Employers' 
Group, who stated that he was speaking 
"on behalf of the free employers attending 
the Conference," announced that he and 
his colleagues considered that they could 
no longer take part in the proceedings of 
the committees. 

Hitherto the non-Communist employers 
by virtue of their majority have refused to 
allow the Communist delegates to repre- 
sent the employer group in the technical 
committees of the annual conference. Until 
last year the Conference met the difficulty 
by giving these employer delegates deputy 
membership of the committees without the 
right to vote. 

The Appeal Board consists of five persons 
of "internationally recognized independence 
and impartiality"; they are appointed for a 
period of three years. Three of the five 



are chosen each year by the Governing 
Body to decide on objections raised by 
delegates whose groups have not appointed 
them to the voting sections of the technical 
committees of the Conference. On the 
appeal of a delegate, the Board can seat 
not more than two additional delegates in 
the voting section of any technical com- 
mittee. 

The five members of the Appeals Board 
were: Emil F. Sandstrom, formerly Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Sweden, Member 
and formerly Chairman of the International 
Law Commission of the United Nations; 
Dr. Caracciolo Parra-Perez, formerly Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela, Mem- 
ber of the Supervisory Commission of the 
League of Nations from 1923 to 1935; 
M. K. Vellodi, Indian Ambassador to 
Switzerland and formerly Chief Minister 
of Hyderabad; Rene Cassin of France, Vice- 
President of the Conseil d'Etat, Member and 
formerly President of the United Nations 
Commission on Human Rights; and Sir 
Hector Hetherington, Principal and Vice- 
Chancellor of the University of Glasgow. 
The first three formed the Board this year. 

The Appeals Board stated that the prin- 
ciple applied in its decision is "that of 
equality of treatment for all members of 
the Conference in respect of full participa- 
tion in the work of the committees of the 
Conference". 



Conference Rejects Credentials of Hungarian Delegation 



The International Labour Conference 
overwhelmingly rejected the credentials of 
Government, Worker and Employer Dele- 
gates of Hungary, and of their advisers. 

The vote to reject the credentials of the 
Government Delegates was 145 to 70, with 
38 abstentions. The credentials of the Em- 
ployer Delegates were rejected by a vote 
of 153 to 64, with 30 abstentions, and those 



of the Worker Delegates by a vote of 146 
to 62, with 29 abstentions. 

An earlier motion to hold in abeyance 
any decision concerning Hungarian Govern- 
ment Delegates was defeated by a vote of 
182 to 38, with 35 abstentions. 

In all three rejections, the required two- 
thirds majority was obtained. 



At the seventh session of the ILO Coal 
Mines Committee (L.G., June, p. 607), a 
delegate protested that although 95 per 
cent of Canadian coal miners were mem- 
bers of the United Mine Workers, the 
delegates at the session representing Cana- 
dian workers were from other unions. 

The letter from the ILO Director- 
General, the complaint pointed out, had 
requested that workers' representatives be 
from organizations that had as members a 
substantial proportion of the workers in the 
industry. 

Although the objection was ruled out of 
order, the Canadian Government Delegate 



made a statement in which he said that 
Canada had followed the provisions of the 
ILO Constitution, which stipulates that non- 
government delegates shall be chosen in 
agreement with industrial organizations that 
are most representative of employers or 
workpeople. The Canadian Labour Con- 
gress, as the most representative labour 
organization in Canada, had been consulted 
and the two representatives nominated by 
it had been accepted. 

However, he reported, a protest by the 
United Mine Workers had been referred to 
the Congress for consideration. 

715 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Jack Breadner, President of the Breadner 
Company Limited, Hull, Que., which em- 
ploys 60 to 80 men and women in the 
manufacture of costume jewellery, souvenirs 
and club pins, believes that full co-opera- 
tion between management and labour is 
essential for the success of an expanding 
enterprise. 

He further believes that a committee in 
which representatives of management and 
labour can come to grips with production 
problems is of prime importance in plant 
operations. 

The committee at Breadner, which was 
formed in 1953, is so much a part of the 
company that Mr. Breadner states, "We 
don't think we could stay in business with- 
out it." 

Problems brought up for discussion at 
committee meetings range over a broad 
field including plant efficiency, safety, new 
products, housekeeping and new machinery 
and equipment. Many good ideas and sug- 
gestions are put forward at the meetings, 
and a large majority of them are used. 

The committee made its biggest contribu- 
tion in the spring of 1957, when the com- 
pany moved from its old location in Ottawa 
to the new plant in Hull. According to 
Ernie Proulx, production manager, much of 
the planning and all of the difficulties en- 
countered were handled by the committee. 

Bill Behan, committee member and Presi- 
dent of Local 4170 of the United Steel- 
workers of America, asserted that the union 
supports the committee and is particularly 
pleased with its activity in matters affecting 

plant safety. 

* * * 

Group planning is used extensively by 
the LaSalle, Que., engineering firm of 
Peacock Brothers Limited, manufacturers 
of a widely diversified line of industrial 
and marine equipment. Company opera- 
tions receive substantial assistance from 
three active labour-management committees 
dealing with safety and fire prevention, job 
method improvement and production. 

General Works Manager J. G. Wilkie 
explains the extent of committee functions 
at Peacock Brothers in this way: "The 
over-all philosophy of labour-management 
co-operation has been the guiding influence 
behind my own endeavours as director of 
the company's manufacturing divisions." 



Mr. L. Brown, chief production engineer, 
described the Joint Production Committee 
as a two-way channel for the exchange of 
ideas and information on mutual problems. 

"Our committee's functions include any 
activities which will assist improvements 
in production, the submission of useful sug- 
gestions, the conservation of raw materials, 
the care of tools and equipment, and 
matters of a like nature," said Mr. Brown. 

The company is opening a new valve 
manufacturing plant in July, and industrial 
engineer Jack Larocque cited the perfection 
of its layout by the Job Method Improve- 
ment Committee as being one of the major 
achievements of labour-management co-op- 
eration at Peacock Brothers. Another pro- 
ject undertaken by the group resulted in a 
20-per-cent increase in the output of the 
valve manufacturing department. 

The majority of the 600 employees at 
Peacock Brothers is in favour of joint 
consultation. Said Emile Piche, President 
of Local 63 of the International Association 
of Machinists: "What we achieve means as 
much to me as to the company." 

Mike Chiasson, superintendent of the 
valve department, remarked that the saving 
in time and money was considerable, and 
that what labour-management co-operation 
accomplishes in months might take years 
by other means. 

Jean Juneau, ex-Secretary of Local 63, 
stated that members of the Joint Produc- 
tion Committee feel free to express their 
opinions. He added that improved methods 
lead to improved working conditions, time 
to try new products, lower costs, increased 
sales — and more jobs for more people. 

Frank Wright, machinist, felt that labour- 
management discussions prevented uncer- 
tainty and confusion and promoted team 
spirit by making employees feel they were 
on a team. 

Commenting on the fact that manage- 
ment at Peacock Brothers encourages em- 
ployees to speak their minds, Mr. Larocque 
said: "High morale in industry and business 
is fostered best by providing employees with 
an opportunity to act as partners in the 
enterprise, and the freedom to express 
opinions. I know of no better means to 
achieve this goal than through the use of 
labour-management committees." 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Committees is encouraged and assisted by 
the Labour-Management Co-operation Serv- 
ice, Industrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field representa- 
tives located in key industrial centres, who 
are available to help both managements and 
trade unions, the Service provides various 
aids in the form of booklets, posters and 
films. 



716 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for four days during May. The Board 
issued five certificates designating bargain- 
ing agents, ordered two representation 
votes, rejected three applications for certi- 
fication, granted one application for revoca- 
tion of certification, and revoked an order 
to bargain collectively. During the month 
the Board received ten applications for 
certification, one application for revocation 
of certification, and allowed the withdrawal 
of six applications for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men and Dockmen's Union, Local No. 605 
of the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, on behalf of a unit 
of dockmen and drivers employed by Sabre 
Freight Lines Limited, based at and work- 
ing in and out of its terminal at Burnaby, 
B.C. (L.G., June, p. 610). 

2. Maritime Airline Pilots Association, 
on behalf of a unit of service and main- 
tenance employees of Maritime Central 
Airways Limited, Charlottetown, P.E.I. The 
International Association of Machinists 
intervened (L.G., June, p. 610). 

3. Canadian Air Line Flight Attendants' 
Association, on behalf of a unit of stewards 
and stewardesses employed by Pacific 
Western Airlines Ltd., Vancouver Airport, 
B.C. (L.G., May, p. 474). 

4. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of licensed personnel employed 
aboard tugs owned and operated by Foun- 
dation Maritime Limited, Halifax, N.S. The 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, intervened 
(L.G., May, p. 474). 

5. International Association of Bridge, 
Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, 
Local Union No. 720, on behalf of a unit 
of structural steel erectors and fabricators 
employed by the Dominion Bridge Company 
Limited at Hay River, N.W.T. (L.G., June, 
p. 611). 



Representation Votes Ordered 

1. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local 514, applicant, and 
R. M. Williams, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 
respondent (L.G., May, p. 474). The vote 
affected a unit of truck drivers, swampers 
and mechanics (Returning Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe). 

2. General Drivers Local Union 989 of 
the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, applicant, and Atomic 
Energy of Canada Limited, respondent 
(L.G., May, p. 474). The vote affected a 
unit of employees working in the company's 
plant laundry at Chalk River and in its 
town hospital laundry at Deep River 
(Returning Officer: G. A. Lane). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant, and Uranium Truck Lines Limited, 
respondent (Improvement District of Elliot 
Lake, Ont.) (L.G., April, p. 388). The 
application was rejected for the reason that 
the Board does not have jurisdiction. 

2. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local 514, applicant, and 
Frame & Perkins Limited, Yellowknife, 
N.W.T., respondent (L.G., May, p. 474). 
The application was rejected for the reason 
that it was not supported by a majority of 
the employees affected. 

3. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local 927, applicant, and 
Hill the Mover (Canada) Limited, Dart- 
mouth, N.S., respondent (L.G., May, p. 
474). The application was rejected for 



This section covers proceedings under the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, involving the administrative serv- 
ices of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department. 



717 



the reason that the applicant had no mem- 
bers in good standing within the meaning of 
Section 15 of the Board's Rules of Pro- 
cedure. 

Application for Revocation of Certification 
Granted 

The Board granted an application for 
revocation of certification affecting Norman 
Jenson, et al, applicants, C. A. Fraser 
Limited, Toronto, Ont., respondent, and the 
Warehousemen and Miscellaneous Drivers' 
Union, Local 419, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America, respondent 
(L.G., June, p. 612). 

Order to Bargain Collectively Revoked 

During the month the Board, following 
reconsideration of a complaint referred to 
it by the Minister of Labour under Section 
43 of the Act affecting the National Asso- 
ciation of Marine Engineers of Canada, 



Inc., complainant, and Transit Tankers and 
Terminals Limited, respondent, revoked the 
order issued in April 1959 requiring the 
respondent company to bargain collectively 
with the complainant (L.G., June, p. 610). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. United Steelworkers of America on 
behalf of a unit of production employees 
of Northspan Uranium Mines Limited, 
Elliot Lake, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
A. B. Whitfield). 

2. United Steelworkers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of office employees of 
Pronto Uranium Mines Limited, Algoma 
Mills, Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. B. 
Whitfield). 

3. Canadian Air Line Pilots Association 
on behalf of a unit of pilots employed 
by Pacific Western Airlines Ltd., Van- 
couver Airport, B.C. (Investigating Officer: 
G. R. Currie). 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation lor 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for applications for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of two officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the provinces of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; three officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; three 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



718 



4. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers on behalf 
of a unit of longshoremen and freight 
handlers employed by the Canadian National 
Railways at Mulgrave, N.S. (Investigating 
Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

5. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of a 
unit of unlicensed personnel employed 
aboard tugs owned and operated by Foun- 
dation Maritime Limited, Halifax, N.S. (In- 
vestigating Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

6. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 796, on behalf of a unit of 
boiler, vacuum pump, and compressor 
operators, employed by Pronto Uranium 
Mines Limited, Algoma Mills, Ont. (Inves- 
tigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

7. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, Licensed Divi- 
sion, on behalf of a unit of marine engineers 
employed by the Northland Navigation 
Company Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. (Investi- 
gating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

8. Dominion Canals Employees' Associa- 
tion and Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, joint 
applicants, on behalf of a system-wide unit 
of employees, with the exception of the 
Cornwall Canal, of The St. Lawrence Sea- 
way Authority (Investigating Officer: B. H. 
Hardie). 

9. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers on behalf 
of a unit of pulpwood loaders employed 
by the P.E.I. Produce Company Limited 
at Mulgrave, N.S. (Investigating Officer: 
D. T. Cochrane). 

10. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of drivers, helpers, and ware- 
housemen employed by Thompson's Trans- 
fer Co. Ltd., operating in and out of its 
terminals at Halifax and Middleton, N.S. 
(Investigating Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

Application for Revocation of Certification 
Received 

John Wood on behalf of J. S. Broda, 
et al, applicants, and the National Associa- 
tion of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc., 



respondent, and Northland Navigation Co. 
Ltd., Vancouver, respondent. The applica- 
tion was for the revocation of the certifica- 
tion issued by the Board in January 1954 
to the National Association of Marine 
Engineers of Canada, Inc., in respect of a 
unit of marine engineers employed aboard 
vessels operated by the company (L.G. 
1954, p. 410). 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. Corporation of Port Weller-Sarnia 
Marine Pilots, applicant, and the Shipping 
Federation of Canada, respondent (L.G., 
Jan., p. 49). 

2. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 506, appli- 
cant, and The Canadian, British, and 
Foreign Steamship Group of the Deepsea 
Section of/ and as represented by the 
Shipping Federation of British Columbia, 
respondent (L.G., June, p. 610). 

3. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, The 
St. Lawrence Seaway Authority, respondent, 
and Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, intervener 
(L.G., June, p. 611). 

4. Dominion Canals Employees' Associa- 
tion, applicant, The St. Lawrence Seaway 
Authority, respondent, Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway, Transport and General 
Workers, intervener, and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District, intervener (L.G., June, p. 
611). 

5. Cornwall Local Council of the Civil 
Service Association, applicant, The St. Law- 
rence Seaway Authority, respondent, Cana- 
dian Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and 
General Workers, intervener and Seafarers' 
International Union of North America, 
Canadian District, intervener (L.G., June, 
p. 612). 

6. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, applicant, 
Murray Marine Services Ltd., Sointula, 
B.C., respondent, and Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union of North America, Canadian 
District, intervener (L.G., June, p. 612). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May, the Minister of Labour 
appointed conciliation officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 



1. Northern Transportation Company 
Limited, Edmonton, and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District (Conciliation Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe). 



719 



2. J. C. Malone and Company Limited, 
and Three Rivers Shipping Company Lim- 
ited, Three Rivers, Que., and International 
Longshoremen's Association, Local 1846 
(Conciliation Officer: Remi Duquette). 

3. Poole Construction Company Limited, 
Whitehorse, Y.T., and International Union 
of Operating Engineers, Local 115 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

4. Eldorado Mining and Refining Lim- 
ited (Metallurgical Research Laboratories), 
Ottawa, and the Civil Service Association 
of Canada (Conciliation Officer: T. B. 
McRae). 

5. Hill The Mover (Canada) Limited, 
Vancouver, and General Truck Drivers and 
Helpers Union, Local 31 (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: G. R. Currie). 

6. Northspan Uranium Mines Limited 
(compressor operators), Elliot Lake, and 
International Union of Operating Engineers, 
Local 796 (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough). 

7. Lee's Transport Limited, Vancouver, 
and Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men and Dockmen's Union, Local 605 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. British Columbia Telephone Company 
and Federation of Telephone Workers of 
British Columbia (Conciliation Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., June, p. 613). 

2. Lake St. Jean Radio Station CFGT 
and The Syndicate of Employees of CFGT 
(Conciliation Officer: C. E. Poirier) (L.G., 
June, p. 613). 

3. Allied Aviation Service Company of 
Newfoundland, Limited and Trans-World 
Airlines, Inc., and Canadian Air Line 
Despatchers Association (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: Remi Duquette) (L.G., June, p. 613). 

4. National Harbours Board, Montreal, 
and Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees (Conciliation Officer: 
Remi Duquette) (L.G., June, p. 613). 

5. George Burchill and Sons, British 
Canadian Pitwood Ltd., Geo. Cook, W. S. 
Anderson Co. Ltd., Chatham Industries 
Ltd., W. S. Loggie Co. Ltd., E. F. Malkins 
Ltd., M. F. Esson and Sons, Miramachi 
Lumber Co. and Miramachi Trades and 
Labour Union, Locals No. 2, 3 and 4 
(Conciliation Officer: H. R. Pettigrove) 
(L.G., June, p. 613). 

6. Northern Cleaning Agencies, Inc., 
Montreal, and Building Service Employees' 
International Union, Local 298 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: Remi Duquette) (L.G., May, 
p. 476). 



7. Robin Hood Flour Mills Limited, 
Moose Jaw, and Local 201, LTnited Packing- 
house Workers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn) (L.G., May, p. 477). 

8. Westmount Moving and Warehousing 
Limited, Montreal, and Local 106, Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America (Conciliation Officer: C. E. Poirier) 
(L.G., April, p. 391). 

9. Gill Interprovincial Lines Limited, 
Vancouver, and Line Drivers, Warehouse- 
men, Pickup Men and Dockmen's Union, 
Local 605 (Conciliation Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe) (L.G., May, p. 477). 

10. Robin Hood Flour Mills Limited, 
Saskatoon, and Local 342, United Packing- 
house Workers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn) (L.G., March, p. 272). 

11. Lake Shore Lines Limited, Lachine, 
Que., and Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District (Con- 
ciliation Officer: Remi Duquette) (L.G., 
Sept. 1958, p. 980). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with a 
dispute between Shipping Federation of 
British Columbia and International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 
Local 506, Vancouver (L.G., June, p. 613) 
was fully constituted in May with the 
appointment of W. E. Philpott, Vancouver, 
as Chairman. Mr. Philpott was appointed 
in the absence of a joint recommendation 
from the other two members, C. George 
Robson and William Stewart, both of Van- 
couver, who were previously appointed on 
the nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in April to deal with 
a dispute between Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Company (Eastern, Prairie, and Paci- 
fic Regions) and Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen (L.G., June, p. 613) was fully 
constituted in May with the appointment of 
His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, Belle- 
ville, as Chairman. Judge Anderson was 
appointed on the joint recommendation of 
the other two members, J. W. Long, QC, 
Montreal, and the Hon. A. W. Roebuck, 
QC, Ottawa, who were previously appointed 
on the nomination of the company and 
union respectively. 

3. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with a 
dispute between Trans-Canada Air Lines, 
Montreal, and Canadian Air Line Pilots 
Association (L.G., June, p. 613) was fully 



720 



constituted in May with the appointment 
of Hon. Mr. Justice Edouard Tellier, Mont- 
real, as Chairman. Mr. Justice Tellier was 
appointed in the absence of a joint recom- 
mendation from the other two members, 
T. R. Meighen, QC, Montreal, and the Hon. 
A. W. Roebuck, QC, Ottawa, who were 
previously appointed on the nomination of 
the company and union respectively. 

Board Reports Received 

1. Northland Navigation Company Lim- 
ited, Vancouver, and National Association 
of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. (L.G., 
June, p. 613). The text of the report is 
reproduced below. 

2. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 
and National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians (L.G., Nov. 1958, 
p. 1287). The text of the report is repro- 
duced below. 

Settlements Reached following Board Procedure 

1. Stanleigh Uranium Mining Corpora- 
tion, Elliot Lake, and Elliot Lake-Stanleigh 
Office Workers' Union, Local 1574, Cana- 
dian Labour Congress (L.G., May, p. 479). 

2. Westward Shipping Limited MV Brit- 
american and National Association of 



Marine Engineers of Canada Inc. (L.G., 
May 1958, p. 496). 

3. Westward Shipping Limited MV Brit- 
american and Canadian Merchant Guild, 
Inc. (L.G., May 1958, p. 496). 

4. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 
and National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (see above). 

Special Industrial Inquiry Commission Appointed 

Polymer Corporation Limited, Sarnia, 
and Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers 
International Union, Local 16-14 (L.G., 
June, p. 614). A stoppage of work occurred 
March 19, 1958. F. J. Ainsborough, 
Toronto, appointed Industrial Inquiry Com- 
mission, April 17. F. J. Ainsborough's 
commission terminated on May 11 and 
Eric G. Taylor, Toronto, appointed Special 
Industrial Inquiry Commission on May 15. 

Conciliation Board Proceedings Terminated 

C. A. Fraser Limited, Toronto, and 
Local 419, International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America (L.G., June, p. 613). 
Union decertified as bargaining agent by 
Canada Labour Relations Board (see page 
718). 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Northland Navigation Company Limited, Vancouver 

and 

National Association of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. 



The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established in the matter of the above 
dispute was composed of E. B. Clark, 
nominee of the Company, John Berry, 
nominee of the Association, and W. H. 
Morrow, Chairman, who was nominated 
by the other members of the Board. 

Owing to the inability of the president 
of the Company, Capt. H. J. C. Terry, to 
attend meetings immediately after the 
setting up of the Board, an extension of 
time to May 22 for the Board's report was 
granted by the Minister. 

The Board met to hear presentation of 
briefs and argument by the parties on May 
4, and held a further meeting on May 5, 
at which time, as there seemed some hope 
of getting the parties to reach agreement, 
the Board adjourned to allow time for con- 
ferences with representatives of the Associa- 
tion and the Company. Owing to develop- 
ments beyond the Board's concern, progress 



along these lines was not possible. The 
Board accordingly resumed its meetings, 
to hear further argument and rebuttal, and 
to decide on recommendations. 

We regret that it has not been possible 
for the members of the Board to agree on 
unanimous recommendations. This report 
is therefore submitted by the chairman and 
the nominee of the Association. The Com- 
pany's nominee will, we understand, send 
in a minority report. 

A long series of negotiations, first between 
the parties themselves and later under a 
conciliation officer, had failed to bring 
agreement on wages and overtime. In addi- 
tion, at the first meeting of the Board, the 
Company objected to the Association's 
proposals on Annual Vacations, payment 
for work on refitting and general overhaul, 
duties of a senior engineer on such work, 
and the effective dates of the agreement. 



721 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with the dispute between the National 
Association of Marine Engineers of Canada, 
Inc., and Northland Navigation Company 
Limited, Vancouver. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of W. H. Morrow, Vancouver, who was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two members, 
E. B. Clark, and John Berry, both of Van- 
couver, nominees of the company and union 
respectively. 

The Majority Report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act constitutes the 
report of the Board, was submitted by the 
chairman and Mr. Berry. The Minority 
Report was submitted by Mr. Clark. 

The Majority and Minority Reports are 
reproduced here. 



Regarding annual vacations, the Associa- 
tion proposes vacation pay for employees 
in their first year of 2 per cent of gross 
earnings during the year, 4 per cent of 
gross earnings during the second and 
succeeding years, and 6 per cent for those 
with 15 or more years' service. These 
proposals seem reasonable in view of 
generally accepted practice, and we recom- 
mend that they be included in a new agree- 
ment. 

Refitting or general overhaul is done on 
a 24-hour basis, to get vessels back into 
service as soon as possible. Much of the 
work is done, we are informed, by workers 
brought in for the purpose. If engineers 
are on duty during hours when the other 
workers are receiving overtime pay, it seems 
reasonable that the engineers should also 
receive overtime, and we so recommend. 

The Association proposes that during 
overhaul the engineer on a ship having 
three or more engineers shall supervise 
only, and not be required to use tools. 
While this might be practicable with large 
vessels with a big engineroom crew, we 
cannot recommend it for this Company's 
fleet. 

Another proposal presented in the Asso- 
ciation's brief, though there is no evidence 
that this point had been a matter of 
previous negotiation, asks that three oilers 
be added to the engineroom crew on the 
Alaska Prince. The Company states that 
with the installation of new engines on 
this ship neither firemen nor oilers are now 
needed. Under these circumstances we can- 
not recommend the addition of an oiler 
on each watch. We suggest that the parties 
consider whether some additional help for 
the engineers, such as a day man available 
when required, might be advisable, but we 
have no definite recommendation. 



Coming now to the matter of overtime, 
there is evidently a variety of arrangements 
in force with various shipping companies 
on the British Columbia coast. Certainly 
an engineer is entitled to extra pay for 
overtime work, and the proposal of one 
and one quarter times the regular rate is 
not excessive. We recommend that this 
be the general rate for overtime, subject 
to modification in special circumstances as 
mutually agreed on, this rate to take effect 
from the time of signing the new agreement. 

The chief point in dispute, which has 
extended negotiations over many months, 
is the wage scale. The Association has 
based its proposals on the principle that 
there should be equality of pay between 
engineers below the class of Chief Engineer 
and corresponding deck officers. There has 
been a differential in the pay received by 
these two groups on the Company's ships. 
The Company refuses to give any considera- 
tion to such a principle of equality in pay 
according to rank. They state that deck 
officers on this Company's ships are required 
to do certain paper work and carry respon- 
sibilities apart from the ordinary duties of 
deck officers. 

From the point of view of the Associa- 
tion the situation has been complicated by 
an agreement concluded by the Company 
with the Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
bargaining agent for the deck officers, 
which agreement the Association claims has 
increased the differential already existing. 
Following the signing of the agreement 
referred to, the Association modified its 
previous proposal on wages, asking for 
increase big enough to bring the equality 
they wish. 

The Company on the other hand refuses 
to consider any such principle of compari- 
son between two groups doing quite different 
work, and bases its proposals on wages on 
their willingness to give increases similar 
to those given to members of the Associa- 
tion by their competitors. They refer par- 
ticularly to the B.C. Coastal service of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 
the British Columbia Packers, who operate 
ships and barges along the coast. 

We cannot accept the Association's pro- 
posal that equality in pay between engineers 
and corresponding deck officers should 
prevail as a universal practice. While both 
are licensed groups who have special train- 
ing and qualifications, varying conditions 
with different companies seem to justify 
some variations in wage scales between the 
two groups. We accept the evidence that 
there is such equality in the majority of 
cases, but differentials do exist, and the 



722 



evidence presented has not convinced us 
that the principle of equality should neces- 
sarily apply in this case. 

Neither can we accept the Company's 
claim that the wage scale for their engineers 
should be determined by the increase 
granted to the members of the Association 
by the Canadian Pacific or the B.C. Packers. 
In such negotiations arguments based on 
what so-called competitors have done are 
frequently used, sometimes by employers, 
sometimes by employees, in different cir- 
cumstances; and usually there are just as 
strongly opposed as valid arguments by the 
other side. 

There are many differences between the 
operation of the Canadian Pacific fleet and 
that of Northern Navigation Company 
which we do not need to elaborate — 
differences in proportion of passenger and 
freight travel, in the effect of competition 
from air travel, in the staffing of vessels, 
in the areas served. There are also dif- 
ferences in so-called fringe benefits enjoyed 
by the employees of the two companies. 

Many considerations affect the terms of 
agreement a union may decide to accept 
with a certain employer; and undoubtedly 
a union may accept terms with one em- 
ployer that it would not be prepared to 
accept in negotiations with another com- 
pany. 

The final proposal presented by the 
Association asks for an increase of approx- 
imately 24 per cent over two years. The 
Company has proposed an increase of 17 
per cent over three years. In both cases 
the percentages are intended to apply to 
the wage scale in effect in the latter part 
of 1958, a temporary increase having been 
paid by the Company in January, 1959. 

After full consideration we recommend 
an increase over the above-mentioned wage 
scale of 20 per cent, a first increase of 
10 per cent to be effective from September 
1, 1958, and a similar increase to take 
effect on September 1, 1959; and we 
recommend that the new agreement take 
effect as from September 1, 1958, and 
continue in effect until August 31, 1960. 

Dated at Vancouver, B.C., May 21, 1959. 

(Sgd.) W. H. Morrow, 
Chairman. 

(Sgd.) John Berry, 
Member. 

MINORITY REPORT 

The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established in the matter of the above 
dispute was composed of W. H. Morrow, 



Chairman, John Berry, nominee of the 
Association and E. B. Clark, nominee of 
the Northland Company. 

The Board held several meetings, the 
first on May 4, to hear presentation of 
briefs and argument by the parties con- 
cerned. The Association's brief indicated 
that their first demands covering wages 
and overtime represented an increase of as 
much as 70 per cent, spread over two years. 
With such unrealistic demands, many 
months were lost with no accomplishment. 

When the Association revised its demands 
several months later, it was generally 
known that the contract dispute with the 
C.P. Coast Steamship Service of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railways would be carried to 
conciliation, and as the Association's revised 
demands were still considered excessive, 
practically all Steamship Companies refused 
the demands pending a conciliation recom- 
mended in the case of the above named 
Company. 

The Northland, however, continued its 
efforts to reach agreement with the Associa- 
tion, and at the same time or nearabouts 
negotiated with the Canadian Merchants' 
Service Guild bargaining agents for Deck 
Officers, and finally reached an agreement 
around the end of the year providing for 
a 20 per cent increase in wages spread over 
two years from September 1, 1958. 

There is a little doubt that an agreement 
could have been reached with the Associa- 
tion on the same basis but they would not 
consider it; not only did the Association 
refuse but on the other hand increased 
their demands from those previously named. 

The Northland was now faced with the 
situation of increasing the wages of the 
Deck Officers as per agreement and con- 
tinuing the old contact with the Engineers 
at the lower rate indefinitely. Being anxious 
to maintain the good relations with all its 
employees which has long existed, the Com- 
pany increased the wages of its Engineers 
beginning January 1 this year by 10 per 
cent, being the same rate of increase as 
called for in the agreement with the Deck 
Officers. This payment of 10 per cent was 
intended to apply against any increase 
agreed upon at a later date. 

It has been generally recognized by 
shipping men operating on this coast, that 
a wage settlement however arranged for 
C.P. Coast Steamship Service vessels estab- 
lishes a pattern for other companies. This 
Company's boats are the largest and by 
far the best equipped and their engineers 
require higher qualifications than are 
demanded by most other companies; for 
example, all first and second engineers must 



723 



possess first class certificates, third and 
fourth engineers second class certificates, 
and junior engineers fourth class certificates. 

The vessels of the Northland Company 
are comparatively small, and their standards 
for engineers are very much lower. Just 
why it should be considered proper that 
the Northland should pay a larger increase 
to its Engineers than the C.P. service or 
the Blackball Ferries, which is the only 
comparable Company, with the C.P. in 
boats and service, it is hard to understand. 
Up to now it has been just the reverse, 
and rightly so. 

While negotiations were in progress with 
the Association the Northland acquired two 
CPR coastal vessels, the Princess Norah 
renamed the Canadian Prince and the 
Princess of Alberni renamed the Nootka 
Prince. The new owners continued these 
vessels on their usual runs and operated 
them under the wage contracts with their 
former owners. 

As an example of how the Association 
sought to deal with the Northland, I would 
mention that the latest offer of the Associa- 
tion called for a wage to the Chief En- 
gineer of the Canadian Prince formerly 
Princess Norah of $575 per month by 
August 1, 1959, while at the same time a 
contract with the Canadian Pacific Coast 
Service had been signed providing for a 
wage of $503 for the Chief Engineer by 
September 1, 1960 covering a vessel in 
the same class and size as the Canadian 
Prince and had carried the same wage 
scale in the old contract. 

Another company which parallels the 
Northland service is the Packers Steamship 
Co., they operate several vessels from 
Vancouver to Prince Rupert with a long 
list of points of call exactly similar to the 
Northland. In addition to the cargo car- 
ried by the vessels they are required to 
tow a loaded covered barge of 500 tons 
capacity, and to discharge same with the 
ships gear; this increases their earning 
capacity and on account of increased power 
which their vessels carry they are enabled 
to maintain as fast a service as the average 
freighter. 

These vessels should carry at least the 
wage scale for engineers as high as that 
demanded of the Northland vessels of 
similar size, but for some reason not 
explained by the Association each of the 
Packers vessels are permitted to operate 
under contract with two engineers of six 
hour watches, as against three engineers 
of four hour watches on the Northland 
vessels. Further, a comparison of the 
figures covering wages on the new contract 
covering Packers vessels shows clearly that 



the rates are much lower for these vessels 
than those paid by the Northland; in fact 
the Engineers' payroll is about $300 per 
month less on each Packer's vessel than on 
similar vessels of the Northland. 

These facts were not easily appreciated 
by the Chairman and Mr. Berry as they 
have had no experience in operating vessels 
and appeared unwilling to go into the 
matter of comparisons. The writer with 
35 years experience in operating vessels 
on this coast had no trouble recognizing 
the great differences that exist in the wage 
scale covering similar vessels operating in 
the same line of trade. 

There is beyond doubt no uniformity in 
the wage scale set by the Association even 
by their own standards, and this is a very 
unsatisfactory state of affairs. 

While I cannot agree that the Northland 
should be required to pay a larger increase 
in wages than any other company, and 
believe that the Board should have been 
thoroughly satisfied with the Company's 
offer to pay as much as the C.P. Coast 
Service, however, as I consider the interests 
of the employees and their relationship with 
the Company of paramount importance, 
which might be in some way affected by 
the smaller increase to the Engineers than 
that provided for the Deck Officers, I 
approve and recommend that 10 per cent 
advanced to the Engineers on January 1 
constitute the rate to be paid them from 
September 1, 1958 until September 1, 1959 
when a further increase of 10 per cent be 
given them for another year. For the same 
reason I approve and recommend that the 
increase in overtime rate granted to the 
Deck Officers apply equally to the Engineers 
from September 1, 1958. 

I recommend that no agreement be signed 
between the Association and the Northland 
unless and until the issue of bargaining 
rights as raised by the Engineers has been 
settled. While the Board may have no 
authority in this matter, nevertheless any 
recommendation covering a new contract 
which ignores this situation which has 
lately arisen, could easily produce more 
trouble than a new agreement would cure. 

On all other matters of dispute such as 
the supplying of three firemen for the 
Alaska Prince, which request by the Asso- 
ciation was only made as an after-thought, 
was not in the original or in the amended 
demands, carries no merit and if imple- 
mented would be equivalent to carrying 
an oiler on every private automobile on 
our streets. The engines are self -lubricated 
and the Chief Engineer of the vessel is 
reported to have stated that he had no idea 
what he would use an oiler for. 



724 



The Northland Company has enjoyed 
excellent relations with their employees over 
a considerable period, this fact can be 
verified easily. For the Company to sign 
a new contract with the Association while 
its position as bargaining agents is, to say 



the least, clouded, would accomplish no 
good purpose, and I recommend strongly 
against it. 
Dated at Vancouver, B.C., May 30, 1959. 
(Sgd.) E. B. Clark, 
Member. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 

and 

National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians 



Your Board of Conciliation, consisting of 
H. Brooke Bell, QC, Corporation Nominee, 
and Guy M. Desaulniers, Union Nominee, 
with His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, as 
Chairman, met with the parties at a num- 
ber of meetings in Ottawa. These meetings 
occurred on November 11, 1958; November 
22, 1958; January 16, 1959; February 12, 
1959; February 13, 1959 and February 14, 
1959. 

The Corporation was represented by the 
following: 

Clive B. McKee, Manager, Industrial 
Relations; Guy Coderre, Manager of Per- 
sonnel, Montreal; M. A. Harrison, Assistant 
Manager, Industrial Relations; W. A. Duf- 
field, Assistant Operations Engineer; John 
W. Brooke, Counsel. 

The union was represented at these 
meetings by the following: 

George W. Smith, International Presi- 
dent; Eugene P. Klumpp, International 
Vice-President; G. Taylor Byrne, Inter- 
national Executive Vice-President; Eldon 
Wilcox, Executive Vice-President, ARTEC, 
an affiliate of NABET; Timothy J. O'Sul- 
livan, Regional Director and Director of 
Network Affairs (Canada); Rene Lessard, 
President, Local 62, Montreal; Orval 
McGuire, President, Local 71, Toronto; 
F. Harold Wadsworth, President, Local 74, 
Ottawa; Jacques Souliere, Vice-President, 
Local 62, Montreal; Karl Enke, Master 
Steward, Local 71, Toronto; Bryan Edward, 
Secretary, Local 71, Toronto; Edward B. 
Jolliffe, QC, Canadian General Counsel. 

At the sittings of the Board previous to 
February 12, 1959, the time was taken up 
by the presentation of briefs by the Cor- 
poration and the union, and the replies, 
written and oral, thereto. On February 12, 
the parties completed their oral submissions 
to the Board, and from noon on Thursday, 
February 12, throughout the rest of that 
day, and all of Friday, February 13 up until 
past midnight, and all day on Saturday, 



February 14, the Board was engaged with 
the parties in an attempt to conciliate the 
many issues that were referred to it as 
being in dispute. 

At the close of proceedings before the 
conciliation officer, the following were the 
issues between the parties which were then 
outstanding: 

1. Wages — (a) General Wages, Classifi- 
cations, Automaticity. 

2. Vacations. 

3. Paid Holidays — Observance of four 
Holy Days in the Province of Quebec 
as holidays within the meaning of 
Article 23.1 of the agreement. 

4. Area differential. 

5. Hazard Pay. 

6. No strike-breaking clause. 

7. Existing Benefits. 

8. Job specifications. 

9. Union security. 

10. Term of agreement. 

From the time of the conciliation officer's 
report until the meetings of the Board on 
February 12, 13 and 14, 1959, certain 
articles shown on the list above as being 
in dispute had been tentatively agreed upon. 

At the conclusion of the Board's efforts 
at conciliation, both parties came together 
before the full Board, and the Corporation 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation appointed to 
deal with a dispute between the National 
Association of Broadcast Employees and 
Technicians and the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, Belle- 
ville, Ont., who was appointed by the 
Minister on the joint recommendation of 
the other two members, H. Brooke Bell, 
QC, Toronto, and Guy M. Desaulniers, 
Montreal, nominees of the company and 
union respectively. An addendum to the 
report was submitted by Mr. Bell. 

The texts of the report and the adden- 
dum are reproduced here. 



72787-5—5 



725 



and the union each put forward proposals 
for the settlement of all outstanding matters. 
The Corporation's proposals at the con- 
clusion of the Board for the settlement of 
all the then outstanding matters, may be 
stated in summary form as follows: 

Proposal A 

1. All articles as tentatively agreed, as 
listed in Corporation document dated Sep- 
tember 9, 1958, except Article 21 "O/T 
Computation" which is to be as in present 
agreement. 

All articles as tentatively agreed in 
package on January 14, 15 are set. 

2. Agree to raise top of IIC equivalent 
to top of IIB. 

3. Agree to add 2 steps IA scale of 
annual basis so that additional 2 steps as 
of July 31/58 would be $3,045, $3,255. 

4. Agree to senior TV assistant IC on 
merit at discretion of Management — start 
$3,415 — first year $3,637 — second year 
$3,859. 

5. Article 23 (with reference to vaca- 
tions and holiday pay) as in present agree- 
ment. (Delete Union proposal Art. 25.1.1.). 

6. Art. 67 (with reference to existing 
benefits and privileges) as in present agree- 
ment provided that 

(a) Holy Days will be paid until Decem- 
ber 31/59 on basis of CBC— NABET 
minute dated November 12/58; 

(b) Letter of agreement is signed by 
both parties agreeing that from and 
after January 1/60 there will be no 
pay for said Holy Days unless they 
are proclaimed statutory holidays 
under Art. 23. 

7. Wages: 

Top of 
1958= IIB 
100 $4,836 
Aug. 1/58 3% increase on pre- 
sent rates retroactive 

on basic only 103 $4,981 

May 1/59 3% increase on pre- 
sent rates not com- 

Feb. 1/60 pounded 106 $5,126 

3% increase on then 

rates 109.18 $5,280 

Oct. 31/60 Agreement expires (27 
months). 

Proposal B 

1. All Articles as tentatively agreed to 
date. 

2. Same as in Proposal A. 

3. do. 

4. do. 

5. do. 

6. do. 

7. Wages: 



Top of 
1958= IIB 
100 $4,836 
\\% increase on pre- 
Aug. 1/58 sent rates retroactive 

on basice only 101.50 $4,909 

3% increase on pre- 

May 1/59 sent rates 104.50 $5,054 

3% on then rate 107.64 $5,206 

Feb. 1/60 Agreement expires (27 
Oct. 31/60 months). 

It will be seen that Proposal A is the 
same as Proposal B, with the exception 
that Proposal A takes out of the articles 
tentatively agreed upon under document 
dated September 9, 1958, Article 21, which 
has to do with the computation of over- 
time, whereas Proposal B carries forward 
the full list of matters tentatively agreed 
upon in Corporation document dated Sep- 
tember 9, 1958, and does not except 
Article 21, having to do with the basis 
of the computation of overtime. 

The proposal which the Union put for- 
ward at this last meeting of the Board 
of Conciliation is set forth hereunder, in 
the same numerical order as that contained 
in the Corporation's Proposal A, and shortly 
stated is as follows: 

Union Proposal 

1. All articles as tentatively agreed upon 
without exception. 

2. As in Company Proposal A. 

3. do. 

4. As in Company Proposal A with the 
addition of the words "as of July 
31/58". 

5. As in Company Proposal A. 

6. As in Company Proposal A EXCEPT 
that Holy Days will be paid until 
Oct. 1/60. 

7. Subject to No. 1 above, as in Com- 
pany Proposal 4. 

Additional item: 

Group III to be open to announcer 
operators on merit basis at option of 
management. Present rule re promo- 
tion to Group III on merit basis at 
discretion of management but provid- 
ing that by the end of 1959 at least 
50 per cent of technicians regularly 
engaged in maintenance work (includ- 
ing those now in Group III) shall be 
in Group III. 
It will be seen from a comparison of these 
proposals, that the union and the Corpora- 
tion had, before the Board of Conciliation, 
reached agreement with the exception of 
two minor matters, on all differences except 
that of wages, and that the difference 
between the parties with respect to wages 
was li per cent for a contract which has 
a term of 27 months. 



726 



Since the basis of settlement of all out- 
standing issues as proposed by the Corpora- 
tion was not acceptable to the union, and 
likewise, the counter-proposal of the union 
was not acceptable to the Corporation, each 
party just before the adjournment of the 
Board proceedings, withdrew the proposals. 

The Board met in Belleville in executive 
session on March 7, 1959, and spent some 
time going over the material and exchang- 
ing views on the issues upon which the 
Board is called upon to recommend. 

The Board unanimously recommends that 
the proposals itemized above as numbers 
1, 2, 3, and 5, in the Corporation's offer, 
which were tentatively agreed upon by the 
Union at the last meeting of the Board, 
should be accepted by both parties and 
incorporated in the new agreement. 

Under the Corporation's proposal number 
4, it agreed to senior TV assistant IC on 
merit at discretion of management — start 
$3,415 — first year $3,637 — second year 
$3,859, and the union was in agreement 
with this proposal, except that it wished 
added to it the words "as of July 31, 1959". 
The Board unanimously recommends that 
the parties accept the Corporation proposal 
under item 4, with the addition thereto of 
the following words: "as of the date of 
signing of the new collective agreement." 

The union was in agreement with Cor- 
poration proposal number 6, except that 
it requested that Holy Days be paid until 
October 1, 1960, and the Corporation had 
proposed that they be paid only until 
December 31, 1959. The Board unanimously 
recommends that the parties agree to the 
Corporation proposal number 6, amended 
to read as follows: 

"Article 67 (with reference to existing 
benefits and privileges) as in present agree- 
ment, provided that 

(a) Holy Days will be paid until April 
30, 1960 on basis of CBC— NABET 
minute dated November 12/58; 

(b) Letter of agreement is signed by 
both parties agreeing that from and 
after April 30, 1960 there will be 
no pay for said Holy Days unless 
they are proclaimed statutory holi- 
days under Article 23." 

The union, in their final counter-proposal 
as found above, requested that Group III 
be open to announcer operators on merit 
basis at option of management. Present 
rule re promotion to Group III on merit 
basis at discretion of management but pro- 
viding that by the end of 1959 at least 
5 per cent of technicians regularly engaged 
in maintenance work (including those now 
in Group III) shall be in Group III. 

72787-5—5J 



While the Board sees some merit in the 
union's request, it is not prepared to recom- 
mend its acceptance by the Corporation for 
incorporation in the forthcoming collective 
agreement. 

Item 7 — Wages: 

It will be noticed that in respect to 
wages, the Union was prepared to accept 
an increase in wages as follows: 

Top of 
1958 = TIB 
100 $4,836 
Aug. 1/58 3% increase on pre- 
sent rates retroactive 

on basic only 103 $4,981 

May 1/59 3% increase on pre- 
sent rates not com- 
pounded 106 $5,126 

Feb. 1/60 3% increase on then 

rates 109.18 $5,280 

Oct. 31/60 Agreement expires (27 
months). 

Provided that all articles as tentatively 
agreed upon be also, without exception, 
agreed upon by the Corporation, but the 
Corporation only advanced this proposed 
settlement on the wage matter on the under- 
standing that the previously agreed tenta- 
tive understanding under Article 21, over- 
time computation, was to be dropped by 
the Union and the former basis of overtime 
computation revived. 

In short, the difference between the Cor- 
poration and the union on the item of 
wages was 1+ per cent. 

It appeared to the Board that if the 
wage increase back to August 1, 1958, had 
been agreed to by the Corporation at 3 
per cent, and if during the term of the 
contract there had been additional increases 
at intervals of a further 3 per cent, and a 
further 3 per cent, making 9 per cent in 
all, the union would have had no serious 
objection to lengthening the term of the 
contract to 32 months. 

In the Corporation's proposals, and the 
union's counter-proposal as set out above, 
it appears that at the conclusion of the 
Board's meetings with the parties, they 
both would have agreed, if other terms had 
been satisfactory, to a contract expiring 
October 31, 1960, or in other words, a 
27 -month contract. 

The Majority of the Board recommend 
that the issue of wages be settled on the 
following basis: 

Top of 
1958= IIB 
100 $4,836.00 
Aug. 1/58 2% increase on 
present rates re- 
troactive on basic 

only 102 $4,932.72 

May 1/59 3% increase on 
present rates not 
compounded 105 $5,077.80 

727 



Feb. 1/60 3% increase on 

then rates 108.15 $5,237.75 

Oct. 31/60 Agreement expires 

(27 months). 



Mr. Desaulniers, the Union Nominee, is 
dissenting on a recommendation of an 
increase of 2 per cent on August 1, 1958, 
3 per cent on May 1, 1959 and on the 
other 3 per cent on February 1, 1960, and 
also on the expiry date of the agreement. 
Mr. Desaulniers is recommending the fol- 
lowing increase: 

Aug. 1, 1958 — 4 per cent increase on 
present rates retroactive on basic only. 

May 1, 1959—3 per cent increase on 
present rates not compounded. 

Feb. 1, 1960 — 3 per cent increase on 
then rates. 

March 31, 1961— Agreement expires (32 
months). 

From August 1, 1958 up to August 1, 
1958, the cost-of-living index has increased 
in the amount of 5.1 per cent and the 
increase in the cost of living is still going 
up. The employees, on account of this 
increase in the cost of living, are receiving 
less in real wages than they were receiving 
when they signed their last agreement. In 
fact, without a first increase of 5.1 per 
cent, the employees will never recover what 
they have lost in their real wages. 

Taking into consideration that he also 
recommends an increase of 3 per cent on 
May 1, 1959 and another 3 per cent on 
February 1, 1960, he believes that an 
increase of 4 per cent from August 1, 1958 
is justified in the circumstances. Although 
the employees will not recover their real 
loss, they will, with such a recommendation 
recover part of it and an increase of 4 per 
cent retroactive to August last will com- 
pensate, at least in part, for the increase 
in the cost of living since August 1956. 

He believes that there is an increase in 
real earnings to the employees only after 
the entire increase in the cost of living 
has been fully provided for. 

Brooke Bell, the Company Nominee, on 
the other hand, entirely disagrees with the 
Union Nominee, especially his remarks 
with reference to the cost of living and 
points out that the Union conceded in its 
Brief that wage increases in the CBC have 
exceeded the increase in the cost of living 
in the past five years. While Mr. Bell can 
see no justification for a general wage 
increase he has been persuaded by the 
attitude of the parties and after consultation 
with the other members of the Board that 
a settlement is no likely to be reached 
unless an increase is granted. He has 
accordingly signed the Report and added 



his comments by way of addendum which 
is attached hereto. 

Dated at Belleville, Ont., May 4, 1959. 
(Sgd.) J. C. Anderson, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) H. Brooke Bell, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Guy M. Desaulniers, 
Member. 

ADDENDUM TO REPORT 

After much consultation with the other 
members of this Board I have agreed with, 
and signed the Report of the Chairman, 
His Honour J. C. Anderson. I have done so 
with some reservations and partly because 
of the extraordinary ability, wide experience 
and sound judgment of the Chairman. In 
order to assist the Minister of Labour to 
the best of my ability I comment on some 
of the issues between these parties which 
came before the Board. 

As is so often the case, in disputes 
between Management and Labour, the ques- 
tion of wages transcended all other issues. 
The parties presented a mass of informa- 
tion to the Board concerning vacations, 
union security, holidays, including Roman 
Catholic Holy Days in Quebec, hazard pay, 
job specifications, automatic wage increases, 
overtime and other items. Some of these 
areas of dispute were resolved in the course 
of the discussions before the Board but 
no over-all settlement was achieved. 

In coming to a conclusion as to whether 
or not the wage structure of a company is 
fair, reasonable and adequate, a member 
of a board has few tools to work with. One 
yardstick he may use is a comparison of 
the wage scale under consideration with 
that of other companies. In doing so one 
must be mindful of the "fringe benefits" 
which are part and parcel of the wage 
structure. These benefits are, in some cases, 
costly to the company and of definite 
monetary value to the employees. It will 
be useful therefore to set out here the 
fringe benefits included in the CBC-NABET 
agreement. They are as follows: 

Automatic annual wage increases. 

Annual vacation with pay — three weeks. 

Cumulative sick leave with pay — three 
weeks annually. 

Special leave with pay — 12 days in each 
year, cumulative. 

10 statutory holidays, more in some 
provinces. 

Guarantee of 40 hours pay per work 
week. 

Pension plan with dependants' insurance 
and life insurance — contributory. 



728 



Retiring leave with pay up to six months' 
salary. 

The cost of these benefits (as computed 
by the Corporation) is 21.4 per cent of the 
basic pay roll. It will be seen therefore 
that for every $100 an employee receives 
by way of basic pay he receives $21.40 in 
unseen but valuable benefits. 

The Board carefully examined the whole 
wage structure of the Corporation. The 
employees are divided into six main groups, 
of which group IIB is by far largest, con- 
taining, as it does, nearly three-quarters 
of all the employees in this unit. In that 
group a man's starting rate is $3,187 per 
year and he progresses automatically for 
the next 7 years to a yearly rate of $4,836. 
The increase amounts to $1,649 or slightly 
over 50 per cent, an average yearly increase 
of about 7 per cent. These progressive in- 
creases are "built in" and quite apart from 
any "across the board" gains the union 
might achieve through negotiation. 

Thus, when considering this wage struc- 
ture, one must be conscious of this auto- 
matic feature which is constantly moving 
the wage rates up merely by reason of 
the passage of time. The CBC is difficult 
to compare to any privately owned indus- 
trial company or in fact to any other 
employer in Canada. Comparisons submittd 
by the parties were at such variance, that 
I do not consider them helpful. 

Another approach to analysis of a wage 
structure is to compare the trend of wage 
rates over a period to the trend of the 
cost of living. The consumer price index 
is accepted as the indicator of the move- 
ment of the cost of living, but one must 
be very wary as to the most accurate 
indicator of the movement of wages. The 
Union conceded that wage increases in the 
CBC have exceeded increases in the cost 
of living in the past five years. I have 
considered the relative merits of the various 
indices and have concluded that for the 
purposes of this Report, the median salary 
index of technicians in group IIB, as put 
forward by the Corporation, is as accurate 
an index as can be found. A comparison of 
this index with the C.P.I, affords no justi- 
fication for such a general wage increase as 
the Union suggests. 

Holy Days in the Province of Quebec 

The CBC employees in this union enjoy 
10 statutory holidays with pay. In addition 
to these, the employees in the Province of 
Quebec enjoy as paid holidays four Roman 
Catholic Holy Days, namely, All Saints Day, 
Epiphany, Ascension Day and Immaculate 
Conception Day. In October 1956 the 



Archbishop of Montreal decreed that, while 
these four days are still days on which 
the faithful must attend Mass, it will no 
longer be obligatory to abstain from work 
on those days. Accordingly the Corpora- 
tion discontinued observance of these days 
as paid statutory holidays. Subsequently 
the union lodged a grievance which went 
before an arbitration board which held 
that these four Holy Days were not statu- 
tory holidays. If the arbitration award had 
stopped there the Corporation would have 
been justified. Two Members of the Arbi- 
tration Board however held that, because of 
the provisions of Article 67 of the collec- 
tive bargaining agreement in which the 
Corporation recognizes the benefits and 
privileges enjoyed by the employees prior 
to 1953 and agrees that it will not modify 
such benefits in a manner that discriminates 
against employees in the bargaining unit, 
the Corporation must continue to pay for 
these Holy Days. The Corporation is now 
on the horns of a dilemma as if it con- 
tinues to pay the 700 employees in the 
Province of Quebec the employees in the 
other provinces will feel that they have 
been discriminated against, and on the 
other hand if the corporation ceases to pay 
for these Holy Days the Quebec employees 
will feel that they have been deprived of 
something which they have received in the 
past. The Corporation computes the annual 
cost of paying for the four Holy Days at 
$24,000 and states that less than 10 per 
cent of employers in the Montreal area 
observe these days as paid holidays. It 
seems to me that a compromise on this 
issue is called for and I concur in the 
recommendation contained in the attached 
Report. 

Statutory and Declared Holidays 

If a CBC employee works on a statutory 
holiday he is paid 2± times the basic rate. 
On a holiday "declared" by the Corporation 
he is paid "double time". If the holiday 
falls on his day off, the union submits that 
he should receive "triple time". This does 
not seem equitable to me and I do not 
recommend this change. 

Annual Vacations 

An employee of the CBC enjoys a 3 -week 
annual vacation. The union proposed a 
fourth week for employees of 15 years' 
seniority. 

The present vacation seems adequate to 
me and having in mind the 10 statutory 
holidays and special leave provisions in 
this agreement I am not inclined to recom- 
mend this additional week of vacation. 

(Continued on page 744) 



729 



LABOUR LAW 



Report of Royal Commission on 

N.S. Workmen's Compensation Act 

Report of Mr. Justice McKinnon recommends considerable number of changes in 
present Act and in its administration but does not propose any alteration in 
Act's fundamental principles. Many recommendations given legislative effect 



The Royal Commission report of Mr. 
Justice McKinnon on the Nova Scotia 
Workmen's Compensation Act, which was 
tabled in the Legislature in February, recom- 
mended a considerable number of changes 
in the present Act and in its administration 
but did not propose any alteration in the 
fundamental principles of the Act. 

Besides recommending increases in scales 
of compensation, including an increase from 
70 to 75 in the percentage of earnings on 
which awards for disability are based, the 
Commissioner proposed certain changes in 
Part III of the Act, which covers the fishing 
and dredging industries. These would bring 
benefits more into line with those provided 
under Part I (the collective liability system). 
Under Part III, employers in fishing and 
dredging are not liable for Part I assess- 
ments. Instead they are made individually 
liable for the payment of compensation, 
with a limit of liability for claims arising 
out of any one accident, and are required 
to carry insurance to cover possible liabili- 
ties. 

Many of the Commissioner's recom- 
mendations were given legislative effect at 
the recent session of the Legislature. 

Compensation in Nonfatal Cases 

Maximum Earnings — In nonfatal cases, 
Mr. Justice McKinnon recommended that 
the maximum annual earnings base on 
which compensation is computed should be 
increased from $3,000 to $3,600. He 
thought $3,600 was a "reasonably realistic" 
amount, in view of the fact that the general 
level of wage rates had been steadily rising 
and that the average weekly industrial wage 
and salary in Canada on February 1, 1958, 
was $60.23 (an average of $3,131.96 per 
year), and one which would not unduly 
discriminate against the wage-earning capa- 
cities of the workmen of the province. 

Percentage of Earnings — Mr. Justice 
McKinnon also recommended that awards 
of compensation should be based upon 75 



per cent of the workman's average earnings. 
In his opinion, a 75-per-cent base (which 
is used in every other province in Canada) 
was more representative of present condi- 
tions, taking into consideration increases 
in living costs and wage levels since 1956, 
when the 70-per-cent base was adopted; 
and it would be likely to be a fairer divi- 
sion of responsibility in the future. 

Labour urged before the Commission 
that the percentage rate should be increased 
or eliminated entirely, because any lesser 
amount than 100 per cent of earnings "is 
inadequate and places the injured workman 
in the position of being penalized for an 
injury for which in most cases he has no 
responsibility". Employers argued that, 
since compensation was not subject to unem- 
ployment insurance and income tax, pro- 
gressive increases in the percentage rate 
would result in the injured workman even- 
tually receiving his pre-accident wage, and, 
if the rate ever reached 100 per cent, the 
workman would be receiving a higher wage 
than before the accident, which would 
eliminate his incentive to return to work. 

The Commissioner, pointing out that the 
Board must in good faith balance the 
interests of the respective parties, that the 
employer is not expected to be an absolute 
insurer, and that the workman must make 
a contribution to the scheme, observed: 

The financial assistance made possible by 
the employer must not be so niggardly as to 
deter the workman's return to good health. 
It must not be so small as to unfairly remun- 
erate the workman who will be permanently 
disabled from his fair share of earning power, 
insofar as that can be determined at the time 
of the accident. Nor is it ever to be so large 
as will permit the workman to make a profit, 
i.e., earn more under compensation than he 
was receiving prior to the accident. 



This section, prepared by the Legislation 
Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial 
legislatures, regulations under these laws, 
and selected court decisions affecting labour. 



730 



I agree with Labour that such items as 
income tax and unemployment insurance con- 
tributions are quite apart from the problem 
in point and need not be considered. I agree 
with employers that complementary benefits 
like medical aid and rehabilitation services 
should be considered as part of the contribu- 
tion being made by them. 

Computation of Average Earnings — Mr. 

Justice McKinnon noted that, in order to 
make a compensation award, the Board 
was required to determine the average 
earnings of the workman in the 12 calendar 
months previous to his injury, and under 
existing legislation was given wide powers 
to compute average earnings in the manner 
that is "best calculated to give the rate per 
week, or month, at which the workman was 
remunerated". 

Not all workmen are employed for a 
full year; others move from one employ- 
ment to another. The Board has power 
to decide uncertain cases when the exact 
rate is unknown by accepting the rate of 
remuneration which would have been earned 
by a person employed with the same em- 
ployer during the whole of the previous 12 
months. In cases where there was no 
similar employment the Board may consider 
what a "person in the same grade employed 
in the same class of employment and in 
the same locality" would have received. In 
addition, the Act provides that, "Where 
in any case it seems more equitable, the 
Board may award compensation, having 
regard to the earnings of the workman at 
the time of the accident". 

In the Commissioner's view, the Board 
must be given a broad discretion in this 
area in order that the least injustice may 
be done to both workmen and their em- 
ployers. He considered that to compute 
earnings on the basis of the income of the 
workman during the 30 days before the 
accident, as had been suggested before the 
Commission, was to take too short a period, 
and that a period of 12 months (as in 
several other provinces) might be too long. 
He suggested that the Board should compute 
the wages of the workman for the six 
months previous to the accident and this 
sum should then be multiplied by two 
to give the average annual earnings of the 
workman. 

The Board is required under Section 
65 (2) to disregard absences due to illness 
"or any other unavoidable cause". The 
Commissioner commented that, if there was 
any doubt whether "other unavoidable 
cause" included reasonable holidays, the 
legislation or practice of the Board should 
be amended to include them. 

Minimum Compensation — Observing that 
"in the main the factors to be considered 



in determining minimum amounts include 
wage levels, and particularly the cost of 
living to ensure that basic subsistence will 
be provided," the Commissioner recom- 
mended that the minimum compensation 
award for temporary total disability should 
be increased from $15 to $20 a week (or 
earnings, if less). No change was recom- 
mended in the minimum award for per- 
manent total disability of $100 per month. 

Disfigurement, Desertion of Family, 
Lump Sum Settlements — Mr. Justice McKin- 
non suggested that the Board should be 
given authority to make awards for dis- 
figurement which, in its judgment, impaired 
a workman's earning capacity, and that 
it should have power to divert any portion 
of a compensation award to a family which 
had been deserted by a disabled workman. 

He thought that the Board should con- 
tinue to have authority to make a lump 
sum settlement of a claim where impair- 
ment of earning capacity did not exceed 
10 per cent but that in claims where the 
disability was adjudged in excess of 10 
per cent, no lump sum settlement should 
be made unless requested and agreed to 
by the workman concerned. 

Upward Revision of Disability Pensions — 

The report dealt at some length with 
proposed increases in former disability pen- 
sion awards, in view of the increase in the 
cost of living in recent years. In this 
connection the Commission was told that 
a worker who suffered a leg amputation 
above the knee in 1936 received a maxi- 
mum award of $35.23 per month while for 
the same injury in 1957 a worker received 
a pension of $104.12 per month. The 
Commissioner's conclusion, reached after 
long study of the question, was that "If 
previous nonfatal awards are to be increased 
in Nova Scotia, the money to do it should 
come from some source other than the 
Accident Fund". To come to any other 
conclusion would be to change the charac- 
ter of workmen's compensation to social 
legislation, the report said. 

The report described the present pro- 
cedure by which industry discharged its 
debt to the injured workman, in accordance 
with existing scales of disability awards 
and present formulae for assessing a work- 
man's earning capacity, as "still the fairest, 
most equitable and efficient manner to give 
effect to the scheme and purpose of our 
legislation". It went on: 

If we require the some six thousand indus- 
tries covered by the Act to contribute the 
several millions of dollars necessary to make 
upward adjustments in past awards we would 
in effect be gearing industry's contribution to 
the uncertain economic cycles of the nation. 



731 



This is too great a variable. Industry would 
never know when it had acquitted itself of 
responsibility. If cost-of-living scales rise, 
greater contributions must be exacted. By the 
same token, if the cost of living became less, 
industry should expect workmen to accept a 
reduction in their pension awards. Surely 
industry has a right to know when it has 
paid its debts to injured workmen. 

There is yet another problem. To assess 
existing industry for increases in past awards 
would mean that those industries must pay the 
price for accidents that may have occurred in 
industries now bankrupt, terminated or out 
of existence. 

Or, if we think prospectively, how could we 
adequately ask industry to make contributions 
for future possible pension increases unless 
we require industry to pay a percentage of 
each year's assessment into a special fund 
designed for this purpose. Such a plan would 
presently place some of our industries in a 
precarious economic and financial position. 

The Commissioner commented that simi- 
lar conclusions had been reached by the 
Sloan Commission in British Columbia 
which reported in 1952 and by the Roach 
Commission in Ontario in 1950. The Com- 
mission knew of only one instance in which 
increases were made in "old" awards in 
nonfatal cases. This was done by a decision 
of the British Columbia Legislature in 1954. 

The Commissioner recommended, how- 
ever, that all workmen who had received 
pension awards before January 1, 1952 
should be given the opportunity of being 
re-examined within a reasonable time, and 
that the Board should organize a program 
of periodic medical reviews at periods no 
longer than six years apart. 

Waiting Period 

Another change recommended by the 
Commissioner was a reduction in the wait- 
ing period. The report noted that to qualify 
for benefits under the Act a workman had 
to be disabled "from earning full wages" 
for a period of at least five days. Previous 
to 1953 the waiting period was seven days. 

In the Commissioner's view, a waiting 
period was warranted as a part of the 
workman's contribution to the scheme of 
workmen's compensation but, in view of 
the present-day length of the work-week 
and general economic and social conditions, 
he thought that it should be reduced to 
four days. He did not think the argument 
that the increased costs of administration 
would be out of proportion to the amount 
of compensation awarded was borne out 
by the experience of other provinces, nor 
did he think that the reduction would lead 
to any greater possibility of malingering. 
In fact, Mr. Justice McKinnon said, "The 
Commission was impressed by the obviously 
sincere evidence given by scores of work- 
men who appeared before it relating how 



they genuinely endeavour to return to work 
as quickly as possible after injury." 

The Commissioner pointed out that the 
waiting period does not affect the receipt 
of medical aid. As soon as a workman 
is injured he qualifies for the medical assist- 
ance provided by the Board. 

Compensation in Death Cases 

The report recommended an upward 
revision of most of the benefits payable in 
death cases. 

Burial Expenses — Stating that "A cursory 
examination of the costs of funerals indi- 
cates that our maximum award is insufficient 
to adequately assist with these expenses," 
the Commissioner proposed that the maxi- 
mum allowance for burial expenses should 
be increased from $200 to $250 and that, 
as in most of the other provinces, the 
necessary expenses of conveying the worker's 
body to his place of residence should be 
paid. He suggested that, where death 
occurred outside Nova Scotia, the Board 
should have discretion to pay all or part 
of the transportation costs as it saw fit. 

Widows' and Children's Pensions — Mr. 

Justice McKinnon thought that, "having 
regard to current living costs, wage levels 
and personal and family commitments," a 
widow's monthly payment should be in- 
creased from $50 to $60, and the award 
to each dependent child under the age of 
16 years should be increased from $20 to 
$22.50 per month. 

He could see no reason why a limit of 
five should be placed on the number of 
children for whom an allowance was pay- 
able and suggested that this limit should 
be removed. He considered that orphans' 
payments of $30 each per month were fair 
and reasonable and should be unchanged. 
The lump sum payment to a widow, which 
was an arbitrary sum not determined by 
any particular formula, should be raised 
from $100 to $150. 

Maximum Allowances for Widows and 
Dependent Children — As regards the "ceil- 
ing" on the monthly allowance payable to 
a widow or invalid widower and children, 
which since 1956 had been $150, Mr. 
Justice McKinnon said he was firmly con- 
vinced that there should be a maximum 
base but suggested that it should be deter- 
mined in the same manner as a non-fatal 
award. 

He pointed out that the death of a 
workman is to his wife and family the 
equivalent of a permanent total disability 
to a living workman. It would be reason- 
able and logical, therefore, that the maxi- 






732 



mum that a widow and her family should 
receive would be the same pension that her 
husband would have received if he were 
forever totally disabled, that is, 75 per 
cent of his average earnings. 

The Commissioner went on to say: "It 
would not be right to leave this problem 
with a maximum allowance alone. There 
must be a minimum below which the widow 
and family of a lower wage-earner cannot 
go. Industry owes this to workmen as 
part of its responsibility where the tragedy 
of death results." 

He therefore recommended that: 

1. The total award should be based upon 
the scales suggested in the report but should 
not exceed 75 per cent of the maximum 
earnings of the workman, calculated in 
the same manner as average earnings are 
in nonfatal awards. 

2. If the total award exceeded the maxi- 
mum amount noted above, the award should 
be reduced proportionately, but with the 
following minimums: 

(a) $60, where the widow or invalid 
widower is the sole dependant. 

(b) $82.50, where the sole dependants 
are a widow or invalid widower and 
one child. 

(c) $105, where the sole dependants 
are a widow or invalid husband and 
two children, and $12.50 for each 
additional child. 

Common Law Wife — The report noted 
that the Act made no provision for an 
award to the common law wife of a fatally 
injured workman. It recommended that, 
where the Board pays a common law wife 
as a foster-mother until dependency ceases, 
it should be authorized to continue to pay 
benefits to her as if she had been the 
widow, and that if she married she should 
receive the same benefits as a widow 
receives on re-marriage. 

Upward Revision of Former Awards to 
Widows — As with old pension awards to 
disabled workmen, the Commissioner said 
he could not recommend an increase in 
existing widows' awards from the Accident 
Fund, and indicated that government, not 
industry, should bear the cost of any 
increases. 

If we are to be consistent in principle then 
industry paid its price at the time the award 
was made and should not be required to accept 
subsequent upward revisions caused by a 
changed economic pattern . . . Increases in former 
awards are very much in the nature of com- 
munity obligations. If the people of Nova 
Scotia are prepared to make upward revisions 
then they must be prepared collectively to pay 
the price . . . 

72787-5—6 



Industrial Diseases 

The report noted that a workman whose 
disability or death resulted from an indus- 
trial disease listed in the Schedule was 
eligible for compensation provided he was 
employed "at any time within 12 months 
previous to the date of his disablement, 
whether under one or more employments," 
in one of the processes mentioned in the 
Schedule. 

If the workman at or immediately before 
the date of disablement was employed in 
a process set opposite a disease listed in 
the Schedule, he was presumed to have 
contracted it from "the nature of that em- 
ployment," unless the contrary were proved. 

In the Commissioner's opinion, the Board 
did not have power under the existing terms 
of the Act to add diseases to the Schedule 
and he considered that it should be specific- 
ally empowered to do so. Accordingly, he 
recommended that the Board should be 
authorized to make regulations adding to 
the Schedule any disease, not previously 
named, which is peculiar to or characteris- 
tic of a particular industrial process, trade 
or occupation. 

Coal Miners' Pneumonoconiosis Added 
to Schedule — The Commissioner further 
recommended that coal miners' pneumono- 
coniosis, which he described as being caused 
by inhaled coal dust combined with tuber- 
culosis of the lung, should be added to the 
Schedule. 

Evidence before the Commission indicated 
that the number of miners disabled by the 
disease was not great. To determine its 
actual incidence, the report proposed that 
a general survey with X-rays be made of 
all exposed workmen in coal mines, the 
cost to be borne by the Consolidated 
Revenue Fund of the province. The Com- 
missioner made the further suggestion that 
all disability pensions payable to workmen 
who contracted coal miners' pneumono- 
coniosis before lanuary 1, 1959 should be 
paid from the provincial treasury. 

Silicosis — In respect to the problem of sili- 
cosis, upon which the Commission consulted 
Dr. Andrew Riddell as "one of the foremost 
authorities in Canada on respiratory dis- 
eases in industry", the report made a num- 
ber of specific recommendations: 

1. In occupations in which silica dust 
conditions are known to exist and in which 
the employer does not require his workmen 
to be examined, the Board should be 
authorized to conduct examinations and to 
pay the costs out of the Accident Fund. 

2. Consideration should be given to the 
granting of certificates to miners who are 

733 



exposed to silica dust and who upon 
examination are found physically suited for 
work in the industry. 

3. A medical board of two doctors should 
be established, one of whom would be a 
recognized authority on dust diseases, to 
advise the Board on such matters and to 
be responsible for the renewal of miners' 
certificates. Another function of the medical 
board could be the carrying on of research 
into the prevention and treatment of 
pneumonoconiosis. 

Conditions of Entitlement to Compensa- 
tion — In regard to entitlement to compen- 
sation for silicosis, Mr. Justice McKinnon 
said that, where a workman's only exposure 
to silica dust had been in employment in 
the province, he should be entitled to com- 
pensation, regardless of the duration of 
exposure. He would make it a condition, 
however, that to be entitled to any 
award, a workman must have been a resi- 
dent of the province for the three years 
preceding disability. The Act presently pro- 
vided, the report noted, that to be entitled 
to compensation a workman had to be 
exposed to silica dust in Nova Scotia indus- 
try for periods totalling at least five years 
preceding his disablement. 

Subject to the three-year residence 
requirement, a workman who had been 
exposed to silica dust outside the province 
should receive benefits under the Nova 
Scotia Act commensurate with his dis- 
ability, provided 50 per cent of his exposure 
had been in employment in the province. 
Where he was entitled to compensation in 
another jurisdiction, the award should be 
reduced by that amount. Where less than 
50 per cent of total exposure had been in 
the province, the workman should be 
granted compensation for that portion of 
his disability considered to be the respon- 
sibility of Nova Scotia industry. Where 
applicable, these recommendations should 
apply to pneumonoconiosis, the report said. 

Time Limits for Filing Ciaims — Because 
of the difficulty of obtaining a diagnosis of 
the diseases, the Commissioner recom- 
mended that the time limit for filing claims 
for silicosis or pneumonoconiosis should be 
extended from three to five years after the 
workman had ceased to be regularly em- 
ployed. Alternatively, it should be one year 
after the disability had been diagnosed, and 
the Board should be permitted to make 
exceptions, under specified conditions. 

Dust Control — The effectiveness of alu- 
minium therapy as a means of counteracting 
the effect of silica dust was still in doubt, 
the report stated. There should be con- 



tinuous effort to abate or control coal dust 
conditions where mechanical miners are 
used but to expect complete control of coal 
dust conditions "would clearly be to expect 
the impossible". 

Other Diseases — The Commissioner reject- 
ed requests that rheumatism, arthritis, lung 
cancer, heart condition and golden staphylo- 
coccus should be included in the Schedule 
as industrial diseases, stating that they 
may be caused by a number of factors not 
related to employment. On this point the 
Commissioner commented: 

Where a workman contracts a disease which 
is not listed in the Schedule and can prove 
that it is caused by the nature of his employ- 
ment he is entitled to compensation. Where 
the causes of a disease are not in reasonable 
degree limited to the process involved in the 
workman's employment, it would seem to be 
reasonable that the burden of proving his 
claim should rest with him. 

Neurosis — On the question of neurosis, 
which arose following the entombment of 
miners for extended periods in the Spring- 
hill disaster of 1956, the Commissioner 
cited the view of the Sloan Commission 
that an incapacitating neurosis occasioned 
by physical injury or even by shock alone 
was compensable as a personal injury by 
accident under the British Columbia Act. 
There would seem to be little doubt, 
the Commissioner said, that neurosis as 
described by the Sloan Commission was 
also compensable under the Nova Scotia 
Act. 

Hernia — The Commissioner said that 
after "careful and detailed study" he had 
reached the conclusion that, where reason- 
able evidence is available to support a 
claim that a hernia has been brought about 
by employment in an industry covered by 
the Act, the workman should be compen- 
sated. He recommended inclusion in the 
Act of provisions similar to those in the 
Act of Manitoba. 

Medical Aid 

Repeal of Section 91 — In his interim 
report on medical aid submitted to the 
Legislature in 1958 (included as an appen- 
dix to the main report), Mr. Justice McKin- 
non recommended the discontinuance of the 
medical aid plan in effect in the coal-mining 
industry in Cape Breton and, instead, cover- 
age for miners under the medical aid 
provisions of the Workmen's Compensation 
Act. Under the plan (authorized by Section 
91 of the Act) employees made weekly 
contributions, through a check-off from 
their wages, for medical and hospital care, 
and in return the employing company (the 
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation) 



734 



made substantial payments annually to local 
hospitals and miners' relief associations. 
This arrangement, already existing when 
the Act went into force in 1917, had been 
allowed to continue, the report noted, since 
it had appeared to be more favourable to 
the miners than the limited hospitalization 
and medical coverage originally provided 
for in the Act. 

Employees claimed that the plan did not 
supply complete coverage and was no 
longer more favourable to them than the 
medical aid provided by the Act. The 
Medical Society of Nova Scotia said that 
the section "allows a system whereby, under 
certain conditions, the workman is providing 
the entire medical aid for himself and his 
family out of his weekly pay", and urged 
that the Compensation Act should be uni- 
form in the province in all respects. The 
company argued for retention of the system, 
stating that, in the event of repeal of Sec- 
tion 91, it would be forced to discontinue 
contributions to hospitals and the relief 
society. 

In recommending repeal of Section 91, 
the Commission gave first consideration to 
the fact that, if Section 91 were retained, 
"a serious and grave inequity" would be 
condoned and continued. To retain Section 
91, it said, would mean that the employees 
would continue to be bound, against their 
will, to an agreement "which for some 
years has not offered them the advantages 
which caused their entry into the original 
pact with the employer, and which offers 
less than they could obtain under the 
medical aid provisions of the Act". 

The import noted that, with the present 
depressed condition of the coal industry, 
the company would find it difficult to meet 
the new assessment for medical aid added 
to an already "abnormally high" assessment. 
(The Dominion Coal Company now pays 
44 per cent of the total assessment on 
industry in the province, and with its 
parent company, the Dominion Steel and 
Coal Corporation, pays more than 50 per 
cent of the total compensation assessment.) 
It hoped, however, that other recommenda- 
tions of the report would "alleviate the 
burden of oppressive assessment on any 
depressed industry". (See "Assessments" 
below). 

The Commission recommended continua- 
tion of an alternative plan of medical aid 
in operation at the steel plant of the 
Dominion Steel and Coal Company at 
Sydney. Under this plan, medical services, 
supplies and clinical care are provided by 
the company without check-off payments, 
and the company is entitled to a reduction 



in its rate of assessment. It said that provi- 
sion for medical aid plans of this type 
should be retained in any future revision 
of the Act. 

Requests for Additional Medical Serv- 
ices — A request that the medical aid pro- 
vided by the Board should include treatment 
by chiropractors, drugless practitioners and 
chiropodists was turned down by the Com- 
mission on the ground that there was no 
existing statutory regulation of the conduct 
of their practice. The provision of further 
medical services requested, such as the 
removal of infected teeth or tonsils, was 
already covered by Section 87 of the Act, 
which gives the Board full discretion as to 
the necessity, character and sufficiency of 
any medical aid furnished. 

The Commission did not think a recom- 
mendation for additional compensation to 
pay the cost of providing special socks for 
artificial limbs and because of undue wear 
on clothing caused by artificial limbs was 
warranted. It pointed out that a basic prin- 
ciple of workmen's compensation was that 
a workman is not completely compensated 
for his disability. Neither could the Com- 
mission recommend that compensation be 
paid because of lost personal property, 
poiniing out that only injury to the person 
was compensable. 

Medical Fees — The Commission said that 
the Board should retain its general authority 
over fees for medical aid but recommended 
that the schedules of fees of the Medical 
Society of Nova Scotia and of the Dental 
Society should be the basis of payment for 
services authorized by the Board. It said 
that there appeared to be no good reason 
why hospital doctors who received honoraria 
from the provincial Government for the 
care of public charge patients should not 
receive reasonable fees from the Board for 
treatment of compensation patients. 

Another recommendation was that the 
Board should provide by regulation for a 
committee consisting of two doctors and 
two members of the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board and a chairman selected by 
mutual agreement or by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council to maintain liaison, 
and to arbitrate disputes, between the 
Board and the medical profession. 

Notice to Workman's Doctor — It was sug- 
gested that, in the interests of good relation- 
ships, where a workman was referred to a 
specialist, his physician should be informed 
by the Board and advised of the results of 
such consultation. 



72787-5— 6J 



735 



Rehabilitation 

Because of the vital importance of the 
work of occupational rehabilitation, the 
Commission considered that the amount to 
be spent yearly on such rehabilitation should 
be a matter for the discretion of the Board. 
Hence it recommended that the present 
limit of expenditures of $20,000 per year 
should be removed. 

It also recommended that rehabilitation 
should be made the responsibility of a 
full-time officer of the Board. It suggested 
that his duties would be to maintain close 
contact with employment agencies in order 
to find suitable employment for handicapped 
workers, to follow up all cases, and to 
supervise the publicity and public relations 
aspects of the Board's rehabilitation pro- 
gram. 

Second Injury Fund 

The report recommended that the Board 
should be empowered to make assessments 
to provide and maintain a "second injury 
fund" to deal with situations where a 
workman suffers successive disabilities, the 
total effect of which may be permanent 
total disability. 

Using as an illustration the case of the 
loss of a remaining eye by a man blind 
in one eye, where the loss of the eyes 
occurred in separate employments for dif- 
ferent employers, the Commissioner said: 

There are numerous approaches to the prob- 
lems. One is the "full responsibility" approach 
wherein the second employer is solely liable; 
"apportionment" where each employer pays for 
the loss of an eye in his employment; and the 
"second injury" fund which ensures that the 
employee receives the full disability benefits 
but reimburses the employer for a portion of 
the cost. 

The report noted that the fund was 
created and maintained by an assessment 
upon all industries, and thus the cost was 
spread over all classes instead of being 
charged to one. 

Assessments 

In its submission to the Commission, the 
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation 
argued against any increases in assessment 
rates, pointing out that, as the largest 
employer of labour in the province, it paid 
almost half of the total assessment levied. 
Any increase in compensation costs would 
become a direct increase in costs of pro- 
duction and would make it more difficult 
to maintain its competitive position in export 
markets. It was pointed out that the com- 
pensation rate for the industry had been 
increased in order to wipe out a deficit 
accumulated by other operations in Class I 



(which includes other mining and quarrying 
as well as coal mining), a deficit for which 
Dominion Coal operations were not respon- 
sible. 

The report recommended that, in view 
of the great importance to the provincial 
economy of stable coal-mining operations, 
the Board should be authorized to establish 
a Special Fund to pay any deficit in the 
account of any coal-mining employer in 
Class I. Further, it recommended that the 
Board should be empowered to fix "a suit- 
able rate of assessment" for any such em- 
ployer when the financial position of the 
employer warranted the setting of a 
reduced rate. 

Right of Action 

The Commission said that Section 47 of 
the Act, which now prevents an injured 
workman, his dependants or his employer 
from bringing an action against any other 
employer covered by Part I, should be 
amended to add the words "his servants or 
agents," thus excluding managerial and 
supervisory employees of the employer from 
liability to suit. In making this recommen- 
dation, the Commission commented "It 
would indeed be an unpleasant deterrent to 
the employment of foremen and supervisors 
if they are to be liable for actions brought 
by workmen while their employers are not". 

Coverage 

The Commissioner recommended that 
volunteer firemen and employees of hospi- 
tals, nursing homes and veterinary hospitals 
should be brought within the elective 
coverage of the Act. He suggested that the 
municipal corporation within the boun- 
daries of which the volunteer fire depart- 
ment was located should be deemed to be 
the employer, and that earnings of volun- 
teer firemen for compensation purposes 
should be the same as those of a per- 
manently employed fireman, with a maxi- 
mum of $3,600. 

No change was recommended regarding 
policemen, municipal employees, executive 
and office personnel, domestic servants, out- 
workers and farm labourers. The Com- 
missioner considered that the Act provided 
adequate coverage for municipal employees, 
and that the other groups could be included 
on the application of the employer, a pro- 
cedure which appeared to be satisfactory. 

Mr. Justice McKinnon said that the main 
reason against his recommending compul- 
sory coverage for farm workers was not the 
considerable administrative difficulties in- 
volved but the fact that farmers could 
presently secure coverage for their work- 
men "in a manner sufficient to meet existing 



736 



needs". He suggested, however, that, with 
increasing mechanization of farms, the ques- 
tion of coverage of farm workers should be 
reviewed at reasonable intervals. 

Fishing and Dredging— Part III of Act 

Because of the "inadequate benefits" pro- 
vided for fishermen and their dependants 
under Part III and of its "cumbersome pro- 
cedure" for the processing and settlement of 
claims, the Commission gave serious con- 
sideration to the question of whether Part 
III should be repealed and the fishing 
industry again placed under Part I (the 
general provisions) of the Act. 

Under Part III, which was added to the 
Act in 1928, following a series of fishing 
and dredging disasters, employers are 
relieved from assessment under Part I and 
are required to insure their liability with 
reliable underwriters. Compensation under 
Part III does not include medical aid or 
burial expenses but is otherwise payable 
on the Part I scale. Claims are adjudicated 
by the County Court. When a County 
Court Judge makes an award, the owner 
or insurance carrier is required to deposit 
the capitalized value of the award with 
the Workmen's Compensation Board, which 
thereafter administers the payments. 

In oral and written submissions to the 
Commission, fishing vessel owners and 
operators strongly expressed the view that 
Part III should be retained, but that bene- 
fits should be increased as nearly as pos- 
sible to the level of benefits under Part I. 
In view of their "strong representations," 
the Commission recommended that Part III 
with amended provisions respecting benefits 
and procedure should be continued for a 
further period of five years. During such 
time, it was suggested, the organizations 
concerned would have ample opportunity to 
ascertain what the effects on the fishing 
industry would be if it were brought under 
Part I. 

The Commission recommended that Part 
III should be amended to increase the limit 
of liability for claims arising out of any 
one accident from $50,000 to $200,000 per 
vessel and to increase from $1,200 to $2,000 
the earnings of fishermen deemed to be 
wages as a basis for compensation in case 
of accident. The report said that wages 
should be deemed to be $2,000 per year 
unless a workman could prove a greater 
income, with a maximum limit of $3,600, 
as recommended under Part I. 

The Commission further recommended 
that awards under Part III should include 
a sum required to provide educational bene- 
fits to a child from his sixteenth birthday 
to the end of the school year in which his 



eighteenth birthday falls, as provided for 
under Part I. 

In the interests of a more simplified 
procedure, the Commission proposed that 
the Board rather than the County Court 
should be empowered to adjudicate Part III 
claims and that it should be allowed to 
add to the capitalized value of any award 
a suitable amount to cover its administrative 
expenses. 

Finally, the report recommended that 
persons employed in the sealing industry 
should be covered by Part III of the Act. 

Administrative Matters 

On matters of administration, the report 
made several recommendations. The Com- 
missioner suggested that a branch office of 
the Board, staffed by a medical officer and 
other personnel, should be established at 
Sydney, the centre of the industrial area 
of Cape Breton. 

In order that all claims should be given 
the fullest investigation, the report recom- 
mended the creation of a Junior Review 
Board, as in Ontario, to operate on the 
level between the Claims Officer and the 
Board. The Ontario procedure is that the 
Junior Review Board, which consists of 
the Board's solicitor as chairman, the Chief 
Claims Officer and the principal Medical 
Officer, examines the claims which have 
been disallowed by a Claims Officer. Should 
a claim be considered unacceptable by the 
Junior Review Board, it is submitted to 
the members of the Board itself for con- 
sideration and final decision. Thus no claim 
would be rejected until it had been examined 
on three administrative levels. 

Mr. Justice McKinnon recommended also 
the appointment of a Board solicitor who 
might, he suggested, serve as chairman of 
a Junior Review Board, if one were set 
up, and perform other advisory and super- 
visory duties. He commented that the 
Board solicitor played an important role 
in many jurisdictions. 

The Commissioner suggested that the 
provision of stamped, self-addressed form 
envelopes on which the workman would be 
required merely to indicate the nature of 
the injury and the doctor's name and to 
sign would make for more prompt report- 
ing of accidents. He also recommended 
that the Board should provide by regulation 
that, where there is unreasonable delay on 
the part of the doctor in filing reports as 
required, the Board may refuse to pay the 
doctor for his services. 

With regard to salaries, the report recom- 
mended that the Board should be authorized 
to fix the remuneration of members of its 

(Continued on page 751) 



737 



Legal Decision Affecting Labour 



Ontario Court of Appeal contirms ruling of Ontario High Court ordering Labour 
Relations Board to hear employer's application for decertification of union 



On December 15, 1958, the Ontario 
Court of Appeal confirmed the decision of 
Chief Justice McRuer of the Ontario High 
Court, who on May 16, 1958 quashed the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board's decision 
dismissing an application for decertification 
and ordered the Board to hear an applica- 
tion by Genaire Ltd. for decertification of 
the International Association of Machinists 
previously certified by the Board as a bar- 
gaining agent of the company's employees 
(L.G., Nov. 1958, p. 1291). 

Briefly, the following were the circum- 
stances of the dispute. 

In November 1955, the International 
Association of Machinists had been cer- 
tified as bargaining agent of the employees 
of Genaire Limited. The company and the 
union started to bargain but no collective 
agreement resulted. Later the company 
applied to the Board for decertification, 
claiming that the union in question no 
longer represented the company's employees. 

On August 2, 1957, the Board dismissed 
the company's application on the ground 
that the applicant, which was the employer, 
had no right to apply and the Board had 
no jurisdiction to hear the application. 

On May 16, 1958, Chief Justice McRuer, 
acting on the company's application, 
quashed the Board's decision and ordered 
the Board to hear and determine the appli- 
cation. In his opinion the Ontario Labour 



Relations Act should be interpreted in such 
a way that once certain events have 
happened an application for decertification 
may be made by anyone affected. 

The ruling of Chief Justice McRuer was 
appealed. The judgment of the Court of 
Appeal was rendered by Mr. Justice Ayles- 
worth. The Court agreed with the con- 
clusion reached by Chief Justice McRuer 
and with the reasons for his judgment. 

The Court, however, wished to make 
specific comments regarding two matters. 

In the opinion of the Court, the Board, 
when reconsidering its decision under Sec- 
tion 68 ( 1 ) of the Ontario Labour Relations 
Act, would not be restricted merely to a 
consideration of the facts as they existed 
when the Board made its original order, 
but may also take into account any facts 
which arose subsequent to the making of 
the original order and which the Board 
may consider relevant. 

Further the Court added that when a 
decision of the Board is appealed and coun- 
sel appears on behalf of the Board, argu- 
ment should be addressed not to the merits 
of the case between the parties appearing 
before the Board but rather to the jurisdic- 
tion or lack of jurisdiction of the Board. 
Then the impartiality of the Board would 
be better emphasized and its dignity and 
authority the better preserved. Regina v. 
Ont. Lab. Rel. Bd., ex parte Genaire Ltd. 
(1959) O.W.N., No. 19, p. 149. 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Ontario and Quebec revise regulations for trade schools to provide for stricter 
government control, and Alberta re-issues apprenticeship rules for six trades 



In Ontario and Quebec, regulations for 
trade schools were revised to provide for 
stricter Government control of schools giv- 
ing vocational training. 

Other recent regulations deal with appren- 
ticeship in Alberta and exemptions under 
the Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act. 

Alberta Apprenticeship Act 

The Alberta Apprenticeship Board 
recently re-issued its regulations for the 
trades of cook, machinist, millwright, sheet 
metal worker, painter and decorator, and 
bricklayer, mason, tile setter and terrazzo 
worker. 



The only change was a new provision 
respecting certificates of qualification. After 
completing his term of apprenticeship and 
passing the trade tests and trade examina- 
tions prescribed by the Board, an appren- 
tice will now be granted a completion of 
apprenticeship certificate upon payment of 
a fee of $3. He will then be automatically 
eligible for a certificate of qualification as 
a journeyman without fee. 

As before, experienced tradesmen who 
have not undergone formal apprentice train- 
ing will be granted a certificate of qualifica- 
tion if they submit satisfactory credentials 
and pass the prescribed trade tests and 
trade examinations, except that the fee 



738 



is now $10 in all cases. Previously, the fee 
for examination and the certificate was $3 
in the sheet metal, painting and decorating 
and machinist trades and $10 in the case 
of the three other trades. 

The new regulations were gazetted on 
May 15 as Alta. Reg. 147/59 to 152/59. 

Ontario Trade Schools Regulation Act 

Regulations setting out new requirements 
for trade schools in Ontario were gazetted 
on May 9 as O. Reg. 78/59. 

The Trade Schools Regulation Act was 
amended this year to provide for stricter 
government control of private trade schools. 
Among other changes, the registration 
requirements were clarified and trade schools 
were made subject to inspection from the 
point of view of safety. Instead of exempt- 
ing apprenticeable trades, the amended Act 
expressly prohibits a trade school from 
giving instruction in a trade designated 
under the Apprenticeship Act, except with 
the consent of the Minister of Labour. 

In line with these changes, the new 
regulations lay down more specific regis- 
tration requirements. Applicants must give 
more detailed information with respect to 
courses and must also furnish a certificate 
from an authorized inspector testifying 
that the school buildings and premises 
comply with fire requirements as well as 
with other health and safety standards. 

If a course includes instruction in a 
building or mechanical trade designated 
under the Apprenticeship Act, the contract 
must include a statement to the effect that 
no apprenticeship credit will be granted 
for the trade school training. 

As regards security, the regulations now 
require an operator to deposit $500 for 
each branch school in addition to the 
$1,000 previously required. 

Quebec Private Vocational Schools Act 

The first regulations to be issued under 
the new Quebec Private Vocational Schools 
Act were approved by O.C. 371 on April 
22 and gazetted on May 9. 

Passed at the last session of the Quebec 
Legislature to replace the Trade-schools 
Act, the Private Vocational Schools Act, 
like the Ontario statute referred to above, 
provides for stricter government regulation 
of schools giving vocational education. 

The new regulations have a somewhat 
wider coverage than the previous regula- 
tions, applying not only to the usual type 
of trade school but also to schools offering 
courses in automation, electronics, radar 
or nuclear energy. 

Concerned with normal as well as with 



educational and safety standards, the regu- 
lations provide that an applicant for a 
permit must submit documents establishing 
not only the academic training and com- 
petency but also the moral standing of 
the owner, director and instructors. Also, 
the director and instructor are specifically 
required to have regard for a student's 
morals as well as his physical well-being. 

In addition to the general requirement 
that all school premises must be kept clean 
and safe, the regulations provide that all 
equipment, tools and machinery must be 
fitted with proper safety devices. Instructors 
are to make sure that students use the 
protective equipment or devices provided. 

Instead of prohibiting the enrolment of 
persons under 16 years, the regulations now 
provide that students must have reached 
the statutory school-leaving age (14 in most 
cases), further stipulating that they must 
be old enough to be trained properly in 
the course in which enrolled. 

Schools teaching a trade that is subject 
to a decree under the Collective Agreement 
Act are required to inform students of the 
applicable provisions of the decree. 

In keeping with the intent to maintain 
closer supervision of vocational schools, 
the regulations provide that corrected exam- 
ination papers must be kept for at least one 
year, during which period they must be 
available for inspection at any time. 

Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act 

Two orders under the Saskatchewan 
Hours of Work Act clarifying an order for 
shops and exempting certain employees 
engaged in school construction were gazetted 
on May 22. 

The first order, a re-issue of an order 
issued in 1955 (O.C. 1836/55), makes it 
clear that the requirement to pay time 
and one-half after eight hours in the day 
and 44 in the week applies only to persons 
employed in shops in the cities with a 
population of 10,000 or more and a five- 
mile radius (Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, 
Regina, Saskatoon and Swift Current). 

In the five small cities (Estevan, Lloyd- 
minster, North Battleford, Weyburn, and 
Yorkton) and in 55 listed towns and vil- 
lages, employees in shops are again per- 
mitted to work up to 11 hours on one day 
in the week without overtime, provided 
that overtime is payable after eight hours 
on all other days and after 44 hours in 
the week. Where the total of the daily 
excesses and the weekly excess differ, the 
overtime rate is to be paid in respect of 
the greater excess. 

{Continued on page 744) 



739 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



In a comparison of current employment 
consideration should be given to relevant 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal industries, 
increase in area population, influence of 
weather conditions, and the general employ- 
ment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted either 
as "total number of beneficiaries" or "total 
job applicants". 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of initial and renewal claims and number of claimants at month-end 
both down from month and year earlier. Claims total in April, statistics* 
show, was down 10 per cent from March and 5 per cent from April of last year 

The number of initial and renewal claimst 
for unemployment insurance benefit in April 
was 206,900, which was 10 per cent less 
than the March figure and 5 per cent below 
the total for April 1958. 

Claimants t for unemployment insurance 
benefit numbered 610,800 on April 30. This 
was 20 per cent below the total on March 
31 and 15 per cent less than that of April 
30, 1958. 

Seasonal benefit claimants included in 
these totals numbered 228,400 on April 30, 
representing a decline of 12 per cent from 
March 31 but practically no change from 
April 30, 1958. Regular claimants at 382,- 
400 on April 30 were 25 per cent fewer 
than a month earlier and 23 per cent below 
the figure for April 30, 1958. 

Compared with both a month and a year 
earlier, the number of male claimants for 
both regular and seasonal benefit declined 
more than the number of female claimants. 
This reflected the seasonal gain in industries 
such as construction, which employ mainly 
males. While male and female claimants 
taken together declined by 20 per cent 
during April, males declined by 24 per cent 
and females by only 7 per cent. Compared 
with the year before, all claimants were 



* See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of this issue. 

t The initial claims total includes claims com- 
puted under the seasonal benefit provisions, as all 
initial claims are computed first for regular benefit, 
and the renewal claims total includes claims from 
seasonal benefit claimants. Claimants who exhaust 
their regular benefit during the seasonal benefit 
period are not cut off from benefit. If they wish 
to be considered for further benefit, they must file 
a claim in the usual manner. When there are 
insufficient contribution weeks to establish another 
regular benefit period, seasonal benefit will be 
granted, but not more than once during the 
seasonal benefit period. 

t A claimant's unemployment register is placed in 
the "live file" at the local office as soon as the 
claim is forwarded for computation. As a result, 
the count of claimants at any given time inevitably 
includes some whose claims are in process. During 
the seasonal benefit period, such cases are deemed 
to be "regular" until the results of the computation 
indicate otherwise. 



15 per cent fewer at the end of April, but 
males were down 19 per cent and females 
only 4 per cent. 

Initial claims, numbering 144,200, were 
12 per cent fewer than in March; renewals, 
which numbered 62,700, were down by 
5 per cent. The renewals can be considered 
to be new cases of separation from insured 
employment during the month. A substan- 
tial number of the initial claims, however, 
represent claims by persons who had 
exhausted regular benefit and who wished 
to be considered for seasonal benefit. Such 
claims constituted 54 per cent of all initial 
claims processed during April, compared 
with 47 per cent during March and 50 per 
cent during April 1958. 

The average weekly benefit payment was 
$21.29 for April, $21.58 for March and 
$21.59 for April 1958. 

Insurance Registrations 

This year the annual renewal of insur- 
ance books takes place during May. Con- 
sequently, the usual statistics on the number 
of insurance books and contribution cards 
issued to employees are not available for 
the month of April. They will, however, 
be available for the month of May. As the 
figures are cumulative, those issued as at 
May 31 will include all new entrants to the 
insured population from April 1. 

Employers registered at April 30 num- 
bered 317,798, which was an increase of 
1,343 during the month. 



740 



Enforcement Statistics 

During April, 6,863 investigations were 
conducted by enforcement officers across 
Canada. Of these, 4,500 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify the 
fulfilment of statutory conditions, and 139 
were miscellaneous investigations. The 
remaining 2,224 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were begun in 172 cases, 39 
against employers and 133 against claim- 
ants.* Punitive disqualifications as a result 



of claimants' making false statements or 
misrepresentations numbered 1,442.* 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue in April totalled $14,581,844.02 
compared with $18,614,902,731 in March 
and $17,291,877.22 in April 1958. Benefits 
paid in April totalled $59,926,417.20 com- 
pared with $65,868,400.00t in March and 
$66,653,314.04 in April 1958. The balance in 
the fund on April 30 was $454,852,378.46; 
on March 31 it was $496,302,330.9 It and 
on April 30, 1958, $694,154,698.84. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB- 1629, May 7 f 1959 

Summary of the Main Facts — The claim- 
ant, single, 68 years of age, who resides 
in Gananoque, Ont., registered for employ- 
ment as a bookkeeper and filed a claim for 
benefit on October 24, 1958. She stated 
that she had been employed as a book- 
keeper by Gananoque Inn Ltd., from April 
1958 to October 24, 1958, and that she 
had been laid off as the business had been 
closed for the season. 

On November 10, 1958, she informed 
the local office that she was going to make 
a temporary visit to her sister-in-law in 
Akron, Ohio, and that she would curtail 
her visit at any time if suitable employ- 
ment became available, in which case the 
local office was to contact her home in 
Gananoque and her sister in turn would 
contact her. 

The visit lasted from November 11 to 
November 22, 1958. According to a state- 
ment dated November 24, 1958, she would 
have been able to return to Gananoque 
within 24 hours. 

On December 3, 1958, the local office 
sent the claim file to the insurance officer 
with the following statement: 

Claimant was not given permission by (the 
local office) to leave area but was advised prior 
to departure that she would be classed not 
available for the duration of her visit. She 
has now been marked not available for the 
period from 11 Nov. 58 to 22 Nov. 58 both 
dates inclusive. However claimant still feels 
that she was available due to the fact that 
arrangements were made with (the local office) 
whereby she could be notified of an employ- 
ment opportunity. 

The insurance officer notified the claimant 
on December 5, 1958, that she was dis- 
qualified from November 11 to November 

* These do not necessarily relate to the investiga- 
tions conducted during this period. 



22, 1958, inclusive, because, in his opinion, 
she had failed to prove she was available 
for work in that she was away from the 
local office area visiting in Ohio and was 
not participating actively in the search of 
employment in that area (section 54 (2) (a) 
of the Act). 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees on December 8, 1958, for the 
following reasons: 

I followed your instructions in "Direction 
to report book" page 14, item 25, and reported 
to your office I would be out of town, but 
was willing to return if any work was available 
and could be reached by telephoning my home 
here and my sister would get in touch with 
me, and I could be back in twenty-four hours, 
in fact sooner, as I could leave on the 4 p.m. 
bus from Akron, and be in Gananoque around 
1.30 p.m. next day, therefore I cannot under- 
stand why this should deprive me of my 
insurance. 

In a latter dated December 31, 1958, the 
claimant stated, in effect, that had she 
been told it was necessary to ask for 
permission to leave the area she could 
have sought such permission. She pointed 
out that about two and a half years ago 
she went to Akron, Ohio, and when she 
returned she had no difficulty obtaining 
her unemployment insurance benefit, so 
naturally she did the same thing in 
November 1958. 

The claimant was not present at the 
hearing of her case by a board of referees 
in Oshawa, Ont., on January 7, 1959. The 
board, by a majority decision, dismissed 
the appeal on the ground that she was not 
available for work. In reaching this finding, 
the majority members of the board noted 
that the claimant "was advised prior to 
departure that she would be classed not 



t All figures for March are subject to revision. 



741 



available" and pointed out that in accord- 
ance with the Umpire's decision CUB-756, 
she had to be "ready to accept work which 
might perchance be offered to her" and 
had to be "participating actively in seeking 
employment in her own area". 

The member of the board who dissented 
was of the opinion that the claimant had 
not been advised prior to her departure 
that she would be classed as not available 
and that according to the booklet Form 
UIC 50 ID (Direction to Report and Infor- 
mation for Claimants) and more specifically 
paragraph 25 thereof, the claimant had 
followed the instructions therein "to the 
letter". 

The claimant appealed to the Umpire 
on the grounds that in neither Form UIC 
50 ID referred to above nor the "Worker's 
Handbook" (Form UIC 651 A) is it stated 
that a claimant has to receive permission 
from the local office of the Commission 
to leave her home area and as a con- 
sequence "did not understand it was neces- 
sary to ask permission". 

Considerations and Conclusions — The 
claimant did not deny having been informed 
by the local office, prior to her departure, 
that she would be considered not available 
for work while visiting in Akron. Con- 
sequently, her contention to the effect that 
she should be given the benefit of any 
ambiguity which might exist in the instruc- 
tions or explanations outlined in Forms 
UIC 50 ID and 651 A must be disregarded. 
So must the fact that she did not take 
heed of the advice that "she would be 
classed not available for the duration of 
her visit," as such advice could not be 
binding since it was neither a decision of 
an insurance officer nor a ruling in favour 
of the claimant. Therefore, the only ques- 
tion to be examined is whether she proved 
that she was "available for work" within 
the meaning of that phrase in section 54 
(2) (a) of the Act, on the days comprising 
the period November 11 to November 22, 
1958, inclusive. 

First of all, I wish to point out that the 
circumstances of the case dealt with in 
decision CUB-756, on which decision the 
board of referees appears to have based its 
majority finding, are quite different from 
those of the present appeal. In that case, 
the claimant did not advise the local office 
before her departure, she did not make 
arrangements to be notified in the event 
that employment became available and, 
most important of all, the duration of her 
"visit" was for as long as nine weeks. 

In the present case, the record shows 
that the claimant advised the local office 
of her intended absence and made reason- 



able arrangements to ensure that any 
opportunity of suitable employment could 
be brought to her knowledge without delay. 
It shows also that she would have curtailed 
her visit at any time if such employment 
had become available and that there was no 
circumstance of a compelling nature con- 
nected with her absence or with the location 
of her temporary residence which, in the 
ordinary course of events, could have pre- 
vented her from reporting in person to the 
local office within 24 hours. 

In view of the above considerations and 
after taking into account the very impor- 
tant fact that her visit was of a relatively 
short duration, I consider that the sole 
fact that she did not seek employment 
personally, which is not an explicit require- 
ment of the Act but may in some circum- 
stances be necessary as proof of a claimant's 
intention to work, is in my opinion insuffi- 
cient in the present instance to justify a 
finding that she was not in the labour 
market during the period in question. 

For all the above reasons, I decide to 
allow the claimant's appeal. 

Decision CUB- 1631, May 15, 1959 

Summary of the Main Facts — The 19 

claimants interested in the present appeal, 
who were engaged in sawing operations at 
the sawmill of the Field Lumber (1956) 
Limited at Field, Ont., were among the 
42 hourly rated employees who were laid 
off on June 28, 1958. Remaining at work 
were approximately 30 employees (12 
engaged in the installation of a chipper 
machine and the remainder employed in 
shipping and planing mill operations). 

On June 30, 1958, the representative 
claimant filed an initial application for 
benefit and stated as the reason for his 
separation from the above-mentioned em- 
ployment, "Laid off — work completed". The 
employer did not apparently return form 
UIC 479, Confirmation of Separation, to 
the local office; however, on a copy thereof 
in the claimant's file there is a handwritten 
note that the reasons for separation were 
"verified by telephone". On that informa- 
tion, the claimant's application for benefit 
was allowed. 

On July 4, 1958, at 2.30 p.m., 16 of the 
30 employees still employed went on strike. 
The union of which they were members, 
viz., the International Woodworkers of 
America, Local 506, put up tents at the 
entrance to the mill premises and established 
a picket line. These employees were joined 
on the picket line by other employees who 
had been laid off on June 28 and belonged 
to the same union. The non-union em- 
ployees completed their normal day's work 



742 



and left the plant. In view of the strike 
action taken by the union, the company 
decided to suspend operations and did not 
open the plant at 7.30 a.m. on July 5. 

Up until July 15, 1958, the president of 
the company and the three members of 
the office staff were permitted entrance to 
the company's office. On July 15 and 16, 
however, the pickets prevented the entrance 
of the office staff. On July 17, an injunction 
was served on several union members and 
the picket line was limited to three persons 
at any one time. The office staff returned 
to work as of the latter-mentioned date. 

On July 21, 1958, certain employees 
approached the employer and expressed a 
desire to return to work. The employer 
agreed to this and 19 employees reported 
for work and continued in their employ- 
ment for three days during which they 
were engaged in the installation of new 
machinery. This partial resumption of 
operations was brought to a halt by the 
employer, who decided again to suspend 
operations at the end of the day shift on 
July 23, allegedly due to violence, etc., on 
the picket line. 

On September 4, 1958, the secretary- 
treasurer of the company wrote a letter 
to the local office, which reads: 

Further to your telephone conversation of 
this afternoon, we wish to advise that before 
the shut-down of sawing operations, the mill 
crew was advised that the mill would close 
on June 28 for the installation of a chipper. 
They were told then that the lay-off would last 
approximately two weeks. 

As soon as the chipper would be installed, 
sawing would be resumed and everyone called 
back to work. 

On September 11, 1958, the insurance 
officer disqualified the claimant as from July 
21, 1958, under section 63 of the Act for 
having lost his employment on the latter- 
mentioned date by reason of a stoppage 
of work attributable to a labour dispute 
at the premises at which he was employed. 

On September 18, 1958, the claimant 
appealed to a board of referees and stated 
in his appeal: "...I was laid off work by 
my employer, the Field Lumber Company, 
and I have not been notified that work was 
available." 

The board of referees heard the case in 
North Bay, Ont., on October 22, 1958. 
Among those who attended the hearing 
were the employer and two officials of the 
claimant's union. 

One of the union officials, when asked 
by the chairman of the board for his com- 
ments on the claimant's statement, "I have 
not been notified that work was available", 
stated: 

Never at any time have they notified any 
employee to return to work. Not even through 
me as Union Representative. Also there was 



a notice posted in the mill at the time of layoff 
saying that the mill would be closed. There 
was no suggestion of a resumption of work 
at all . . . 

The board by a unanimous decision dis- 
missed the appeal and stated in part: 

We do agree that, as this claimant was laid 
off work on 28 June, 1958, he was not an 
employee of the Field Lumber Company on 
4 July, 1958, and, therefore, did not lose his 
employment on that date due to a labour 
dispute. However, on 21 July, 1958, as the 
claimant was a member of the striking union 
and had contributed funds to that union, he 
could be considered to have stopped available 
employment from commencing and, therefore, 
had presented obstacles in he, himself, being 
employed. 

With the permission of the chairman of 
the board, the claimant appealed to the 
Umpire, contending that the board of 
referees had erred in its interpretation of 
section 63 of the Act and of the facts of 
the case. 

On behalf of the claimant, A. Andras, 
Director, Legislation Department, Canadian 
Labour Congress, requested an oral hear- 
ing before the Umpire, which he attended 
in Toronto on March 12, 1959. G. Kieffer, 
of the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion, represented the insurance officer. 

Considerations and Conclusions — For a 

disqualification to be imposed pursuant to 
section 63 of the Act, it must first of all 
be proven that a claimant's loss of employ- 
ment comes within the provisions of sub- 
section (1), which reads in part: 

An insured person who has lost his employ- 
ment by reason of a stoppage of work attribut- 
able to a labour dispute at the factory, work- 
shop or other premises at which he was 
employed, is disqualified from receiving benefit 
until . . . the termination of the stoppage of 
work . . . 

In the present case, there is no evidence 
in the record nor was it contended at any 
time that the claimant's loss of employment 
as and when it occurred on June 28, 1958, 
was by reason of a stoppage of work 
attributable to a labour dispute at the 
premises at which he was employed. There- 
fore, the only question is whether or not 
the claimant had the status of being em- 
ployed on July 21, 1958, and this in turn 
depends upon whether the notice given by 
the employer constituted a temporary 
suspension of the claimant's services or 
whether such services were unconditionally 
or indefinitely dispensed with. The issue 
resolves itself into a pure question of fact. 

There is proof in the record to the effect 
that the employees "laid off" on June 28, 
1958, were told "then" that the suspension 
of the sawing operations would last approx- 
imately two weeks, i.e., the time required 
for installing a chipper machine in the 
sawmill. Such proof consists of the letter 



743 



which was sent to the local office by the 
company's secretary-treasurer on September 
4, 1958. It is noted that this letter was 
written two months after the beginning of 
the stoppage and that the information con- 
tained therein was supplied following a 
telephone conversation with the local office. 
There is proof also, and the claimant's 
representative at the hearing before me has 
accordingly contended, that the notice given 
the claimant did not even mention an 
approximate date of return. This conten- 
tion is implicitly supported by one of the 
findings of fact by the board of referees 
that since the claimant "was laid off work 
on 28 June, 1958, he was not an employee 
of the Field Lumber Company on 4 July, 
1958". It is explicitly supported by the 
statement made by the claimant on June 
30, 1958, four days before the stoppage of 
work on July 4, that he had been laid off 
because the work had been completed and 
his subsequent statement that he had not 
been notified that work was available. More- 
over, at the hearing before the board of 



referees, the above statements were cor- 
roborated by the union's representative and 
more important still his evidence was not 
denied that none of the "laid off" employees 
had at any time been notified to return to 
work, that the notice posted in the mill 
said "the mill would be closed" and that 
"there was no suggestion of a resumption 
of work at all". 

From the above it can be seen that the 
evidence as to the notice given the claimant 
on June 28, 1958, is of a contradictory 
nature. If the employer's version as to the 
notice is accepted, the appeal must fail, and 
by the same token I think if the claimant's 
version is accepted, he is entitled to succeed. 
In my opinion, however, on balance the 
proof favours the claimant and in any 
event or at least it can be said that a serious 
doubt exists. And since the onus rested on 
the insurance officer to prove that the 
claimant had the status of being employed 
on July 21, 1958, and we are not here 
dealing purely with unanimous findings of 
fact by a board of referees, my decision is 
to allow the claimant's appeal. 



Recent Regulations 

(Continued from page 739) 

Persons employed in shops in places 
other than the cities and the 55 listed towns 
and villages are again permitted to work up 
to 48 hours a week at straight-time rates. 

As before, in any week in which a public 
holiday occurs, the 44 and 48 hours are 
to be reduced by eight for the purpose of 
determining overtime. No account is to 
be taken of any time that the employee 
may have been required to work or be at 
the disposal of his employer on the holiday. 

This order applies to any shop where 
goods or services are sold, including a 
barber shop, a ladies' hairdressing, mani- 
curing or beauty parlour, and a dry-cleaning 



or dyeing establishment, but does not cover 
a hotel or restaurant or place where farm 
implements are sold. 

Oil truckers other than those engaged in 
long-distance trucking are again excluded, 
a special order (1207/55) providing that, 
in the case of such employees, overtime in 
excess of 44 hours a week in the busy 
season may be offset in the slack season. 

The second order (O.C. 796/59) pro- 
vides that, effective June 1, the overtime 
provisions will not apply to persons engaged 
in the construction or repair of school 
buildings under the Larger School Units 
Act, except in the cities of the province 
and in 55 listed towns and villages and a 
five-mile radius. The towns and villages 
listed are the same as in the order described 
above. 



Report of Board 

(Continued from page 729) 

Union Security 

This union was certified in 1953. The 
present agreement requires the Corporation 
to deduct from gross earnings of the em- 
ployees the union dues of If per cent of 
such earnings and remit the same to the 
Union. Eight employees out of 1,200 are 
outside this arrangement as they were em- 
ployees prior to 1953 and are not members 
of the union. The union now asks for a 
"union shop", under which all employees 



would be required to be members of the 
union as a condition of their employment. 
The Corporation resists this change on 
several grounds, chief of which is that the 
union could bring about the severance of 
an employee from the Corporation by dis- 
missing him from the union, in which event 
the Corporation would be powerless. 

I am unable to appreciate the necessity 
of a union shop in these circumstances and 
further am of opinion that it should not be 
forced on an employer against its will. 
(Sgd.) H. Brooke Bell, 
Member. 



744 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 256 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown Corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 181 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to 
trade unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of 
the contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows : 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Agriculture 1 $ 12,026.00 

Defence Production 51 106,548.00 

Post Office 11 128,494.16 

R.C.M.P 12 47,455.42 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour 
legislation of the federal Government has 
the purpose of insuring that all Government 
contracts for works of construction and for 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment 
contain provisions to secure the payment of 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- 
able in each trade or classification employed 
in the district where the work is being per- 
formed. 

The practice of Government departments 
and those Crown corporations to which the 
legislation applies, before entering into con- 
tracts for any work of construction, re- 
modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain 
wage schedules from the Department of 
Labour showing the applicable wage rate 
for each classification of workmen deemed 
to be required in the execution of the work. 



These wage schedules are thereupon in- 
cluded with other relevant labour condi- 
tions as terms of such contracts to be 
observed by the contractors. 

Wage schedules are not included in con- 
tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment because it is not possible to 
determine in advance the classifications to 
be employed in the execution of a contract. 
A statement of the labour conditions which 
must be observed in every such contract 
is however, included therein and is of the 
same nature and effect as those which apply 
in works of construction. 

Copies of the federal Government's Fair 
Wages and Hours of Labour legislation 
may be had upon request to the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department of 
Labour. Ottawa. 



745 



(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during May 

During May the sum of $2,703.68 was collected from seven contractors for wage 
arrears due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their sub- 
contractors, to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the 
schedule of labour conditions forming part of their contract. This amount has been or 
will be distributed to the 177 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Near Outlook Sask: Beattie Ramsay Construction Co Ltd, construction of well-point 
water supply system, South Saskatchewan River Project. Summerland B C: Pollock & 
Taylor Construction Co Ltd, construction of Animal & Plant Science Bldg, Experimental 
Farm. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Halifax N S: Cook's Building & General Contractor, * erection of refuse can screen 
fences, Projects 19 & 19A. Camp Gagetown N B: Fowler Bros, alterations to exterior finish 
of housing units (DND 27A/54). Camp Borden Ont: Vandermeer & Mast, site improve- 
ment & planting (DND 13/55). Napanee Ont: James Landscaping Co, landscaping 
(FP 2/57). Petawawa Ont: Val d'Or Construction Co Ltd, clearing, grubbing & burning 
(DND 13/58). Winnipeg Man: Oswald Decorating Co, exterior painting of houses. 
Regina Sask: Comfort Plumbing & Heating Ltd, ^plumbing maintenance, Projects 2 lo 6, 
7/48 & 8/49. Edmonton Alta: Ideal Paving Co Ltd, paving entrance roadway & rear 
areas, Highland Court. Lethbridge Alta: Norwin Decorating Ltd, exterior painting of 
wartime housing units. Comox B C: Manson Bros Ltd, construction of housing units 
(DND 6/58). 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Abitibi Indian Agency Que: Courchesne & Lafleur Engineering, painting of Amos 
Residential School. Duck Lake Indian Agency Sask: C M Miners Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of James Smith Central day school, James Smith Indian Reserve. Meadow 
Lake Indian Agency Sask: Hine Plumbing & Heating, construction of boys' & girls' shower 
room, Union Lake IRS. Touchwood Indian Agency Sask: Comfort Plumbing & Heating 
Ltd, revisions to laundry & domestic hot water heating system, Muscowequan IRS. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Summerside P E I: Louis Donolo Inc, construction of bulk petroleum storage installa- 
tion including electrical installation, security fencing, etc, RCAF Station. Dartmouth N S: 
Cambrian Construction Ltd, construction of supply bldg. Greenwood N S: Valley Services 
Ltd, alterations to domestic supply pumphouse, RCAF Station. Halifax N S: Foundation 
Maritime Ltd, repairs to quay wall, etc, HMC Dockyard; Fundy Construction Co Ltd, 
erection & finishing of two steel prefabricated garages & outside services; Banfield & 
Miles, interior painting of Officers' Quarters bldg; Bryant Electric Co Ltd, construction of 
jetty services (steam, water, air, electrical & telephone), Seaward Defence Base. Camp 
Gagetown N B: Forbes & Sloat Ltd, construction of artificial ice rink & outside services. 

746 



Saint John N B: John A Kennedy & Co Ltd, partial rewiring & relighting of Armoury. 
St Johns Que: Desourdy Freres Ltee, removal of boiler room & extension & connection 
of underground steam distribution system, etc, College Militaire Royal. Kingston Ont: 
James Kemp Construction Ltd, construction of civil engineering laboratory, RMC; H J 
McFarland Construction Co Ltd, construction of electrical distribution system, connection 
to Kingston sewer, roads, curbs & miscellaneous outside services, RMC. London Ont: 
Canadian Pacific Railway Co, * construction of railway siding for warehouses 4 & 5, 
No 27 COD. Petawawa Ont: Evans Contracting Co Ltd, paving, grassing & fencing "BB" 
area; Bedard-Girard Ltd, installation of electrical distribution system; Val d'Or Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of eastern trunk sewer-plant bypass & cutlet & western 
interceptor sewer-plant bypass & outlet; Canadian Comsock Co Ltd, ^repairs to heating 
system, Bldg P-114. Uplands Ont: Sorel Industrial Ltd, ^manufacture & installation of 
variable diffuser & model support for high speed wind tunnel, NAE; Horton Steel Works 
Ltd, *supply and erection of constant diffuser of high speed wind tunnel, NAE; Standard 
Steel Construction Co Ltd, supply & erection of structural steel for bldgs of high speed 
wind tunnel, NAE. Camp Shilo Man: Peter Leitch Construction Ltd, construction of PT 
& Recreation Bldg (M-103). Winnipeg Man: Swanson Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of concrete walks & hardstands, RCAF Station. Esquimalt B C: Commonwealth Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of central heating plant, steam distribution system, etc, 
HMC Dockyard; Peterson Electrical Construction Co Ltd, supply & installation of KVA 
Transformer on Jetty "A", HMC Dockyard. 

Building and Maintenance 

Torbay Nfld: All Sales Equipment Contracting Ltd, asphalt surfacing of aircraft 
parking area, RCAF Station. Chatham N B: Les Peintres de Chez-nous Ltee, exterior 
painting of 99 PMQ's, RCAF Station. Downsview Ont: Bramall & Co Construction Ltd, 
paving & sealing of roads, RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: Foley Construction Ltd, renova- 
tions to boat house, RMC; D M Hawkins Ltd, interior painting of various bldgs, RMC. 
North Bay Ont: Standard Paving Ltd, asphalt & concrete surfacing of bulk fuel storage 
area, RCAF Station. Oakville Ont: Campbell & Kennedy Electric Ltd, rewiring & 
relighting of headquarters bldg, Ortona Barracks. Picton Ont: Electric Motor Sales & 
Service (Belleville) Ltd, installation of off-peak water heater control. Trenton Ont: 
Rutgers Vanderdrift, exterior painting of 128 PMQ's, RCAF Station; Miron-Lassin & 
Associates Ltd, workshop extension to central heating plant, RCAF Station. Camp Shilo 
Man: Western Asbestos Co Ltd, application of cedar grain shingles to eleven bldgs. 
Chilliwack B C: Froggett & vander Mout, exterior painting of nine bldgs & 73 PMQ's. 
Vancouver B C: Continental Painters & Decorators, exterior paiting of 14 bldgs. 

Department of Defence Production 

Bedford Basin N S: Cameron Contracting Ltd, alterations to Bldg No 70, RCN 
Magazine. Greenwood N S: Fred Cleveland, interior painting of Barrack Block No 41, 
RCAF Station. Halifax N S: Powers Bros Ltd, renewal of water lines on Jetty No 1, 
HMC Dockyard. Newport Corner N S: Banfield & Mites, renovation of antennae towers 
& ancillary structures, Naval Radio Station. St Hubert Que: Charles Duranceau Ltd, 
asphalt laying, RCAF Station. St Sylvestre Que: Modern Paving & Construction Ltd, 
repairing asphalt roads & parking lots, RCAF Station. Senneterre Que: Valere Bolduc, 
painting interior of PMQ's, RCAF Station. Clinton Ont: Len J McCarthy, exterior painting 
of various bldgs, RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: Ram Electric Ltd, supply & installation of 
new control panel, etc, Currie Bldg No 15, RMC. Ottawa Ont: Casavant Bros, renovation 
of No 208 Workshops, Bldg 266, RCAF Station. Trenton Ont: Sargent's Roofing Co, 
re-roofing of Bldg No 23, No 6 Repair Depot, RCAF Station. Uplands Ont: Hurdman 
Bros Ltd, paving of parking lots & entrances at rear of PMQ's 104 & 110, RCAF Station. 
Gimli Man: G D Shrader, repainting interior of PMQ's, RCAF Station. Shilo Man: Twin 
Cities Painting & Bldg Cleaning Co Ltd, repainting of Para Jump Tower, etc, Military 
Camp; Maple Leaf Construction Ltd, renewal of paved surfaces at Shilo Military 
Camp. Winnipeg Man: Ideal Decorating Co, interior painting of PMQ's, RCAF Station. 
Cold Lake Aha: Upright Bros Ltd, supply & installation of oil furnaces & equipment, 
RCAF Station. Ralston Alta: Dutch Bros Painting Contractors, exterior painting of 40 
PMQ's. Comox B C: Cochrane Fuel & Trucking Ltd, asphalt paving of parking lot 
No 18, RCAF Station. Kamloops B C: British Ropes Canadian Factory Ltd, *fencing of 
area around unloading platform, RCNAD area. Prince Rupert B C: Yarrows Ltd, cleaning, 
etc, Tank No 2, Morse Creek Fuel Oil Depot. Victoria B C: Victoria Paving Co Ltd, 
paving of sidewalks, roads & hardstanding areas, Work Point Barracks. 

747 



National Harbours Board 

Montreal Que: Bedard-Girard Ltd, supply & installation of lighting system at South 
Approach, Jacques Cartier Bridge; Miron Construction Ltd, construction of macadam base 
& bituminous concrete pavement at Sutherland Pier, Section 46 & bituminous concrete 
pavement at Laurier Pier, Section 43. Prescott Ont: Jeffrey Manufacturing Co Ltd, 
additions to ship loading facilities, Elevator. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Fort Smith N W T: Yukon Construction Co Ltd, construction of intake, supply line 
& treatment plant. 

Department of Public Works 

Carmanville Nfld: Town & Country Construction Co Ltd, wharf reconstruction, 
extension, & shed. Freshwater Nfld: Cape Horn Construction Co Ltd, wharf extension. 
Port au Port Nfld: Provincial Constructors Ltd, construction of post office. St. John's Nfld: 
Horwood Lumber Co Ltd, alterations & additions, Bldg 29. Charlottetown P E I: MacLean 
& Son, replacement of west shed (wiring); Douglas Bros & Jones Ltd, installation of 
plumbing & heating services, New West Shed, Railway wharf. Howard's Cove P E 1: 
J W & J Anderson Ltd, construction of landing. Judes Point P E I: Ralph Ford, landing 
improvements. Truro N S: George E Waugh, alterations to Old Federal Bldg for RCAF 
Filter Center No 70. Caraquet N B: La Construction Acadienne Ltee, construction of 
RCMP Detachment Quarters. Aguanish Que: Les Entreprises Gaspe Inc, construction of 
pier extension & shed. Batiscan Que: A D Construction Enrg, wharf reconstruction. 
Beloeil Que: P Baillargeon Ltee, construction of retaining wall. Berthier Que: Les Entre- 
prises Cap Diamant Ltee, construction of protection works. Cap Chat Que: Dimock Con- 
struction Inc, wharf reconstruction. Champlain Que: Marautier Construction Inc, con- 
struction of retaining wall. Gascons (Anse a Mercier) Que: Bert Dimock, wharf enlarge- 
ment. Hull Que: Sanco Ltd, interior cleaning of second floor, including floors, walls, 
ceilings, windows, furniture, waxing, etc, Connor Washer Bldg. Lanoraie Que: Ernest 
Morin, construction of retaining wall. Lavaltrie Que: Marautier Construction Inc, con- 
struction of retaining wall. Petit Saguenay Que: Quemont Construction Ltee, construction 
of wharf. Montreal Que: Industrial Maintenance Ltd, construction of new platform, Floor 
B, Postal Terminal. Ste Anne de la Pocatiere Que: Lortie & Roussin Inc, alterations to 
sewer system, Science Service Laboratory. St Charles sur Richelieu Que: P Baillargeon 
Ltee, construction of retaining wall. St Denis Que: P Baillargeon Ltee, construction of 
retaining wall. Ste Emmelie (Leclercville) Que: Plessis Construction Ltee, construction of 
protection work. St Nicolas (Anse Demers East) Que: Les Entreprises Cap Diamant Ltee, 
construction of protection work. St. Nicolas (Anse Verdon) Que: L P Gagnon Ltee, 
construction of protection work. St Romuald D'Etchemin Que: Fernand & Roland Couil- 
lard, construction of protection work. Ville St Laurent Que: Lagendyk & Co Ltd, interior 
painting, National Film Board. Listowel Ont: Totem Construction Co Ltd, addition & 
alterations, federal bldg. Ottawa Ont: Roger E Boivin, plastering, wall cloth repairs & 
redecoration of corridors, etc, Justice Bldg; L Beaudoin Construction Ltd, repairs to 
brickwork, stonework, concrete steps & related work, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Tunney's Park; Safeway "Steel" Scaffolding & Equipment, erection of chair bleacher 
stands at No 12 Hangar for Queen's visit, Uplands Airport; R Lariviere Ltd, repairs & 
re-pointing of stonework to exterior of Connaught Bldg; A R Tremblay, installation of 
vinyl tile to fourth floor, Old Printing Bureau, 75 St Patrick St; Eugene Dufort & Lucien 
Lavoie, rough grading of parking area, Mines & Technical Surveys Bldgs, Booth St. 
Paris Ont: Thomas Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Sutton (Black River) 
Ont: Simcoe Dock & Dredging Ltd, reconstruction of training wall, Stage 3. Thornbury 
Ont: Mann Construction Ltd, breakwater repairs. Toronto Ont: Wilson Cartage, removal 
of waste paper, garbage, ashes, etc, from various bldgs; Steven Kovacs, alterations to 
Postal Station "A". Emerson Man: Simkin's Construction Co Ltd, paving, Customs & 
Immigration Terminal. Melita Man: Harper Construction Co Ltd, construction of RCMP 
Detachment Quarters. Winnipeg Man: James Beaton & Sons, alterations, renovations & 
painting, Commercial Bldg. Central Butte Sask: Freoschl & Heisler Ltd, construction of 
post office. Lloydminster Sask: Lloyd Construction Co Ltd, construction of RCMP 
Detachment Quarters. Naicam Sask: Watson Lumber Co, construction of RCMP Detach- 
ment Quarters. North Portal Sask: General Construction Co (Alberta) Ltd, paving at 
Customs & Immigration Station. Redville Sask: Freoschl & Heisler Ltd, construction of 
RCMP Detachment Quarters. Regina Sask: Little, Borland & Co Ltd, installation of 
ventilation system in basement of new Post Office. Lake Claire Aha: Bruce Robinson 
Electric (Edmonton) Ltd, supply & installation of quick freeze equipment for abattoir. 

748 



Rocky Mountain House Alta: T B Larsen Construction Ltd, construction of RCMP 
Detachment Quarters. Alert Bay B C: Greenall Bros Ltd, construction of RCMP married 
quarters. Fords Cove (Hornby) B C: Harbour Pile Driving Co, harbour improvements. 
Glacier National Park B C: Highway Construction Co Ltd & Peter Kiewit Sons of Canada 
Ltd, construction of Illecillewaet River Bridge No 1, Mile 27.1 & Illecillewaet River 
Bridge No 2, Mile 26.4, TCH. Nootka B C: J H Todd & Sons Ltd, wharf & float 
reconstruction. Sidney B C: Pacific Piledriving Co Ltd, harbour repairs & improvements. 
Squamish B C: Basarab Construction Co Ltd, construction of 3 classroom & activities 
room school, Vancouver Agency. Vancouver B C: Kennett Construction Ltd, alterations 
to Old Customs Examining Warehouse. White Rock B C: Gilley Bros Ltd, breakwater 
extension. Whitehorse Y T: Northgate Construction Co Ltd, construction of garages for 
federal housing. 

Contracts Containing the General Fair Wages Clause 

Branch Nfld: Avalon Dredging Ltd, dredging. St John's Nfld: McNamara Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, dredging; E Miller, general alterations, Hub Bldg. Carleton Village N S: 
Shelburne Contracting Ltd, dredging. Halifax N S: Streakless Window Cleaners, cleaning 
of windows in various bldgs. Little Harbour N S: Mosher & Rawding Ltd, dredging. 
Malagash N S: F W Digdon & Sons Ltd, dredging. Newcastle N B: Forrest Construction, 
general alterations, St Andrews Church Hall. Woodstock N B: Edwin S Green, alterations 
to 2nd floor, federal bldg. Richelieu River (McMasterville) Que: St Maurice River 
Dredging Reg'd, dredging. Val d'Or Que: Courchesnes & Lafleur, general alterations, 
federal bldg. Belle River Ont: Dean Construction Co Ltd, dredging. Ottawa Ont: Sandy 
Hill Hardware & G Nadeau Decorators, interior redecoration, Mines & Technical Surveys 
Bldg, 40 Lydia St; Able Construction Co Ltd, erection of fire doors & storage tank, 556 
Booth St; Oak Construction Co Ltd, supply & installation of metal partitions, Mines 
Branch, 300 Lebreton St; Ottawa Iron Works, replacement of metal windows, Centre 
Block, Parliament Bldgs; A Bruce Benson Ltd, construction of additional washroom, 
East Block, Parliament Bldgs; Louis G Fortin Construction, alterations to canteen, East 
Block, Parliament Bldgs; Otis Elevator Co Ltd, repairs to elevator, Parliament Bldgs; 
L Beaudoin Construction, alterations to various rooms, "C" Bldg, Cartier Square; J R 
Statham Construction, construction of covered dais, Green Island, Commonwealth 
Memorial Site; L Beaudouin Construction, alterations to 1st & 2nd floors, Saunders Bldg, 
CEF; Ontario Building Cleaning Co, repainting of brickwork & stone, Science Service 
Bldg, CEF; Ontario Building Cleaning Co, repainting of brickwork & stone, Observatory, 
CEF; Ted Wogdacki, alterations to counter in canteen, Dept of Veterans Affairs Bldg, 
Wellington St. Winnipeg Man: Bridge & Tank Western Ltd, construction of steel hull for 
Dredge No 210. White Rock Passage B C: British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Ltd, 
dredging. Wiah Point B C: Tide Bay Dredging Co Ltd, dredging. 

Department of Transport 

Camp Island Labrador: Twillingate Engineering & Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of single dwelling, fog alarm bldg, concrete tower & two storage sheds. Cape St Francis 
Nfld: Benson Builders Ltd, construction of combined double dwelling & fog alarm bldg, 
storage shed, etc. St Jacques Island Nfld: J J Hussey Ltd, construction of single dwelling, 
fog alarm bldg & storage shed. Stephenville Nfld: Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, 
construction of hard-surfaced car parking area for Air Terminal Bldg. Head Harbour N S.- 
Watson Titus & Glenn McLaughlin, construction of single dwelling. Moncton N B: 
Modern Construction Ltd, resurfacing of concrete parking apron, Airport. Saint John N B: 
Saint John Dry Dock Co Ltd, ^construction of twin screw passenger & cargo vessel. 
South West Head N B: McDowell & Cook, construction of two single dwellings & com- 
bined fog alarm bldg & light tower, etc. Dartmouth N S: Trynor Construction Co Ltd, 
additional development of Airport. Halifax N S: Ellis-Don Ltd, construction of combined 
central heating plant & power house, International Airport. Collingwood Ont: Collingwood 
Shipyards, Construction of twin screw passenger & cargo vessel. London Ont: Wilson 
& Somerville Ltd, installation of Airport lighting facilities, Runway 03-25. North Bay Ont: 
Standard Paving Ltd, additional development, Airport. Uplands Ont: Gerry Lowrey, 
application of asbestos siding to hangars 1 & 4, Ottawa Airport. Yorkton Sask: Matheson 
Bros Ltd, construction of VHF omni range & related work, Airport. Langara Point B C: 
Allen Dunkley, construction of single dwelling at Lightstation. Lennard Island B C: 
Oakes & Wilson, construction of two single dwellings & demolition of two existing dwellings 
at Lightstation. Vancouver B C: Porr of Canada Ltd, construction of Airport Services 
Bldg & related work. Williams Lake B C: Harry Weaver, erection of boundary fence, 
clearing & stumping, Airport. 

749 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, June 1959 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
increased 0.2 per cent from 125.6 to 125.9 
between May and June 1959.* Increases 
in the food, shelter, and other commodities 
and services group indexes were partially 
offset by a lower clothing index. The house- 
hold operation index was unchanged. 

An increase of 0.5 per cent in the food 
index, from 118.5 to 119.1, resulted almost 
entirely from a sharp seasonal rise of 35 
per cent in potato prices. Some other fresh 
vegetables and fruits were up moderately 
and pork advanced fractionally. Beef, 
coffee, and sugar prices continued to ease 
to somewhat lower levels. 

A 0.4-per-cent increase in the shelter 
index, from 141.0 to 141.5, resulted from 
both higher rents associated with the tradi- 
tional May first moving date, and an increase 
of 6.0 per cent in fire insurance rates. 

The other commodities and services index 
advanced 0.4 per cent from 134.9 to 135.4 
as higher prices were reported for a wide 
range of pharmaceuticals. Price increases 
were also reported for personal care items, 
train fares and interurban bus fares. First 
of June gasoline prices returned to April 
levels following a break in gasoline prices 
in May brought on by "price wars". 

A decrease of 0.5 per cent in the clothing 
index, from 109.7 to 109.2, reflected sale 
prices on men's suits and topcoats, women's 
and girls' spring coats, and cotton piece 
goods. 

The household operation index was 
unchanged at 122.5; further seasonal price 
declines for coal balanced higher prices for 
some household supplies and services, par- 
ticularly shoe repairs and insurance rates 
for household effects. 

The index one year earlier (June 1958) 
was 125.1. Group indexes en that date 
were: food 122.7, shelter 138.3, clothing 
109.7, household operation 120.6, and other 
commodities and services 130.7. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1959 

Consumer price indexes (1949=100) 
increased in eight of the ten regional cities 
between April and May 1959t with upward 
movements ranging from 0.1 per cent in 



both Saint John and Winnipeg to 0.3 per 
cent in St. John's. The Edmonton-Calgary 
index was unchanged and the Vancouver 
index declined 0.2 per cent. 

Food indexes were lower in all regional 
cities except Toronto, where the food index 
increased 0.2 per cent. Prices were generally 
lower for beef, pork, sugar, coffee, eggs, 
and lard. Fresh fruits and vegetables, par- 
ticularly potatoes, were higher in most 
regional cities. 

Shelter indexes were up in five cities, 
unchanged in four and declined fractionally 
in Ottawa. Clothing indexes also showed 
mixed results as four city indexes increased, 
three decreased and the remaining three 
were unchanged. Household operation in- 
dexes were unchanged in five of the ten 
regional cities, declined in two and recorded 
upward movements in the other three. 

Other commodities and services indexes 
increased in nine of the ten regional cities. 
Only the Toronto index decreased. Higher 
prices were reported in most regional cities 
for tires, tobacco, liquor, theatre admissions, 
and toilet soap, while men's haircuts in- 
creased in Montreal and Halifax and rail 
fares were up in St. John's. Some of these 
price changes reflected recent federal tax 
increases. Women's hairdressing prices were 
up in a number of cities while gasoline 
prices were down sharply in Toronto as 
a result of "price wars". 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April and May were as 
follows: St. John's +0.3 to 114.2*; Halifax 
+ 0.3 to 125.4; Montreal +0.3 to 125.9; 
Ottawa +0.2 to 126.0; Toronto +0.2 to 
128.1; Saskatoon-Regina +0.2 to 122.1; 
Saint John +0.1 to 126.9; Winnipeg +0.1 
to 122.8; Vancouver —0.3 to 126.8. Edmon- 
ton-Calgary remained unchanged at 122.0. 

Wholesale Price Index, May 1959 

The general wholesale index (1935-39 = 
100) was unchanged at 231.2 between April 
and May. Small increases in six of the 
major groups were offset by lower prices 
in the remaining two. 

The vegetable products group increased 
0.5 per cent from 200.2 to 201.2, the 
chemical products group 0.4 per cent from 
186.5 to 187.3, and the non-ferrous metals 
group 0.3 per cent from 175.2 to 175.7. 



* See Table F-l at back of book. 
t See Table F-2 at back of book. 



*On base June 1951=100. 



750 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 




1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 

Yearly Average 

The textile products, wood products and 
iron products groups recorded negligible 
increases, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 per cent respec- 
tively. 

The animal products group declined 0.8 
per cent from 255.8 to 253.8; the non- 
metallic minerals group dropped 0.7 per 
cent from 187.3 to 185.9. 

The index of Canadian farm products 
prices (1935-39= 100) moved up from 
213.7 to 218.8. The field products index 
climbed from 156.4 to 166.5 but the animal 
products index was unchanged at 271.0. 

The residential building materials price 
index (1949=100) rose 0.5 per cent from 
130.1 to 130.7. The non-residential build- 
ing materials price index declined 0.2 per 
cent from 132.1 to 131.9. 



* 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 

Monthly Indexes 
U.S. Consumer Price Index, May 1959 

The United States consumer price index 
(1947-49=100) set a new record in May, 
rising 0.1 per cent to 124.0 from 123.9. All 
components recorded increases. 

The April-May rise was to be expected; 
only once since 1947 has the index declined 
between April and May, and only once 
has it stood still. 

The index, which for months had hovered 
between 123.7 and 123.9, stood at 123.6 
one year earlier. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, April 1959 

The United Kingdom index of retail 
prices (Jan. 17, 1956=100) declined from 
110.3 to 109.5 between March and April. 
This figure was one tenth of a point below 
the 109.6 of April 1958 and was the lowest 
in six months. 



Report on N.S. Workmen's Compensation Act 



{Continued from page 737) 

staff, subject to the approval of the Minister 
of Labour. As the Act now stands, the 
approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council is required. 

The Board needed to review its public 
relations policy, the Commissioner noted. 
He thought that several aspects of the 
Ontario Board's program could profitably 



be adopted, e.g., the holding of seminars 
at which the Board and labour organiza- 
tions could discuss compensation problems, 
and the giving of talks to interested groups 
by Board officials. 

Finally, the Commissioner recommended 
the acquisition by the Board, now housed 
in rented premises, of its own building. 



751 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should com- 
municate with the publishers. Publications 
listed may be borrowed by making appli- 
cation to the Librarian, Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the num- 
ber (numeral) of the publication desired 
and the month in which it was listed in 
the Labour Gazette. List No. 129 

Annual Reports 

1. India. Office of the Adviser, 
Factories. Annual Report for the Year 
1957 on the Working of the Indian Dock 
Labourers Act, 1934 and the Indian Dock 
Labourers Regulations, 1948. [New Delhi, 
1958?] Pp. 33. 

2. Manitoba. Civil Service Superan- 
nuation Board. The Manitoba Civil Service 
Superannuation Fund; Nineteenth Annual 
Report for the Fiscal Year ending March 
31, 1958. Winnipeg, 1959. Pp. 18. 

3. Manitoba. Department of Labour. 
Annual Wage and Salary Survey, 1958. 
Winnipeg, 1958. Pp. 77. 

4. Manitoba. Department of Labour. 
Report for the Calendar Year ending 
December 31, 1958. Winnipeg, Queen's 
Printer, 1959. Pp. 99. 

5. Minnesota. State Board of Voca- 
tional Education. Division of Voca- 
tional Rehabilitation. Annual Report, 
1957-1958. St. Paul [1959?] Pp. 12. 

6. Nova Scotia. Department of La- 
bour. Annual Report, Fiscal Year ended 
March 31, 1958. Halifax, 1958. Pp. 58. 

7. Prince Edward Island. Department 
of Welfare and Labour. Second Annual 
Report for the Fiscal Year ended March 31, 

1957. Sunnyside [1958?] Pp. 32. 

8. Prince Edward Island. Workmen's 
Compensation Board. Annual Report, 

1958. Charlottetown, 1959. Pp. 27. 

9. Quebec (Province). Department 
of Labour. General Report of the Minis- 
ter of Labour . . . on the Activities of his 
Department during the Year ending March 
31, 1958. Quebec, Queen's Printer [1959?] 
Pp. 323. 

10. Saskatchewan. Department of La- 
bour. Fourteenth Annual Report for the 
Twelve Months ended March 31, 1958. 
Regina, Queen's Printer, 1959. Pp. 98. 



Business— Small Business 

11. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee 
on Small Business. Small-Business Partici- 
pation in Government Procurement, 1958. 
Report of the Select Committee on Small 
Business, United States Senate, on Small- 
Business Programs, Policies, and Procedures 
of Government Agencies. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1959. Pp. 26. 

The Committee on Small Business examines 
the problems encountered by small firms in 
seeking government contracts and recommends 
solutions where possible. This report is mostly 
concerned with defence contracts. 

12. U.S. Small Business Administra- 
tion. Starting and managing a Small Busi- 
ness of Your Own, by Wendell O. Metcalf. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1958. Pp. 49. 

Contents: So You are thinking of going into 
Business. Starting a New Business. Buying a 
Going Business. Managing Your Business. 
Looking into Special Requirements. Check 
List for starting a Business. Keeping up to 
date. 

Canada at Work Broadcasts 

The following sixteen talks were given 
during the winter season, 1958-59, and 
were published in Ottawa by the Federal 
Department of Labour. 

13. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Home and Farm Improvement Loans. Pp. 5. 

This talk attempts to show who is eligible for 
home or farm improvement loans. 

14. Chutter, S. D. C. Building Houses 
in the Winter. Pp. 5. 

The speaker, General Manager of the Cana- 
dian Construction Association, told of some 
of the ways construction can be carried on 
during the winter months. 

15. Eaton (Mrs.) Rex. The Housewife 
helps make Winter Work. Pp. 3. 

The speaker is President of the National 
Council of Women of Canada. 

16. Ford, Edwin Kaulbach. Vocational 
Guidance in Rehabilitation. Pp. 4. 

The speaker is Director of the Vocational 
Education Division of the Nova Scotia Depart- 
ment of Education. He describes two cases 
where disabled people were helped to find 
jobs that they could perform satisfactorily. 

17. Gower-Rees, G. Physiotherapy and 
Rehabilitation. Pp. 5. 

The speaker, Advisor in Physiotherapy at 
Queen Mary Veterans' Hospital in Montreal, 
describes the many fields in which the physio- 
therapist works to help the disabled. 

18. Hood, Margaret R. Occupational 
Therapy in Rehabilitation. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Chief of the Occupational Ther- 
apy Department of the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board Rehabilitation Centre in Vancouver, 
describes how the occupational therapist helps 
the disabled person in the hospital. 



752 



19. Hornstein, Reuben Aaron. A Ca- 
reer in Canada's Weather Service. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Meteorologist-in-Charge of the 
Dominion Public Weather Office at Halifax, 
N.S., describes the jobs of meteorological tech- 
nicians and of professional weathermen. 

20. Johanneson, Freda. The Role of the 
Medical Social Worker in Rehabilitation. 
Pp.5. 

The speaker, Head of Medical Social Services 
of the Department of Veterans Affairs in 
Ottawa, tells about the work of the medical 
social worker in aiding the physically handi- 
capped. 

21. Jousse, A. T. Physical Medicine and 
Rehabilitation. Pp. 5. 

The speaker is Professor of Physical Medicine 
at the University of Toronto and Chairman of 
the Committee on Rehabilitation of the Cana- 
dian Medical Association. 

22. Morse, David A. Canada and the 
International Labour Organization. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Director-General of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, tells something 
about the activities of the I.L.O. 

23. Norton, A. Philip. Frontier College 
in Action. Pp. 4. 

"The material for this story was recorded . . . 
at the GECO Mines, near Manitouwadge in 
Northern Ontario, where company and union 
officials were interviewed, to find out what 
they thought of the Frontier College program 
in operation in their mine." 

24. Sisler, George C. The Role of 
Psychiatry in Rehabilitation. Pp. 4. 

The speaker is Professor and Head of the 
Department of Phychiatry in the Faculty of 
Medicine of the University of Manitoba. 

25. Smith, John Caulfield. House Build- 
ing and Home Improvement in Winter, by 
John Caulfield Smith and Lyle C. Whealy. 
Pp. 4. 

Mr. Smith is Executive Vice-President, 
National House Builders' Association. Mr. 
Whealy is Chairman of Operation Home Im- 
provement, a movement sponsored by industry 
to help provide employment in the winter 
months when men and material are available. 

26. Starr, Michael. Commemoration of 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 
Pp. 4. 

This talk was delivered on the tenth anniver- 
sary of the Universal Declaration of Human 
Rights. 

27. Starr, Michael. Creating Winter 
Employment. Pp. 4. 

28. Young, Hugh Andrew. Public 
Works Aids to Winter Employment. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Deputy Minister of the Federal 
Department of Public Works, outlined some 
of the things which his department is doing 
to create more winter employment. 

Congresses and Conventions 

29. International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers of America. Proceedings, 
Seventeenth Convention, Miami Beach, 
September 30-October 5, 1957. Indianapolis, 
1957. Pp. 724. 



30. International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions. Report of the Fifth 
World Congress held in Tunis, 5-13 July, 
1957 including the Report on Activities and 
the Financial Reports for 1955-56. Brussels, 
1958. Pp. 659. 

3 1 . International Union, United Auto- 
mobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Im- 
plement Workers of America. Proceed- 
ings, Sixteenth Constitutional Convention, 
Atlantic City, N.J., April 7-12, 1957. 
Detroit, 1957. Pp. 552. 

32. Marine Workers' Federation. Pro- 
ceedings, 12th Annual Convention, Dart- 
mouth, N.S., September 11th, 12th, 13th, 
1957. Halifax, 1958. Pp. 13-59. 

33. National Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission Association. Fifth 
Triennial Convention Report, Windsor, 
October 1, 2, 3, 4, 1958. Ottawa, 1958. 
Pp. 100. 

Industrial Relations 

34. Columbia University. Department 
of Industrial and Management Engi- 
neering. Human Relations in Industrial 
Research Management; Including Papers 
from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Con- 
ferences on Industrial Research, Columbia 
University, 1955 and 1956. Edited by 
Robert Teviot Livingston and Stanley H. 
Milberg. New York, Columbia University 
Press, 1957. Pp. 418. 

The twenty-seven papers in this volume deal 
with the nature of research management jobs, 
the individual and the research job, human 
relations in industrial research, and personnel 
practices in industrial research. 

35. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Indus- 
trial Relations at the Plant Level in Three 
Illinois Communities, by Milton Derber, 
W. Ellison Chalmers, and Ross Stagner. 
Urbana, 1958. Pp. 27-42. 

A study of collective bargaining contract 
provisions in 41 plants. 

36. Levine, Solomon Bernard. Indus- 
trial Relations in Postwar Japan. Urbana, 
University of Illinois Press, 1958. Pp. 200. 

Contents: Economic Settling, Industrializa- 
tion, and Occupation Reforms. The Japanese 
Managerial System. The Trade-Union Move- 
ment: Origins, Growth, Development. The 
Trade-Union Movement: Structure, Functions, 
Philosophy. Collective Bargaining and Labor 
Disputes. Government Regulation of Industrial 
Relations. Summary and Conclusions. 

Labour Organization 

37. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Labor 
Racketeering: Evolution and Solutions, by 
David J. Saposs. Urbana, 1958. Pp. 252- 
270. 

The author suggests that regulatory legisla- 
tion might remedy the problem of racketeering 
in certain American labor unions. 



753 



38. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Public- 
Policies toward Organized Labor, by 
Richard C. Wilcock. Urbana, 1958. Pp. 
6-18. 

The author states, "In general, however, my 
position is that public policy should be based 
upon parliamentary investigation and a mini- 
mum of lawmaking." 

Labour Supply 

39. Long, Clarence Dickinson. The 
Labor Force under Changing Income and 
Employment. Princeton, Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, 1958. Pp. 464. 

40. National Winter Employment 
Conference, Ottawa, 1958. Summary of 
Proceedings, Ottawa, July 14 and 15, 1958. 
Ottawa, Dept. of Labour of Canada, 1958. 
Pp. 55. 

The Conference represented provincial gov- 
ernments, municipal bodies, national and 
regional organizations. 

Labouring Classes 

41. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Grievance Procedures for 
Unorganized Employees. Washington, 1958. 
Pp. 13. 

Contents: Prevalence of Grievance Pro- 
cedures. Restrictions on the Grievance Proce- 
dure. Mechanics of the Grievance Procedure. 
Helping the Aggrieved Employee. Role of the 
First-Line Supervisor. Grievance Records and 
Statistics. Preventing Grievances from develop- 
ing. Publicizing the Grievance Procedure. 
Advantages of Informal Procedures. Consis- 
tency and Effectiveness of Program. Grievance 
Procedures and Unionization. A Specimen 
Procedure. Specimen Grievance Forms. 

42. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. Reference Division. Gov- 
ernment Employment and Training Services 
in the United Kingdom. London, 1958. 
Pp. 7. 

Provides information about Public Employ- 
ment Offices. 

43. International Labour Office. Con- 
ditions of Work of Fishermen. Fifth item 
on the agenda. Geneva, 1958-1959. 2 
Volumes. 

Report 5(1) -(2). International Labour 
Conference. 43rd Session, Geneva, 1959. 

Part 1 contains the texts of a proposed 
Convention concerning the minimum age for 
admission of fishermen to employment, a pro- 
posed Convention concerning medical examina- 
tion of fishermen, and a proposed Convention 
concerning fishermen's articles of agreement. 
Part 2 summarizes and analyzes the replies of 
55 member governments, and contains the 
English and French versions of the proposed 
texts. 

44. International Labor Office. Infor- 
mation and Reports on the Application of 
Conventions and Recommendations. Sum- 
mary of Reports on Unratified Conventions 
and on Recommendations (Article 19 of the 
Constitution). Freedom of Association, 



Collective Bargaining and Collective Agree- 
ments, Co-operation in the Undertaking. 
Third item on the agenda. Geneva, 1959. 
Pp. 71. 

At head of title: Report 3 (Part 2). Inter- 
national Labour Conference, 43rd Session, 
Geneva, 1959. 

45. Quebec (Province). Department of 
Labour. Industrial Expansion and Progress 
of Labour; Employment and Earnings in 
Relation to Investment and Production, 
1946-1957, by Alfred Stenger. Montreal, 
1957. Pp. 246. 

46. Rutgers University, New Bruns- 
wick, NJ. Institute of Management 
and Labor Relations. Pension and Wel- 
fare Fund Management: a Fact Book. New 
Brunswick, 1958. Pp. 40. 

47. Steinkrauss, Rose F. Resources of 
the Aging Unemployed; a Study of Resi- 
dents of a Highly Urbanized Neighborhood 
who were Unemployed and between the 
Ages of 40 and 65 as of January 15, 1957, 
by Rose F. Steinkrauss, with Jack H. Cur- 
tis .. . and Stanley Seeman . . . Buffalo, 
Neighborhood House Association, 1957. 
Pp. 129. 

A survey of the problems of unemployment 
of older men and women in a neighborhood 
in Buffalo, New York. 

Migrant Labour 

48. U.S. Bureau of Employment Secur- 
ity. Housing for Florida's Migrants; a 
Survey of Migratory Farm Labor Housing 
in Dade County, Florida. Prepared for the 
President's Committee on Migratory Labor 
by the U.S. Dept. of Labor and the Florida 
Industrial Commission. Washington, G.P.O., 
1959. Pp. 46. 

49. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
State Migratory Labor Committees, their 
Organization and Problems. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1959. Pp. 74. 

Occupations 

50. Canada. Department of National 
Health and Welfare. Mental Health 
Division. Opportunities for Occupational 
Therapy Assistants in the Mental Health 
Field. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1957. 
Pp. 11. 

51. U.S. Employment Service. Occupa- 
tions in Electronic Data-Processing Systems. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1959. Pp. 44. 

52. U.S. Office of Education. Voca- 
tional-Technical Education for American 
Industry; Occupations, Selected References, 
Educational Programs, by Lynn A. Emer- 
son. Washington, G.P.O., 1958. Pp. 25. 



754 



Social Security 

53. Canadian Life Insurance Officers 
Association. Old Age Security, Survivor- 
ship and Disability Benefits. Toronto, 1958. 
Pp. 28. 

Examines briefly the government old age, 
survivorship and disability programs in effect 
in Canada and the U.S. Concludes that when 
the Canadian economy is stronger an exten- 
sion of old-age security benefits to the 65 to 
69 age group should be made and that the 
present survivorship and disability benefits 
should be extended. 

54. Clark, Robert M. Economic Secur- 
ity for the Aged in the United States and 
Canada; a Report. Ottawa, Reproduced by 
the authority of the Minister, Hon. J. 
Waldo Monteith, Dept. of National Health 
and Welfare, 1959. 2 Volumes (861 p.). 

The author was authorized by Order in 
Council P.C. 1958-8/307 of February 25, 1958, 
"to conduct an inquiry into facts relating 
to old age security systems in effect in Canada 
and the United States, with particular reference 
to those features of the old-age and survivors 
insurance program in the United States which 
make it possible for higher benefits to be paid 
covering a wider range of contingencies at an 
earlier age than is provided under present 
legislation, and to report thereon as soon as 
possible." 

55. Great Britain. Ministry of Pen- 
sions and National Insurance. Every- 
body's Guide to National Insurance. Rev. 
ed. London, H.M.S.O., 1958. Pp. 33. 

Statistics 

56. Hansen, Morris Howard. Sample 
Survey Methods and Theory, by Morris H. 
Hansen, William H. Hurwitz and William 
G. Madow. New York, Wiley, 1953. 2 
Volumes. 

Contents: v. 1. Methods and applications, 
v. 2. Theory. 

57. Koopmans, Tjalling, Ed. Statistical 
Inference in Dynamic Economic Models, 
by Cowles Commission Research Staff 
Members and Guests. Introd. by Jacob 
Marschak. New York, Wiley, 1950. Pp. 
438. 

Women— Employment 

58. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. .Reference Division. Women 
in Britain. London, 1958. Pp. 20. 

Includes information on the employment of 
women. 

59. International Labour Office. The 
ILO and Women. Geneva, 1958. Pp. 28. 



Miscellaneous 

60. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Government Employees Compensation 
Branch. Safety Manual for Government 
Departments and Crown Agencies. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1958. 1. Volume (loose- 
leaf). 

Some of the topics discussed are accident 
prevention, safety committees, first aid, guard- 
ing, clothing, machinery, equipment (manually 
operated), equipment (power), tools (hand 
tools), tools (power tools), and, maintenance 
and repair (general). 

61. Duchemin, L. A., Ed. The Chal- 
lenge to Our Universities. Speeches by 
C. D. Howe, and others, delivered at Mount 
Allison Summer Institute August 14-16, 
1958. Sackville, N.B., Mount Allison Uni- 
versity, 1958. Pp. 108. 

The three topics discussed were: universities 
in the mid-twentieth century, the question of 
national survival, and tlie question of human 
values. 

62. Hopkins, Edward Russell. How 
Parliament works; an Examination of the 
Functioning of the Parliament of Canada. 
Rev. ed. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1957. 
Pp. 50. 

". . . Describes the organization, functions 
and functioning of the Parliament of Canada." 

63. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Causes 
of Fluctuations in Popular Support for the 
Italian Communist Party since 1946, by 
Murray Edelman. Urbana, 1958. Pp. 535- 
552. 

An analysis of the reasons for support of 
the Italian Comfunist Party. 

64. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. A Note 
on the Use of Evidence in The Organization 
Man, by Stanley Stark. Urbana, 1958. Pp. 
61-66. 

A criticism of the attitude towards aptitude 
testing of William H. Whyte Jr., in his book, 
"The Organization Man." 

65. MacFarlane, David L. The Develop- 
ment of Canadian Agriculture to 1970, by 
David L. MacFarlane and John D. Black. 
[Montreal?] Macdonald College, McGill 
University, 1958. Pp. 48. 

66. U.S. President's Committee on 
Employment of the Physically Handi- 
capped. Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 
May 8-9, 1958. Washington, G.P.O., 1959. 
Pp. 90. 



755 



Page 

Table A-l and A-4 — Labour Force 756 

Table B-l— Labour Income 758 

Table C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 759 

Table D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 765 

Table E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 771 

Table F-l and F-2— Prices 773 

Tables G-l to G-4— Strikes and Lockouts 774 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Accidents 776 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED APRIL 18, 1959 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Canada 



Nfld. 



P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 



Que. 



Ont. 



Man. 

Sask. 
Alta. 



B.C. 



The Labour Force 



Both Sexes 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural . 



Males 

Agricultural 

Non- Agricultural . 



Females 

Agricultural 

Non- Agricultural . 



All Ages 

14—19 years 

20— 24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over. 



Persons with Jobs 



All status groups . 

Males 

Females 



Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural . 



Paid Workers. 

Males 

Females.. 



Persons Without Jobs nad Seeking Work 
Both Sexes 



Persons not in the Labour Force 



Both Sexes.. 

Males 

Females. 



6,109 

673 

5,436 

4,595 

637 

3,958 

1,514 

36 

1,478 

6,109 

531 

761 

2,860 

1,732 

225 



5,664 
4,193 
1,471 

661 
5,003 

4,546 
3,209 
1,337 



445 



5,403 
1,148 
4,255 



110 
107 

91 



110 
14 
17 
51 
27 



310) 



158 
50 



432 

47 

385 

333 
46 

287 

99 



432 
42 
54 
185 
132 
19 



380 
284 
96 

45 
335 

295 

208 

87 



52 



461 
106 
355 



1,717 

149 

1,568 

1,297 

145 

1,152 

420 

* 

416 

1,717 
189 
251 
793 
436 



1,532 
1,129 



1,386 

1,259 
886 
373 

185 



1,533 

308 

1,225 



2,250 

164 

2,086 

1,658 

158 

1,500 

592 



2,250 
163 
257 

1,080 
656 
94 



2,139 

1,560 

579 

162 
1,977 

1,814 

1,278 

536 



111 



1,801 

344 

1,457 



1,047 
285 
762 

796 
262 
534 

251 
23 



1,047 

89 

123 

479 

312 

44 



1,012 
765 
247 



730 



454 
206 



35 



926 
211 
715 



553 
25 

528 

420 

23 

397 

133 

131 

553 
34 
59 

272 



522 
394 
128 

24 

498 



330 
119 



524 
129 
395 



* Less than 10,000. 

(j) The change between September and October 1958 in the level of estimates of "Persons without jobs and seeking 
work" in Newfoundland appeared to be mainly a manifestation of sampling error. This factor should be recognized in 
any comparison of estimates for September 1958 or earlier with estimates for October 1958 or later. 



756 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
April 18, 1959 


Week Ended 
March 21, 1959 


Week Ended 
April 19, 1958 




Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 




478 

445 
70 
135 
156 
59 
12 
13 

33 
11 
22 


455 

425 

30 
10 
20 


555 

525 

81 
207 
168 
47 
11 
11 

30 
12 

18 


530 
502 

28 
11 
17 


547 

522 

77 
158 
216 

60 

* 
• 

25 

* 

17 


525 




502 














7 — 12 months 




13—18 months 










23 




* 




15 







(0 To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-3.— DESTINATION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Period 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 
Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Total 


Males 


1953 Total 


4,049 
3,849 
3,067 
3,029 
5,092 
3,268 


34,294 
28,419 
22,117 
31,396 
55,073 
28,443 


90,120 
83,029 
57,563 
90,662 
147,097 
63,853 


27,208 
26,638 
15,559 
17,957 
37,172 
15,756 


13,197 
12,292 
11,640 
17,930 
37,730 
13,531 


168,868 

154,227 

109,946 

164,8570) 

282,164 

124,851 


91,422 


1954 Total 


84; 531 


1955 Total 


56,828 


1956 Total 


89,541 


1957 Total 


154,226 


1958 Total 


60,630 






1958 First Quarter 


919 
330 


4,686 
3,707 


10,839 
9,318 


2,379 
1,809 


2,420 
1,791 


21,243 
16,955 


9,982 


1959 First Quarter 


7,861 







(i) Total includes 3,883 whose destination is not specified. 



TABLE A-4.— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



— 


13 

c 

2 c 
S 2 

3fe 


1 
O 


T5 
c 

^C 

§•2 
£. 2 

li 

£ o 
HO 


T3 

a 

08 

s l 

o.S 


S 

> 


3 

H 

H 


b0 

n 

is 
M 

£►3 


T5 

Me 
C 08 a 

III 

1-sl 

c3 aj 5 


S 

3 
O 


2 
O 


S 

<D 

M 

o 
& 

"e8 
O 


1953 Total 


10,021 
9,983 
8,563 
10,339 
17,256 
8,497 


6,339 
6,775 
5,775 
9,492 
16,829 
6,745 


1,855 
1,938 
1,190 
2,255 
5,254 
1,229 


3,185 
2,735 
2,146 
3,823 
6,559 
2,229 


13,766 
11,974 
9,588 
13,800 
17,574 
11,501 


17,250 
10,920 
7,036 
7,500 
10,838 
5,071 


879 
763 
514 
1,649 
2,693 
513 


26,492 
25,699 
15,117 
29,264 
54,376 
17,476 


10,380 
13,011 

7,687 
12,482 
19,471 

9,388 


966 

578 
371 
435 
661 
429 


91,133 


1954 Total 


84,376 


1955 Total 


57,987 


1956 Total 

1957 Total 


91,039 
151,511 


1958 Total 


63,078 






1958 First Quarter. 

1959 First Quarter. 


1,493 
1,157 


1,185 
622 


228 
123 


403 
316 


2,061 
1,695 


831 
595 


87 
42 


2,375 
1,404 


1,721 
2,051 


73 
51 


10,457 
8,056 



72787-5—7 



757 



B — Labour Income 

Note: The estimates of labour income in this table have been revised in accordance with recent revisions to the 
National Accounts. Note particularly the use of annual totals instead of monthly averages, and the introduction of 
quarterly instead of monthly totals for some industries. Monthly and quarterly figures may not add to annual totals 
because of rounding. 

TABLE B-l— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Totals 


Quarterly Totals* 




Year and 
Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage, 
and 
Communi- 
cation 2 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 
Utilities 


Trade 


Finance, 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 1 


1954— Total. . . . 
1955— Total.... 
1956— Total.... 
1957— Total.... 
1958— Total.... 

1958— Apr 

May 


402 
430 
489 
544 
537 

43.9 
44.9 
45.6 
45.0 
45.5 
44.5 
43.2 
43.1 
42.1 

45.7 

45.9 
45.4 
45.7 


3,903 

4,156 
4,604 
4,821 
4,759 

392.3 
401.3 
404.9 
402.1 
399.8 
404.0 
400.0 
401.7 
393.7 

400.0 
403.2 
405.7 
410.0 


1,317 
1,392 
1,537 
1,647 
1,671 

134.6 
141.0 
143.1 
145.7 
145.7 
143.4 
142.9 
142.0 
139.6 

137.2 
137.7 
137.8* 
142.0 


310 
339 
405 
371 

297 


869 

911 

1,102 

1,189 

1,131 


204 
204 
226 
252 
275 


1,764 
1,874 
2,072 
2,268 
2,373 


3,010 
3,212 
3,521 
3,926 
4,289 


494 
539 
590 
639 
678 


12,432 
13,215 
14,719 
15,825 
16,180 

1,304.0 


65.7 


289.1 


69.0 


585.4 


1,069.7 


168.4 


1,354.8 
1,384 5 


July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 














1,382.1 


75.7 


335.4 


71.1 


592.3 


1,080.5 


172.0 


1,385.6 
1,405.3 














1,389.8 


Nov 

Dec 


91.3 


278.5 


70.0 


619.4 


1,112.4 


174.1 


1,385.5 
1,359.0 


1959 — j an 














1,351.0 


Feb 


69.1 


237.4 


68.7 


604.9 


1,138.7 


175.7 


1,361.5 
1.370.7* 


April 














1,395.3 

















1 Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals. 

2 Includes post office wages and salaries. 

2 Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining columns 
of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. (See also headnote.) 
* Revised. 



758 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— at March, 1959 employers 
in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,590,372. Tables C-4 (every second 
month) and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. They 
relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to_C-3 
relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners in the reporting firms. 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100). (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 







[ndustrial Composite i 1 ) 




Manufacturing 




Year and Month 


Index Numbers (1949 = 100) 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers (1949 = 100) 


Average 

Weekly! 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Averages— 

1954 


109.9 
112.9 
120.7 
122.6 
117.9 

112.9 
114.6 
118.7 
121.3 
122.0 
121.8 
121.9 
120.1 
119.2 
115.8 

113.7 
113.0 
113.7 


151.6 
161.2 
182.0 
194.7 
194.1 

185.3 
188.3 
196.3 
200.3 
201.6 
201.1 
201.8 
199.5 
199.4 
186.5 

192.2 
193.1 
193.0 


137.4 
142.1 
150.0 
158.1 
163.9 

163.4 
163.8 
164.7 
164.6 
164.7 
164.5 
164.9 
165.6 
166.7 
160.4 

168.4 
170.2 
169.1 


59.04 
61.05 
64.44 
67.93 
70.43 

70.20 
70.35 
70.76 
70.70 
70.76 
70.67 
70.85 
71.13 
71.60 
68.91 

72.34 
73.11 
72.63 


107.3 
109.8 
115.8 
115.8 
109.8 

108.3 
108.8 
110.4 
112.0 
111.8 
111.5 
112.4 
110.1 
109.6 
106.8 

107.5 
107.5 
108.3 


150.0 

159.5 
176.8 
185.3 
182.7 

180.4 
181.6 
185.6 
187.4 
186.0 
184.9 
187.2 
185.0 
186.0 
173.4 

185.1 
186.2 
186.7 


139.1 
144.4 
151.7 
159.1 
165.3 

165.6 
165.8 
167.0 
166.2 
165.2 
164.7 
165.4 
166.8 
168.5 
161.3 

170.9 
171.9 
171.1 


61.15 


1955 


63.48 


1956 


66.71 


1957 


69.94 


1958 


72.67 


1958 


72 80 




72 92 




73.42 




73.06 


July 


72.62 




72 40 




72.73 




73.36 




74.11 




70.91 


1959 


75.16 




75 59 


March 


75.25 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication. (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 

Technical Note— A change has been made in the method of dating the statistics published in Tables C-l to C-6 to 
conform with the usual practice of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In the past, statistics for the last pay period in a 
month were labelled "pay period preceding" the first day of the following month. From now on, statistics for the last 
pay period in a month will be labelled for that month. Another change is that average hourly earnings, formerly ex- 
pressed in cents carried to one decimal place, are now published in dollars and cents. 



759 



TABLE C-2.— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Area 



Employment 
Index Numbers 



Mar. 
1959 



Feb. 
1959 



Mar. 
1958 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Mar. 



Feb. 
1959 



Mar. 
1958 



Provinces 

Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (including Northwest Territories) 
British Columbia (including Yukon) 

Canada 

Urban Areas 

St. John's 

Sydney 

Halifax 

Moncton 

Saint John 

Chicoutimi — Jonquiere 

Quebec 

Sherbrooke 

Shawinigan 

Three Rivers 

Drummondville 

Montreal 

Ottawa— Hull 

Kingston 

Peterborough 

Oshawa 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

St. Catharines 

Niagara Falls 

Brantford 

Guelph 

Gait 

Kitchener 

Sudbury 

Timmins 

London 

Sarnia 

Windsor 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 

Winnipeg 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Edmonton 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Victoria 



106, 
110. 

87. 

96. 
110. 
116. 
105. 
119. 
145. 
112. 



113.7 



118.9 



118. 

91. 
110. 
100. 
105. 

99. 

94. 
108. 

76. 
119. 
119. 
107. 

99. 
179. 
127. 
107. 
109. 

93. 

92. 
123. 
109. 
115. 
133. 

91. 
121. 
102. 

79. 
133. 
104. 
106. 
123. 
125. 
174. 
159. 
114. 
114. 



104.5 
101.2 
87.1 
97.5 
111.2 
116.0 
105.1 
118.3 
145.0 
109.5 

113.0 



120.9 

67.3 
116.5 

91.3 
111.5 
100.7 
103.9 

97.6 

95.3 
106.5 

78.0 
118.2 
118.6 
106.8 

97.7 
178.7 
126.4 
106.2 
108.0 

93.2 

89.2 
120.3 
109.0 
115.0 
129.7 

91.8 
119.7 
121.1 

78.4 
132.4 
102.8 
105.7 
121.4 
124.1 
171.4 
158.0 
112.9 
110.1 



111.2 
97.7 
89.0 
93.1 
111.2 
116.7 
103.3 
114.3 
140.1 
109.4 

112.9 



116.4 
88.7 

113.9 
89.9 

102.0 



104.5 

98.0 
103.1 
107.8 

70.9 
119.0 
115.6 
111.4 

99.6 
167.8 
128.7 
106.1 
109.2 
105.9 

87.9 
111.0 
109.7 
107.8 
142.8 

84.1 
116.3 
134.3 

81.2 
127.5 
106.5 
102.5 
114.1 
120.7 
165.8 
150.8 
110.9 
114.9 



64.10 
55.29 
59.83 
61.17 
69.56 
75.37 
68.97 
69.07 
75.49 
78.73 

72.63 



53.27 
73.36 
59.50 
58.08 
56.50 
86.99 
60.16 
57.81 
77.52 
65.86 
60.48 
70.52 
66.79 
69.72 
80.82 
83.50 
75.72 
80.45 
82.49 
78.68 
69.89 
67.57 
65.41 
68.52 
91.48 
66.59 
68.64 
93.29 
82.28 
90.59 
72.38 
65.96 
65.66 
65.02 
70.67 
69.99 
77.85 
70.75 



64.26 
55.70 
60.27 
60.55 
70.21 
75.83 
69.38 
69.24 
76.71 
79.02 

73.11 



52.83 
75.40 
60.19 
58.03 
54.83 
89.03 
60.63 
58.89 
78.87 
67.16 
60.99 
71.30 
67.24 
69.84 
81.99 
83.46 
75.80 
80.48 
83.44 
78.28 
69.68 
67.01 
66.18 
68.92 
87.22 
67.04 
69.01 
93.25 
82.77 
91.19 
73.16 
66.34 
65.85 
64.77 
71.14 
70.20 
78.05 
70.94 



63.74 
50.86 
59.52 
58.60 
67.66 
72.73 
65.72 
66.78 
72.52 
75.58 

70. 20 



51.80 
73.54 
57.48 
56.58 
52.59 



58.09 
57.19 
76.51 
63.41 
58.71 
68.57 
63.50 
66.29 
76.81 
77.27 
73.31 
76.45 
79.92 
77.25 
67.04 
66.06 
62.40 
64.67 
84.59 
63.12 
65.93 
91.50 
77.43 
85.99 
69.52 
63.04 
62.73 
62.62 
67.05 
67.58 
73.53 
66.95 



760 



TABLE C-3.— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 

WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Industry 



Employment Index 
Numbers 



Mar. 
1959 



Feb. 
1959 



Mar. 
1958 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Mar. 
1959 



Feb. 
1959 



Mar. 
1958 



Milling 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products ; 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, Industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicles parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment , 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy?electrical machinery 

Telecommunication equipment 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets , 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Industrial composite 



118.4 

138.4 

72.0 

200.4 

87.6 

37.9 

283.2 

119.2 

108.3 

113.1 
104.1 
102.8 
129.5 
70.1 
101.9 
107.8 
99.3 
111.4 
103.4 
89.0 
96.3 
79.2 
76.8 
56.4 
81.4 
94.1 
94.7 
102.4 
79.3 
101.6 
102.9 
109.7 
80.9 
118.6 
118.4 
119.1 
120.0 
106.3 
79.3 
159.8 
96.3 
101.1 
98.0 
111.9 
112.5 
105.4 
116.9 
114.2 
259.7 
112.4 
112.9 
66.3 
132.1 
122.3 
129.3 
111.2 
135.6 
132.0 
109.6 
204.2 
133.5 
97.4 
140.7 
137.6 
125.1 
118.9 
140.8 
123.8 

107.3 

108.0 
106.0 
125.0 

132.4 

120.8 
112.7 

113.7 



118.8 
136.9 
72.3 
197.2 

91.6 

39.5 

296.5 

117.8 

107.5 

111.6 
104.0 
101.7 
127.4 
70.7 
102.7 
107.1 
97.7 
114.3 
103.5 
89.0 
96.8 
79.1 
77.4 
56.5 
81.7 
94.1 
94.1 
103.0 
79.1 
100.4 
101.7 
108.9 
78.5 
118.2 
118.2 
118.3 
119.3 
104.3 
76.2 
158.0 
94.5 
98.3 
97.5 
109.6 
109.7 
102.5 
114.8 
112.4 
254.1 
111.5 
109.9 
66.1 
129.6 
121.6 
129.7 
110.7 
133.8 
131.7 
110.3 
204.1 
130.1 
94.1 
138.9 
137.6 
128.5 
118.1 
139.9 
122.1 

104.0 

105.0 
102.4 
124.0 

131.7 

120.1 
110.8 

113.0 



125.5 

138.1 
73.9 
197.9 

107.0 

57.2 

302.0 

123.4 

108.3 

115.2 
102.3 
100.6 
121.1 

68.7 
103.4 
106.9 

99.9 
117.6 



,4 
.5 
.4 
A 
A 
.2 
.2 
.3 
94.5 
98.0 
76.2 
95.9 
94.4 
106.9 
82.9 
117.7 
117.8 
117.6 
118.7 
103.4 
70.2 
153.9 
90.8 
95.7 
97.7 
115.2 
108.0 
98.5 
110.1 
130.0 
368.0 
109.3 
100.2 
81.6 
151.6 
125.6 
122.0 
98.5 
154.1 
136.2 
125.6 
201.7 
122.7 
91.7 
130.8 
137.5 
130.3 
119.2 
149.1 
115.7 

102.4 

108.8 
92.2 
119.3 

129.5 

118.3 
114.4 

112.9 



91.43 

93.07 
73.95 
99.48 

92.18 
63.06 
107.50 
81.15 

75.25 

80.71 
70.17 
68.96 
79.57 
63.85 
71.09 
65.70 
88.24 
64.40 
78.82 
50.32 
47.41 
60.02 
56.34 
57.20 
65.87 
47.36 
46.87 
49.40 
45.62 
64.02 
66.20 
61.51 
57.52 
86.80 
93.29 
70.94 
81.65 
84.94 
87.88 
85.17 
76.81 
71.87 
80.32 
81.24 
98.66 
82.92 
86.82 
84.85 
89.59 
91.53 
83.37 
78.66 
78.73 
87.05 
82.85 
79.26 
97.17 
80.08 
87.38 
77.63 
78.54 
71.51 
77.57 
112.26 
85.81 
75.48 
99.33 
66.29 

73.33 

78.72 
64.49 
76.66 

49.97 

39.75 
44.26 

72.63 



93.21 

94.06 
74.97 
100.58 

96.65 
71.98 
109.58 
80.76 

75.59 

81.10 
70.53 
68.33 
77.28 
65.15 
71.55 
64.89 
87.67 
65.78 
79.33 
52.13 
49.95 
60.32 
55.69 
57.65 
66.51 
48.72 
48.05 
50.57 
47.30 
64.88 
66.80 
62.82 
58.70 
88.04 
94.92 
71.16 
80.68 
85.35 
87.68 
85.54 
77.02 
74.48 
81.25 
82.69 
98.20 
83.07 
86.71 
85.90 
91.13 
94.61 
83.83 
77.83 
78.91 
85.07 
81.19 
78.57 
94.14 
80.29 
85.89 
78.77 
79.31 
72.33 
77.89 
110.77 
85.69 
75.50 
96.71 
67.24 

76.38 

82.31 
66.59 

76.84 

50.14 

40.48 
43.35 

73.11 



87.62 

89.48 
73.47 
95.05 

87.86 
68.63 
102.12 
77.58 

72.80 

77.86 
67.93 
66.05 
76.14 
64.32 
69.62 
62.03 
82.63 
63.67 
71.41 
49.33 
47.28 
57.40 
52.49 
54.61 
63.92 
46.98 
46.32 
48.96 
45.54 
62.97 
65.51 
60.08 
56.40 
84.65 
90.92 
69.18 
78.50 
80.82 
81.62 
82.37 
73.94 
70.85 
76.80 
79.15 
91.50 
78.26 
82.27 
81.15 
86.68 
86.05 
79.72 
73.80 
76.51 
84.09 
80.17 
74.46 
91.92 
77.91 
83.89 
76.27 
75.24 
70.59 
71.06 
104.21 
82.53 
73.70 
93.59 
64.45 

75.72 

82.16 
63.54 
73.47 

48.32 

38.55 
43.58 

70.20 



72787-5—8 



761 



TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Average Hours Worked 



March 
1959 



Feb. 
1959 



March 

1958 



Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 



March 
1959 



Feb. 
1959 



March 
1958 



Newfoundland 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (») 

British Columbia ( 2 ) 



40.4 
41.1 
40.3 
40.9 
40.4 
40.1 
39.9 
40.1 
38.0 



40.7 
40.8 
42.3 
41.9 
40.7 
40.5 
39.4 
40.5 
38.1 



41.5 
41.2 
40.8 
41.3 
40.1 
40.5 
39.7 
40.0 
38.2 



1.62 
1.62 
1.51 
1.53 
1.81 
1.63 
1.87 
1.83 
2.07 



1.76 
1.55 
1.49 
1.51 
1.80 
1.62 
1.85 
1.81 
2.07 



1.55 
1.49 
1.46 
1.49 
1.74 
1.54 
1.77 
1.76 
2.02 



0) Includes Northwest Territories. 
( 2 ) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: — Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics). 



762 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables. 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

*Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

*Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery 

Machinery, Industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 

Telecommunication equipment 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appli- 
ances 

Wire and cable 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

*Non-metalhc mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

* Durable manufactured goods industries. 



Average Weekly 
Hours 



Mar. Feb. Mar. 
1959 1959 1958 



no. 

41.8 

42.3 
43.1 
42.0 
38.9 
35.4 
43.1 
42.3 
40.3 
4G.5 
40.2 
4C.7 
41.7 
38.4 
40.5 
43.1 
39.3 
39.6 
37.2 
41.3 
39.7 
39.2 
41.8 
40.8 
43.3 
42.3 
38.1 
38.2 
37.3 
39.4 
40.5 
39.7 
41.7 
41.5 
40.7 
40.8 
40.4 
39.6 
40.5 
41.5 
39.9 
41.3 
39.4 
40.2 
40.6 
40.5 
40.2 
40.4 
40.5 
41.3 
39.9 
40.6 
40.4 
40.4 
40.2 
40.8 
40.2 
40.1 
39.8 
39.9 
39.6 

40.2 
38.8 
40.0 
42.6 
41.1 
43.3 
41.6 
40.8 
40.2 
41.6 
40.5 
37.9 
37.6 
38.4 
44.2 
39.3 
39.0 
40.3 



42.6 

42.7 
43.9 
42.3 
42.3 
39.7 
45.2 
42.0 
40.9 
41.0 
40.8 
40.5 
40.4 
39.8 
41.4 
42.7 
40.9 
38.7 
39.6 
42.1 
42.0 
42.2 
42.3 
40.4 
43.7 
43.6 
39.7 
39.5 
38.4 
41.3 
41.5 
40.6 
42.7 
43.2 
41.3 
41.5 
40.8 
39.4 
40.9 
41.8 
40.2 
41.3 
41.5 
41.0 
41.3 
41.5 
40.4 
40.4 
40.8 
41.6 
41.1 
40.8 
40.1 
40.5 
40.3 
40.7 
40.0 
40.2 
40.3 
39.7 
40.2 

41.3 
39.5 
40.5 
43.0 
41.6 
43.0 
41.1 
40.7 
40.3 
40.8 
41.8 
40.4 
40.0 
41.3 
44.5 
39.5 
39.8 
39.1 



42.3 

42.8 
43.6 
42.5 
40.8 
39.1 
43.7 



42. 
41). 

40. 

40. 

41, 

41 

-10. 

41, 

42. 

39.5 

39.3 

41.2 



40.0 
40.2 
41.0 
38.6 
41.9 
43.0 
38.7 
38.4 
38.1 
39.9 
40.9 
40.2 
41.9 
42.3 
40.8 
40.8 
40.8 
39.8 
40.4 
41.1 
40.7 
41.0 
40.6 
39.9 
41.1 
41.1 
39.6 
40.1 
40.5 
41.0 
39.6 
39.8 
40.1 
41.6 
40.0 
40.6 
38.8 
40.2 
39.9 
39.7 
40.0 

40.7 
41.2 
39.3 
42.6 
41.9 
41.9 
41.4 
40.7 
41.0 
41.4 
41.4 
41.1 
41.4 
40.7 
44.1 
39.5 
39.4 
40.2 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



Mar. 

1959 



2.03 

2.10 
1.60 
2.28 
1.96 
1.70 
2.20 
1.84 
1.72 
1.86 
1.58 
1.56 
1.82 
1.41 
1.62 
1.41 
1.88 
2.12 
1.56 
1.78 
1.16 
1.11 
1.29 
1.27 
1.20 
1.38 
1.11 
1.12 
1.17 
1.04 
1.50 
1.61 
1.36 
1.26 
1.98 
2.13 
1.57 
2.07 
1.99 
2.03 
1.92 
1.71 
1.69 
1.90 
1.84 
1.85 
2.36 
1.93 
1.96 
1.96 
2.13 
1.94 
1.90 
1.91 
2.04 
1.73 
1.86 
2.30 
1.76 
1.97 
1.59 

1.77 
1.91 
1.66 
1.74 
1.61 
1.73 
2.46 
1.86 
1.43 
2.20 
1.41 
1.83 
1.97 
1.56 
1.73 
1.00 
0.98 
0.98 



Feb. 
1959 



2.05 

2.11 
1.60 
2.30 
1.98 
1.75 
2.20 
1.84 
1.71 
1.85 
1.57 
1.55 
1.80 
1.41 
1.62 
1.49 
1.84 
2.13 
1.52 
1.77 
1.15 
1.11 
1.28 
1.27 
1.21 
1.37 
1.11 
1.13 
1.16 
1.04 
1.49 
1.59 
1.36 
1.25 
1.99 
2.14 
1.57 
2.04 
1.98 
1.99 
1.92 
1.71 
1.70 
1.90 
1.85 
1.85 
2.33 
1.92 
1.96 
1.92 
2.16 
1.94 
1.89 
1.91 
1.97 
1.73 
1.82 
2.20 
1.76 
1.94 
1.60 

1.77 
1.91 
1.66 
1.74 
1.61 
1.72 
2.40 
1.87 
1.43 
2.15 
1.41 
1.82 
1.98 
1.55 
1.73 
1.00 
0.98 
0.97 



Mar. 
1958 



1.96 

2.02 
1.59 
2.18 
1.89 
1.71 
2.16 
1.76 
1.66 
1.79 
1.52 
1.46 
1.73 
1.38 
1.55 
1.32 
1.77 
1.99 
1.43 
1.67 
1.14 
1.09 
1.24 
1.22 
1.17 
1.32 
1.08 
1.10 
1.14 
1.03 
1.46 
1.58 
1.33 
1.22 
1.94 
2.08 
1.51 
1.98 
1.89 
1.90 
1.86 
1.66 
1.63 
1.83 
1.78 
1.80 
2.20 
1.83 
1.88 
1.93 
2.00 
1.88 
1.80 
1.82 
1.94 
1.66 
1.76 
2.13 
1.73 
1.91 
1.55 

1.73 
1.88 
1.63 
1.66 
1.56 
1.60 
2.28 
1.79 
1.41 
2.06 
1.38 
1.79 
1.93 
1.48 
1.66 
0.97 
0.96 
0.95 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



Mar. 
1959 



85.09 

88.73 
69.02 
95.87 
76.28 
60.06 
94.91 
78.04 
69.44 
75.61 
63.34 
63.66 
76.08 
54.12 
65.67 
60.85 
74.06 
84.11 
58.26 
73.51 
46.10 
43.68 
53.81 
51.91 
52.14 
58.50 
42.32 
43.02 
43.54 
41.08 
60.84 
63.99 
56.94 
52.60 
80.63 
86.91 
63.49 
81.96 
80.63 
84.05 
76.84 
70.89 
66.70 
76.59 
74.62 
74.78 
95.09 
77.99 
79.51 
80.75 
84.80 
78.60 
76.78 
77.18 
81.88 
70.60 
74.80 
92.29 
70.10 
78.72 
63.02 

71.27 

74.08 

66.24 

74.32 

66.17 

74.98 

102.23 

75.67 

57.46 

91.57 

57.31 

69.26 

74.18 

60.06 

76.43 

39.10 

38.23 

39.48 



Feb. Mar. 

1959 1958 



87.28 
90.22 
70.47 
97.51 
83.76 
69.53 
99.65 
77.05 
69.81 
75.83 
63.96 
62.80 
72.93 
56.06 
67.29 
59.51 
75.45 
82.27 
60.21 
74.64 
48.40 
46.75 
54.27 
51.17 
52.82 
59.65 
43.96 
44.53 
44.76 
42.81 
61.68 
64.55 
58.20 
53.85 
82.37 
88.95 
64.22 
80.40 
80.94 
83.34 
77.13 
70.68 
70.40 
77.83 
76.34 
77.00 
94.07 
77.70 
80.18 
79.92 
88.52 
79.24 
75.85 
77.25 
79.33 
70.56 
73.08 
88.42 
70.65 
76.89 
64.29 

73.21 
75.46 
67.30 
74.89 
66.92 
74.19 
98.39 
76.08 
57.51 
87.57 
58.94 
73.81 
79.12 
63.93 
76.89 
31.31 
39.13 
38.09 



82.78 
86.33 
69.15 
92.57 
77.11 
66.94 
94.44 
74.49 
68.98 
72.66 
61.45 
60.21 
71.46 
55.40 
64.99 
55.93 
69.99 
78.17 
58.96 
64.35 
45.44 
43.74 
50.80 
47.21 



41.99 
42.16 
43.51 
41.02 
59.92 
63.44 
55.77 
51.65 
78.95 
85.07 
61.69 
78.84 
76.44 
77.93 
75.58 
68.10 
66.34 
73.02 
73.20 
73.86 
87.20 
73.42 
76.02 
79.05 
79.20 
74.86 
72.22 
75.50 
77.72 
67.60 
68.09 
85.71 
68.91 
75.87 
62.00 

70.33 
77.37 
64.06 
70.63 
65.20 
67.00 
94.52 
72.93 
57.93 
85.45 
56.97 
73.65 
79.90 
60.24 
73.25 
38.39 
37.75 
38.31 



72787-5— Si 



763 



TABLE C-6.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, DBS 



Period 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



Average 

Hourly 

Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Index Numbers (Av. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 


Price 


Index 


116.2 


116.4 


118.1 


121.9 


125.1 


124.3 


125.2 


125.1 


125.1 


124.7 


125.2 


125.6 


126.0 


126.3 


126.2 


126.1 


125.7 


125.5 



Average 

Real Weekly 

Earnings 



Monthly Average 1954 
Monthly Average 1955 
Monthly Average 1956 
Monthly Average 1957 
Monthly Average 1958 

Last pay period in: 

1958 March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . . 

October 

November. . . 
December. . . 

1959 January 

February 

March (i).... 



40.7 
41.0 
41.0 
40.4 
40.2 



40.4 
40.4 
40.7 
40.5 
40.3 
40.6 
40.7 
40.8 
40.9 
40.7* 

40.6 
40.9 
40.3 



1.41 
1.45 
1.52 
1.61 
1.66 



1.66 
1.66 
1.67 
1.67 
1.66 
1.64 
1.64 
1.66 
1.67 
1.71 

1.70 
1.71 
1.72 



57.43 
59.45 
62.40 
64.96 
66.77 



66.98 
67.23 
68.05 
67.47 
66.86 
66.58 
66.91 
67.52 
68.43 
69.60 s1 

69.28 
69.81 
69.44 



137.6 
142.4 
149.5 
155.6 
160.0 



160.5 
161.1 
163.0 
161.6 
160.2 
159.5 
160.3 
161.8 
163.9 
166.7 

166.0 
167.2 
166.4 



118.4 
122.3 
126.6 
127.6 
127.9 



129.1 
128.7 
130.3 
129.2 
128.5 
127.4 
127.6 
128.4 
129.8 
132.1 

131.6 
133.0 
132.6 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for December 1958 are 37.3 and $63.71. 
C 1 ) Latest figures subject to revision. 



764 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical. 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 





Period 


Unfilled Vacancies* 


Registrations for Employment ( 2 ) 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 


1, 1953 


24,564 
14,284 
21,675 
44,157 
28,041 

15,172 

11,011 
11,505 
10,012 
9,385 
7,319 
11,579 

8,643 
9,425 
9,007 
11,740 
16,883 
19,758 


21,143 
15,790 
18,451 
22,612 
19,163 

14,677 

13,040 

11,858 
13,446 
11,430 
9,552 
9,752 

8,549 
9,295 
10,816 
13,399 
16,280 
18,044 


45,707 
30,074 
40,126 
66,769 
47,204 

29,849 

24,051 
23,363 
23,458 
20,815 
16,871 
21,331 

17,192 
18,720 
19,823 
25,139 
33,163 
37,802 


152,488 
237,848 
205,630 
160,642 
226,022 

444.584R 

348,074 
252,853 
237,319 
228,426 
255,451 
329,050 

562,257 
615,788 
623,338 
611,941 
498,897 
342,605 


49,614 
76,782 
76,272 
68,697 
80,973 

156.584R 

155,231 
119,157 
106,423 
107,123 
115,711 
126,341 

158,163 
175,574 

174,787 
169,625 
161,742 
140,615 


202, 102 




1, 1954 


314,630 




1, 1955 


281,902 




1, 1956 


229,339 




1, 1957 


306,995 




1, 1958 


601,168R 


July 


1, 1958 


503,305 




1, 1958 


372,010 




1, 1958 


343,742 




1, 1958 


335,549 




1, 1958 


371,162 




1, 1958 


455,391 


January 
February 


1, 1959 


720,420 


1, 1959 


791,362 


1, 1959 


798,125 




1, 1959 


781,566 


May 


1, 1959 0) 


660,639 


1, 1959 0) 


483,220 









* Current Vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 

C 1 ) Latest figures subject to revision. R — Revised. 

( 2 ) From December 1, 1958 registration figures during the seasonal benefit period do not include claimants for fishing 
benefits. As figures for December 1, 1957 to July 1, 1958 did include claimants for fishing benefits, they have been 
adjusted. 



765 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 

1959(i) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry- 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



Male 



1,060 
1,496 

1,145 

787 

260 

45 

13 

40 

3,761 

372 

16 

57 

94 

75 

111 

482 

181 

120 

618 

611 

172 

298 

195 

50 

191 

118 

1,675 

1,180 
495 

1,072 

947 
52 
73 

93 

2,280 

739 
1,541 

622 

3,438 
554 

1,600 
105 
470 
709 



16,642 



Female 



220 



47 

7 

24 

3 

1 

12 

2,372 

405 

6 

18 

116 

135 

837 

73 

70 

122 

144 

56 

58 

105 

30 

11 

93 

93 

103 

66 
37 

341 

158 
31 
152 

53 

2,522 

619 
1,903 



9,835 

2,076 
485 
124 
443 

6.707 



16,396 



Total 



1,280 
1,499 

1,192 

794 

284 

48 

14 

52 

6,133 

777 
22 
75 
210 
210 
948 
555 
251 
242 
762 
667 
230 
403 
225 
61 
284 
211 

1,778 

1,246 

532 

1,413 

1,105 

83 

225 

146 

4,802 

1,358 
3,444 

1,522 

13,273 

2,630 

2,085 

229 

913 

7,416 



IS.M8 



Change from 



Mar. 31 
1959 



+ 244 

+ 1,226 

+ 629 

+ 475 

+ 188 

+ 16 

+ 8 

58 

+ 1,407 



411 
14 
43 
58 
32 
67 

245 
85 
12 
93 

182 
89 
7 


21 
48 

487 
362 
125 

215 

186 

35 

6 

42 



+ 782 
+ 177 
+ 605 



+ 18 

+ 3,657 

+ 940 

+ 506 

+ 99 

+ 93 

+ 2,019 



+ 8,623 



April 31 
1958 



972 
101 

511 

300 
197 

10 
1 

25 



1,496 

163 
10 
41 
81 
51 

154 
91 
95 
17 

277 

105 
52 

172 
90 
10 
22 
85 

1,501 

1,575 
74 



267 

193 

+ 29 

103 



155 

1,021 

380 
641 

340 



434 

690 

28 

80 

1,006 



1,432 



(0 Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



766 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 19590) 

(Source: Form UIC 757) 



Occupational Group 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Registrations for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Professional and Managerial Workers. . . 

Clerical Workers 

Sales Workers 

Personal and Domestic Service Workers. 

Seamen 

Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry (Ex. log. ) 

Skilled and Semiskilled Workers 

Food and kindred products (incl 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and lumber products , 

Pulp, paper (incl. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communication and public utility 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled Workers 

Food and tobacco , 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

GEAND TOTAL 



2,689 
1,225 
1,340 



1,176 

6,517 

61 

74 

1,626 

59 

71 

17 

647 

87 

15 

315 

936 

693 

39 

244 

1,462 

92 

79 

3,035 

138 

250 

171 

1,373 

1,103 



1,637 
4,162 
1,148 
7,324 

64 
1,310 

15 

934 

3 

7 

81 
1 

10 

16 



183 
31 
11 



635 
191 



14 
424 



4,326 
5,387 
2,488 
8,220 
5 
1,240 
7,827 

76 
1,008 
1,629 

66 
152 

18 
657 
103 

15 
315 
936 
711 

39 

427 

1,493 

103 

79 

3,670 

329 

256 

185 

1,373 

1,527 



9,926 
19,194 

7,921 
42,671 

3,323 

4,576 

246,034 

1,987 
3,736 

45,215 

1,468 

1,461 

685 

21,123 
4,161 
1,527 
3,209 

63,219 

47,936 
1,461 
5,820 

29,791 
5,693 
7,542 

165,252 

6,991 

24,306 

7,543 

84,883 

41,529 



2,425 
52,801 
20,395 

28,622 

16 

684 

25,946 

1,029 

15,549 

193 

661 

1,360 

53 

1,175 

1,391 

40 



11 
187 
4 
507 
373 
393 

20 



30,853 

8,922 

501 

790 

3 

20,637 



12,351 

71,995 

28,316 

71,293 

3,339 

5,260 

271,980 

3,016 

19,285 

45,408 

2,129 

2,821 

738 

22,298 

5,552 

1,567 

3,209 

63,230 

48,123 

1,465 

8,327 

31,164 

6,086 

7,562 

196,105 
15,913 

24,807 

8,333 

84,886 

62,166 



16,883 



16,280 



33,163 



498,897 



161,742 



660,639 



0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



767 



TABLE D-4. 



UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 30, 1959 

(Soubce: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 


Unfilled Vacancies( 2 ) 


Registrations 


0) 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 2, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 1, 
1958 


April 30, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 2, 

1959 


Previous 

Year 
May 1, 

1958 


Newfoundland 


636 

18 


428 

10 

4 

414 

116 

93 
23 

710 

18 
34 
499 


224 

5 

17 
202 

215 

117 

98 

697 

12 

13 

467 


24,531 

5,826 
2,821 
15,884 

4,676 

2.789 

1,887 

31,080 

1,257 

1,872 
6,041 
1,243 
3,352 
773 
4,075 
1,610 
6,104 
2,027 
2,726 

36,286 

5,340 
3,297 
3,001 
2,835 

983 
8,168 
3,541 
3,717 
2,091 

835 
2,478 

227,452 

3,298 
934 
1,281 
1,990 
3,803 
2,355 
3,249 
3,120 
2,448 
1,228 
3,418 
2,440 
2,631 
3,928 
4,596 
3,519 
1,068 
2,951 
1,342 
5,091 
1,712 
795 
1,664 
4,521 
1,826 
1,659 
2,860 

66,233 
2,456 
1,462 

15,772 
5,256 
7,031 
2,354 
5,516 
1,714 
1,054 
2,015 
2,117 
2,334 
1,855 
2,163 
6,879 
5,965 
3,000 
2,787 
5,841 
3,431 


26,392 

6,297 
2,518 
17,577 

5,884 
3,660 
2,224 

40,511 

1,388 
2,445 
6,481 
1,465 
4,181 
929 
5,254 
1,670 
10,714 
2,278 
3,706 

41,205 

6,760 
3,555 
3,449 
3,002 

923 
10,207 
4,341 
3,012 
2,299 

972 
2,685 

265,630 

3,685 
1,170 
1,568 
2,210 
4,252 
2,847 
3,736 
3,262 
3,101 
1,484 
3,623 
2,786 
2,797 
5,160 
5,537 
3,934 
1,224 
3,436 
1,455 
5,947 
2,063 
974 
1,945 
5,532 
2,143 
2,019 
3,389 

78,433 
3,118 
1,955 

18,227 
6,321 
8,147 
2,403 
5,511 
1,961 
1,457 
2,799 
2,735 
2,719 
2,479 
2,271 
7,539 
6,783 
3,755 
2,916 
7,353 
3,091 


26,966 




6,248 


Grand Falls. 


2,933 




618 

217 

109 
108 

866 

13 
38 
514 


17,785 


Prince Edward Island 


4,701 




2,765 




1,936 


Nova Scotia 


33,687 




1,577 




1,934 




6,711 




1,369 




76 

9 

50 


52 
13 

24 


42 

4 

59 


4,204 




862 




4,787 




1,114 




59 
46 
61 

729 

3 

45 

2 

122 

19 

307 

7 

174 

16 

20 

14 

7,475 

21 

8 

20 

26 

386 


13 

2 

55 

730 

7 

42 

7 

117 

21 

322 

2 

173 

5 

27 
7 

4,977 

16 

9 
32 
26 

8 

3 

95 
10 
38 
23 

1 

7 

65 
47 
59 
32 
23 
30 
80 
60 
25 

1 
18 
13 

3 


32 

9 

59 

770 

13 

33 

6 

119 

9 

383 

1 

169 

10 

9 

18 

5,967 

112 

10 

32 

16 

445 

3 

81 

16 

28 

103 

41 

6 

38 

143 

110 

45 

41 

9 

488 

135 

48 

2 

18 

9 

2 

2 

30 

2,302 

1 

524 
83 
45 
15 
48 
27 
59 
59 
48 
61 
37 
75 
10 

130 
62 

106 

161 
12 


5,767 


Truro 


2,335 




3,027 


New Brunswick 


40,405 




6,029 




3,492 




3,410 




2,824 




1,076 




9,340 




4,083 




4,299 




2,343 




883 




2,626 


Quebec 


245,297 




2,720 




1,331 




1,382 




1,609 




4,251 




2,504 




96 

7 

40 

27 

801 

5 

43 

102 
81 

100 
35 
31 

199 

208 

26 

2 

1 

16 
16 
8 
18 
3,029 
11 
4 

726 
95 
18 
86 
14 
15 
67 
35 

106 
89 
73 
85 
14 

169 
73 
69 

256 
22 


2,782 




2,943 




2,650 




1,312 




3,145 




2,405 




2,360 


Hull 


4,589 




5,128 




3,126 




1,021 




2,757 




1,447 




5,146 




2,032 




1,195 




2,176 




5,388 




2,044 




1,907 




7 

2,509 

5 

162 

444 
77 
13 
84 
19 
2 
52 
28 
81 
93 
49 
48 
12 

153 
40 
35 

258 
11 


3,298 




73,613 




2,707 


Port Alfred 


1,438 




16,517 




6,003 




7,701 




2,662 




6,171 




1,613 




1,235 


Ste. Therese 


2,160 




2,633 




2,487 




2,211 


Sept-Iles 


2,230 




7,084 




6,922 


Sorel 


2,488 


Thetford Mines... 


2,394 




6,734 


Val d'Or 


4,317 



768 



TABLE D-4. 



UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 30, 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



1959 



Office 


Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Registrations 


(*) 

April 30, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 2, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 1, 
1958 


0) 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 2, 

1959 


Previous 

Year 

May 1, 

1958 


Quebec— Cont'd. 

Valleyfield 


31 
15 
50 

10,98ft 

65 
17 
49 

210 
56 
73 
34 
12 
73 
22 
11 

185 

269 
11 
55 

102 

127 
20 
55 
61 

799 
16 
57 
27 
71 

145 
33 

179 
37 
11 
43 

620 

251 
36 
9 

74 
62 
31 

104 
32 

204 

1,155 

22 

2 

187 
25 
86 
10 

331 
9 
13 
9 

161 
45 
46 

243 

56 

5 

32 

55 

6 

237 
74 
3,196 
44 
45 
3 
28 

234 

202 
71 

2,989 

324 
25 
43 
106 
108 
2,383 


17 
12 

42 

9,044 
5 

23 
66 
80 
29 
86 
23 
16 
95 
21 
9 
105 


13 
41 
34 

10,088 

145 
56 
24 

197 
35 
78 
20 
15 
53 
13 
8 

116 


2,873 
2,348 
5,269 

196,934 

385 

1,447 

2,182 

1,677 

2,816 

2,069 

677 

433 

2,319 

747 

951 

4,034 

675 

607 

812 

2,931 

1,343 

312 

445 

1,848 

13,287 

1,281 

621 

2,041 

1,107 

2,209 

2,017 

2,226 

1,027 

888 

439 

4,530 

4,129 

1,051 

655 

1,485 

2,648 

2,598 

829 

1,144 

3,768 

6,064 

1,795 

719 

2,168 

751 

3,637 

434 

5,527 

1,137 

1,043 

879 

4,464 

944 

2,585 

3,117 

1,018 

395 

532 

990 

1,406 

5,866 

3,563 

49,487 

887 

765 

643 

2,219 

5,225 

9,264 

720 

25,042 

2,187 
1,688 

331 
1,106 

556 
19,174 


3,426 
2,831 
6,121 

239,176 

509 
1,756 
2,595 
1,996 
3,663 
2,390 

905 

553 
2,509 

968 
1,346 
4,724 


2,782 




3,199 


Ville St. Georges 


5,348 




218,659 




503 




1,261 


Belleville 


2,527 




1,370 




1,213 




3,402 




575 




371 




2,847 




874 




766 




4,554 


*Elliot Lake 






8 
30 

333 
96 
12 
25 
36 

691 
19 
26 
5 
75 
96 
66 

122 
29 
15 
31 

625 

162 
21 
4 
64 
56 
23 

113 
33 

140 

805 
13 
1 
95 
24 
46 
12 

164 
5 
14 
5 

115 
63 
60 

134 

57 

4 

27 

46 

1 

307 
67 
2,981 
39 
41 
3 
20 

144 

169 
68 

2,456 

238 
44 
47 
79 

146 
1,902 


28 
57 

527 

55 

8 

30 

29 

554 
31 
49 
25 
62 

123 
64 
87 
23 
18 
54 

505 

155 
20 
5 
53 
22 

284 
90 
25 

177 

1,222 

14 

1 

220 
27 

218 
13 

642 

8 

32 

6 

112 
32 
67 

279 

40 

8 

20 

21 


784 

991 
3,882 
1,611 

494 

735 

2,091 

16,795 

1,765 

751 
1,795 
1,264 
2,611 
2,088 
2,963 
1,206 
1,038 

586 
5,441 
5,286 
1,706 

896 
1,885 
3,601 
3,016 
1,209 
1,433 
4,334 
7,541 
2,499 

892 
2,690 

845 
4,163 

653 
6,128 
1,286 
1,343 
1,051 
5,450 
1,194 
3,362 
3,419 
1,624 

395 

637 
1,217 
1,619 
6,695 
3,562 
59,600 
1,117 
1,054 

931 
2,915 
6,943 
11,204 

976 

29,672 

3,046 
2,042 

294 
1,498 

451 
22,341 


742 




837 


Fort William 


2,961 


Gait 


2,054 




417 




571 


Guelph 


2,145 




17,498 




1,292 




875 




2,084 




1,102 




2,103 




1,930 




3,606 




1,363 




818 




518 




5,196 




4,095 




868 




902 




1,258 




2,961 




2,811 




829 




1,277 




4,488 




6,926 




2,281 




373 




2,719 




851 




4,259 




490 


Port Arthur 


5,853 




1,298 


Prescott 


1,145 




1,013 




5,102 


St. Thomas 


1,411 




2,506 




3,298 




1,506 




309 


Smiths Falls 


532 




1,214 




1,531 




326 

242 

2,242 

41 

56 

4 

29 

140 

84 

22 

1,805 

278 
26 
42 
39 
37 
1,383 


6,857 




3,211 




52,245 




945 




639 




716 




3,035 




2,727 




14,500 




1,303 


Manitoba 


29,319 




2,551 




1,878 


Flin Flon 


340 




1,439 




423 


Winnipeg 


22,688 



Prior to April 23, 1959, statistics included with Sudbury. 



769 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 30, 1959 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Offioe 



Unfilled Vacancies( 2 ) 



(*) 

April 30, 



Previous 
Month 

April 2, 
1959 



Previous 
Year 

May 1, 
1958 



Registrations 



April 3 
1959 



Previous 

Month 

April 2, 

1959 



Previous 

Year 
May 1, 

1958 



Saskatchewan 

Estevan 

Moose Jaw 

North Battleford. 

Prince Albert 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Swift Current 

Weyburn 

Yorkton 

Alberta 

Blairmore 

Calgary 

Drum heller 

Edmonton 

Edson 

Lethbridge 

Medicine Hat 

Red Deer 

British Columbia. .. . 

Chilliwack 

Courtenay 

Cranbrook 

Dawson Creek.... 

Duncan 

Kamloops 

Kelowna 

Kitimat 

Mission City 

Nanaimo 

Nelson 

New Westminster 

Penticton 

Port Alberni 

Prince George 

Prince Rupert 

Princeton 

Trail 

Vancouver 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Whitehorse 

Canada 

Males 

Females 



1,382 

80 
213 

66 

97 
299 
351 
129 

30 
117 

5,097 

5 

1,687 

25 

2,740 

22 

304 

209 

105 

2,792 



15 

23 

24 

38 

27 

7 

26 

29 

19 

263 

36 

25 

83 

15 

8 

47 

1,519 

50 

270 

185 

33,163 

16,883 
16,280 



1,423 

61 
204 
60 
88 
394 
360 
111 



2,896 

11 

1,099 

18 

1,202 

12 

308 

179 

67 

2,359 

81 
11 
10 
17 
28 
25 
23 
7 

18 
18 
19 
281 
18 
32 
68 
15 
3 

62 

1,156 

42 

193 

232 

25,139 

11,740 
13,399 



2,092 

131 

287 

53 

98 

822 

405 

94 

82 

120 

5,634 

5 

955 

19 

2,691 

23 

1,232 

629 

80 

3,005 

80 
11 
11 
38 
18 
37 
15 
18 
2 
22 
23 
204 
17 



52 

42 
6 

23 

1,971 

23 

218 

174 

30,497 

17,323 
13,174 



18,223 

412 
1,200 
1,549 
2,613 
4,275 
3,985 
781 
404 
3,004 

32,227 

756 
7,816 

827 
17,244 

883 
2,200 

933 
1,568 

64,188 

1,295 

852 
1,239 
2.249 

659 
2,021 
1,337 

295 

949 
1,040 
1,147 
7,946 
1,493 

881 
4,093 
1,781 

488 

1,257 

26,144 

2,036 

4,276 

710 

660,639 

498,897 
161,742 



24,119 

672 
1,834 
2,097 
3,152 
5,543 
5,199 
1,196 

627 
3,799 

35,681 

813 
9,248 

992 
17,472 

821 
3,205 
1,366 
1,764 

73,296 

1,869 
1,026 
1,518 
1,854 

794 
2,259 
1,957 

421 
1,184 
1,302 
1,594 
9,101 
1,978 

972 
2,991 
1,828 

612 

1,468 

30,238 

2,776 

4,860 



781,566 

611,941 
169,625 



20,156 

673 
1,395 
1,941 
2,947 
4,487 
4,034 
818 
481 
3,380 

40,096 

979 
9,361 

928 
21,718 

997 
2,756 
1,162 
2,195 

87,498 
2,245 
1,359 
1,772 
2,316 
1,193 
3,135 
1,616 

704 
1,403 
2,021 
1,636 
9,521 
1,912 
1,123 
4,801 
2,129 

586 

1,476 

38,388 

2,353 

5,138 

671 

746,784 

581,382 
165,402 



0) Preliminary subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1954—1959 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1954 


861,588 
953,576 
1,046,979 
877,704 
840, 129 
210,553 
252,185 


545,452 
642,726 
748,464 
586,780 
548,663 
135,039 
168,438 


316,136 
310,850 
298,515 
290,924 
291,466 
75,514 
83,747 


67,893 
67,619 
68,522 
59,412 
56,385 
15,013 
17,712 


209,394 
222,370 
252,783 
215,335 
198,386 
53,748 
64,199 


277,417 
343,456 
379,085 
309,077 
287,112 
77,627 
89,445 


175,199 
178,015 
210,189 
185.962 
181,772 
44,862 
56,637 


131,685 


1955 


142,116 


1956 


136,400 


1957 


107,918 


1958 


116,474 


1958 (4 months) 


19,303 


1959 (4 months) 


24,192 







770 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-l.— BENEFICIARIES AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE, APRIL 1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Estimated 

Average 

Number of 

Beneficiaries 

Per Week 
(in thousands) 


Weeks 
Paid 


Amount 

of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 




28.3 

6.1 

38.1 

37.9 

212.8 

185.7 

26.9 

19.3 

30.2 

54.9 


124,500 
26,795 
167,501 
166,966 
936,264 
817,136 
118,358 
84.843 
133,126 
241.560 


2,664,446 




528,857 




3,379,100 




2,450,247 




20,496,444 




17,580,110 




2,221,374 




1,737,066 




2,623,484 




5,283,457 






Total, Canada, April 1959 


640.2 
763.2 
735.2 


2,817,049 
3,052,734 
3,088,112 


59,964,585 


Total, Canada, March 1959 


65,868,439 


Total, Canada, April 1958 


66,679,377 







TABLE E-2.— CLAIMANTS HAVING AN UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER IN THE "LIVE 
FILE" ON THE LAST WORKING DAY OF THE MONTH, BY DURATION, AND SHOW- 
ING THE PERCENTAGE POSTAL, BY SEX AND PROVINCE, APRIL 30, 1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 



Total 
Claimants 



Duration on the Register (weeks) 



2 or 
Less 



3-4 



5-8 



9-12 



13-16 





Not Available 



17-20 



Over 
20 



Percent 

age 
Postal 



April 30, 

1958 

Total 

claimants 



Canada 

Male 

Female 

Excluding T 

Prairie M 

Provinces F , 

Newfoundland , 

Male 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia 

Male 

Female 



610,770 
465, 108 
145,662 



44.6 
49.2 
29.9 



722,252 
570,818 
151,434 



543,208 
413,657 
129,551 



78,135 
58,794 
19,341 



38,056 

29,490 

8,566 



72,100 
57,313 
14,787 



67,229 
53,028 
14,201 



72,818 
56,175 
16,643 



75,014 
61,518 
13,496 



139,856 
97,339 
42,517 



44.5 
48.9 
30.3 



636,933 
502,916 
134,017 



25,295 

23,620 

1,675 

4,347 

3,614 

733 

33,849 

28,459 

5,390 

35,163 

29,714 

5,449 



2,564 

2,392 

172 

224 
170 
54 

4,842 

4,318 

524 

4,530 

4,001 

529 



213,157 27,479 
20,351 
43,352 7,128 



175,799 
119,617 
56,182 

22,263 
15,962 
6,301 

15,854 
12,137 
3,717 

29,445 

23,352 

6,093 

55,598 
38,828 
16,770 



29,178 

20,131 

9,047 



9,318 
7,431 

1,887 



1,352 

1,268 

84 

170 
143 
27 

2,047 

1,792 

255 

2,195 

1,954 

241 

14,903 
11,875 
3,027 

12,428 
8,566 
3,862 



2,236 

2,073 

163 

257 

217 

40 

3,472 

2,960 

512 

4,737 
4,243 



29,599 

25,004 

4,595 

25,119 
18,062 
7,057 



2,980 

2,775 

205 

372 
304 



3,578 

2,951 

627 

4,428 
3,834 



29,006 

24,664 

4,342 

20,949 
14,650 
6,299 



4,655 
4,371 

284 

749 
633 
116 

5,672 
4,656 
1,016 

5,014 

4,196 
818 

29,934 

24,858 

5,076 

20,564 
13,476 
7,088 



Not Available 



5,774 

5,606 

168 

1,275 

1,160 

140 

5,471 

4,891 

580 

5,947 
5,225 

722 

28,742 

24,528 

4,214 

20,937 
15,253 
5,684 



5,734 

5,135 

599 

1,275 

987 
288 

8,767 
6,891 
1,876 

8,312 
6,261 
2,051 

53,494 
38,524 
14,970 

46,624 
29,479 
17,145 



4,961 
3,891 
1,070 


6,680 
4,754 
1,926 


5,916 
3,850 
2,066 


6,230 
3,985 
2,245 


6,843 
4,855 
1,988 



15,650 
10,062 
5,588 



79.7 
81.9 
51.1 

76.0 

80.2 
55.4 

54.3 

56.1 
45.0 

70.4 
73.8 
51.4 

47.1 
52.2 
27.2 

31.5 
32.9 
28.4 

37.7 
44.9 
19.5 

58.9 
65.4 
37.4 

44.1 
48.6 
27.1 

35.0 
37.0 
30.4 



30,957 

29,488 

1,469 

4,613 

3,882 
731 

37,936 

33,086 

4,850 

40,138 

35,126 

5,012 

239,383 
193,836 
45,547 

204,527 
145,408 
59,119 

28,256 

20,922 

7,334 

18,566 
14,842 
3,724 

38,497 

32,138 

6,359 

79,379 
62,090 
17,289 



771 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, APRIL, 

1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims Pending 
at End of Month 


Province 


Total* 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




6,802 

1,050 

10,317 

11,145 

67,282 

62,722 

7,961 

5,414 

12,234 

22,020 


5,123 

889 
6,760 
8,334 
49,247 
41,706 
5,593 
4,281 
8,858 
13,441 


1,679 

161 

3,557 

2,811 

18,035 

21,016 

2,368 

1,133 

3,376 

8,579 


6,919 

1,293 

11,433 

12,576 

76,504 

68,771 

9,079 

6,244 

13,552 

23,628 


5,761 

1,176 

10,314 

11,152 

67,300 

58,754 

7,854 

5,482 

11,790 

20,150 


1,158 

117 

1,119 

1,424 

9,204 

10,017 

1,225 

762 

1,762 

3,478 


1,828 




129 




1,690 




1,757 




12,394 




11,077 




973 




841 




2,728 




3,994 






Total, Canada, April 1959 


206,947 
230,095 
217,500 


144,232 
164,049 
150,112 


62,715 
66,046 
67,388 


229,999 
225,244 
237,375 


199,733 
200,700 
211,452 


30,266 
24,544 
25,923 


37,411 


Total, Canada, March 1959 

Total, Canada, April 1958 


60,463 

48,822 







* In addition revised claims received numbered 37,767. 

t In addition, 38,381 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 3,212 were special requests not granted and 1,435 
were appeals by claimants. There were 4,968 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4.— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



End of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants 


1959— March 


4,198,200 
4,248,000 
4,169,000 

4,177,000 
3,972,000 
3,901,000 
3,907,000 
3,919,000 
3,931,000 
4,055,000 
4,059,000 
4,107,000 
4,205,000 


3,431,300 
3,452,000 
3,383,900 

3,462,000 
3,552,800 
3,577,500 
3,624,400 
3,624,400 
3,630,200 
3,609,500 
3,507,900 
3,384,700 
3,345,400 


766,900 




796,000 




785, 100 


1958 — December 


715,000 




419,200 




323,500 




282,600 




294,600 


July 


300, 800 




445,500 




551,100 




722,300 




859,600 







772 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

(1949 = 100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Shelter 



Clothing 



Household 
operation 



Other 
Commodi- 
ties and 
Services 



1954— Year 

1955— Year 

1956— Year 

1957— Year 

1958— Year 

1958— June 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 

1959 — January.... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



116.2 

116.4 

118.1 

121.9 

125.1 

125.1 
124.7 
125.2 
125.6 
126.0 
126.3 
126.2 

126.1 
125.7 
125.5 
125.4 
125.6 
125.9 



112.2 
112.1 
113.4 
118.6 
122.1 



122. 
121. 
122. 
122. 
123. 
123. 
122. 



122.3 
121.2 
120.0 
119.3 
118.5 
119.1 



126.5 

129.4 

132.5 

134.9 

138.4 

138.3 
138.4 
139.1 
139.4 
139.6 
139.8 
139.9 



140. 
140. 
140. 
140. 
141. 
141. 



109.4 
108.0 



108.5 

109.7 

109.7 
109.9 
109.6 
109.5 
109.9 
110.4 
110.5 

109.2 
108.8 
109.4 
109.6 
109.7 
109.2 



117.4 

116.4 

117.1 

119.6 

121.0 

120.6 
120.6 
120.5 
120.8 
113.2 
121.5 
122.0 

121.8 
122.0 
122.3 
122.6 
122.5 
122.5 



171.4 
118.1 
120.9 
126.1 
130.9 



130. 
130. 
130. 
131. 
131. 
133. 
133. 



133.4 
133.4 
133.4 
133.7 
134.9 
135.4 



TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA AT 

THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1959 

(1949 = 100) 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Household 
Operation 


Other 
Com- 
modities 

and 
Services 




May 1958 


April 1959 


May 1959 


(i) St. John's, Nfld 


112.3 
122.7 
125.3 
125.2 
125.5 
128.8 
123.3 
121.9 
121.7 
125.7 


113.9 
125.1 
126.8 
125.6 
125.8 
127.9 
122.7 
121.9 
122.0 
127.1 


114.2 
125.4 
126.9 
125.9 
126.0 
128.1 
122.8 
122.1 
122.0 
126.8 


111.8 
115.0 
117.8 
122.6 
117.0 
117.3 
117.2 
117.1 
115.8 
119.8 


114.8 
133.2 
135.6 
143.2 
146.7 
153.9 
131.5 
122.3 
125.3 
137.9 


104.2 
118.7 
117.9 
105.6 
113.4 
112.7 
115.5 
120.1 
117.8 
115.1 


109.6 
128.9 
123.6 
119.7 
121.3 
123.6 
118.7 
123.8 
121.7 
129.3 


126.3 


Halifax 


137.9 


Saint John 


141.8 




136.0 




135.6 




136.0 




131.7 


Saskatoon — Regina 


127.6 


Edmonton — Calgary 


131.2 




135.0 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

0) St. John's index on the base June 1951 = 100. 



773 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

Statistical information on work stoppages in Canada is compiled by the Economics 
and Research Branch of the Department of Labour. The first three tables in this section 
cover strikes and lockouts involving six or more workers and lasting at least one working 
day, and strikes and lockouts lasting less than one day or involving fewer than six workers 
but exceeding a total of nine man-days. The number of workers involved includes all 
workers reported on strike or locked out, whether or not they all belonged to the unions 
directly involved in the disputes leading to work stoppages. Workers indirectly affected, 
such as those laid off as a result of a work stoppage, are not included. For further notes 
on this series see page 542, May issue. 

TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 1954-1959 



Month or Year 



1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

*1958 

*1958: May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October — 
November 
December. 

*1959: January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 



Strikes and 

Lockouts 

Beginning 

During Month 

or Year 



156 
149 
221 
242 
251 

19 
21 
26 
25 
26 
19 
28 
5 



Strikes and Lockouts in Existence During Month or Year 



Strikes and 
Lockouts 



174 
159 
229 
249 
260 

33 
40 
46 
54 
56 
48 
49 
31 

38 
29 
31 
22 
32 



Workers 
Involved 



62,250 
60,090 
88,680 
91,409 
107,497 

8,238 
7,845 
6,078 
18,495 
48,444 
41.537 
26,898 
18,129 

13,739 
7,068 

20,973 
8,747 
5,359 



Duration in Man-Days 



Man-Days 



1,475,200 
1.875,400 
1.246,000 
1,634,881 
2,879,120 

71,620 
106,435 

84,330 
255,360 
491,280 
857,390 
281,525 
243,105 

158,730 
123,175 
95,430 
72,340 
60, 825 



Per Cent of 

Estimated 

Working Time 



0.15 
0.18 
0.11 
0.14 
0.24 

0.07 
0.11 
0.08 
0.25 
0.49 
0.85 
0.28 
0.24 

0.16 
0.12 
0.10 
0.07 
0.06 



*Preliminary. 



TABLE G-2. 
MAY 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
1959, BY INDUSTRY 



TABLE G-3.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
MAY 1959, BY JURISDICTION 



(Preliminary) 



(Preliminary) 



Industry 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man- Days 




















2 
17 
5 

2 
1 
4 
1 


485 

4,252 

165 

178 

39 

231 

9 


1,770 


Manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation, etc 


54,065 
290 
310 
310 


Trade 


3,845 


Service 


235 


All industries 1 


32 


5,359 


60,825 



Jurisdiction 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man-Days 


Newfoundland 


1 


28 


180 


Nova Scotia 


1 


380 


1,140 


Quebec 


7 

15 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 


861 

2,158 

6 

6 

9 

133 

1,778 


7,945 
17,830 


Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 


55 

10 

10 

1,295 

32,360 






All jurisdictions 


32 


5,359 


60,825 



774 



TABLE G-4.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS INVOLVING 100 OR MORE WORKERS, MAY 1959 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 
Employer 
Location 



Union 



Workers 
Involved 


Duration in 
Man-Days 


May 


Accu- 
mulated 


105 


630 


2,940 


380 


1,140 


1,140 


) 400 


3,600 


3,600 


531 


100 


100 


163 


325 


325 


100 


100 


100 


122 


2,440 


4,910 


325 


325 


325 


140 


140 


17,080 


485 


10, 185 


10,185 


138 


965 


965 


100 

(83) 


2,250 


2,550 


1,605 


32,100 


76,690 


173 


260 


260 


124 
(30) 


1,735 


1,735 



Starting 
Date 

Termi- 
nation 
Date 



Major Issues 
Result 



Mining— 
Canadian Exploration, 
Salmo, B.C. 

Acadia Coal Co. 
(MacBean Mine), 
Thorburn, N.S. 

M A N D FACT I ■ RI N G— 

Food Products — 
Catelli Food Products, 
Montreal, Que. 



Rubber Products — 

Dunlop Canada, 

Toronto, Ont. 



Dunlop Canada, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Textile Products— 
Thor Mills, 
Granby, Que. 



Iron and Steel Products — 
W. C. Wood Co., 
Guelph, Ont. 

American-Standard 

Products (Can.) 

Toronto, Ont. 

Transportation Equipment 
Griffin Steel Foundries, 
St. Hyacinthe, Que. 



Studebaker-Packard of 
Canada, 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Electrical Apparatus and 
Supplies— 
Robbins & Myers Co., 
of Canada, 
Brantford, Ont. 

Non-Metallic Mineral 
Products — 

Brique Citadelle, 
Boi<chatl and 
Villeneuve, Que. 



Chemical Products — 
Polymer Corporation, 
Sarnia, Ont. 

Transportation Etc. — 
Shipping Federation of 
B C 
Port Alberni, B.C. 

Trade— 

Three Waste Paper 
Firms, 
Long Branch and 
Toronto, Ont. 



Mine Mill Loc. 901 (Ind.) 
Mine Wkrs. Loc. 8672 (Ind.) 

Bakery Wkrs. Loc. 333 (CLC 



Rubber Wkrs. Loc. 132 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Rubber Wkrs. Loc. 132 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Textile Wkrs. (CCCL) 



United Electrical Wkrs. 
Loc. 544 (Ind.) 



Steelworkers Loc. 3589 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Metal Trades (CCCL) 



Auto Wkrs. Loc. 525 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



A.uto Wkrs. Loc. 397 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Union Federale des Em- 
ployes de Briqueteries 
Loc. 103 (CTC) 



Oil, Chemical Wkrs. Loc. 16- 
14 (AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Int. Bro. Longshoremen 
Loc. 503 (CLC) 



Teamsters Loc. 938 (CLC) 



Apr. 1 

May 11 

May 22 

May 26 



May 16 
May 28 



May 

May 



May 27 



Mav 26 
May 26 



Apr. 



May 11 
May 12 



Nov. 6 
May 2 



May 13 



May 21 



Apr. 27 



Mar. 18 



May 21 
May 22 



May 12 



Wages"-'"* 5£ an hour in- 
crease. 

Disciplinary measure in- 
volving one worker ^^ 
Return of workers. 



Union recognition '^Re- 
turn of workers, pending 
decision of labour re- 
lations board. 



Grievance in one de- 
partment ^^ Return of 
workers. 

Disciplinary measure in- 
volving one worker ^^ 



Dismissal of one worker 
*-^ Return of workers 
pending meeting with 
conciliator. 



Cost of living, seniority 
rates, bonus system*-^ 

Seniority rights ^^ Re- 
turn of workers, referal 
to arbitration. 



Disciplinary dismissal of 
one worker, grievances*-^* 
Return of most workers. 



Wages v 



Wages* 



Scope of collective 
agreement *-"■* 



Wages, working con- 
ditions*-^ 1 



Payment of waiting 
time *^*- Return of work- 
ers. 



Wages, retroactive 



pay* 



Figures in parentheses show the number of workers indirectly affected. 



775 



H. — Industrial Fatalities 

TABLE H-l.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST QUARTER 
OF 1959 BY GROUP OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 

Note: The method of preparing these figures is described elsewhere in this issue in an article entitled "Fatal In- 
dustrial Accidents in Canada". 



Cause 


2 

3 

'3 

M 
< 


bO 

C 

"So 

9 

k1 


to 

.5 

a 
s 

H 

-a 
§ 

a 

'JG 
to 

s 


a 

h 

3 

a 

§ 

g 

'c 


to 

-1-3 

o 

"3 
a 

c3 


c 
o 

3 

1 


£ 

o 

3 

3 
P4 


to 

.2 c 

-3 3 
ft o 

IS 


9 

■s 
e 

H 


0J 

S 

§ 


o 
> 

02 


T3 
O 

'3 
J 

o 

c 


o 






























Struck by- 


1 


2 
5 

12 
1 

10 


io' 


1 

2 
14 
2 


3 

*4' 

4 
3 

2 
3 
3 

6 

4 


2 

7 
11 
3 

7 

3 
3 

3 


1 


1 

9 

1 

2 

12 










10 




1 
2 

5 

2 

2 

1 




..1 

2 

1 
4 




26 




1 
1 

4 


47 


Caught In, On or Between Machinery, Vehicles, etc 


15 
6? 


Falls and Slips— 


5 


(b) Falls to different levels 


1 
1 


2 

1 


..!. 


4 

7 

6 


l 


6 
3 

1 
1 
1 


1 


1 
3 




?5 


Conflagrations, Temperature Extremes and Explosions. 
Inhalation, Absorptions, Asphyxiation and Industrial 


23 
17 


















5 










1 










2 
2 




4 










1 


2 




8 






















Total, First Quarter— 1959 


9 
9 


33 
29 


17 

4 


37 
40 


33 
41 


42 
60 


5 

4 


37 
24 


14 
10 


1 

1 


16 
29 




244 


Total, First Quarter— 1958 


251 







TABLE H-2.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS OF 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1959 



Industry 


T3 
W 

fc 




m 
fc 


PQ 


1 


d 
O 


a 


1 


i 

< 




55 


3 

o 
H 








1 


...... 


1 

2 


3 
10 


i 


1 


2 






9 








19 




33 




16 




1 
3 
1 
2 








17 




...... 

1 


4 
6 
14 
1 

6 
2 
1 
3 


11 

22 

12 

3 

12 

8 


2 


1 


4 
2 

7 
1 

3 
1 


10 

1 
3 


2 


37 








33 




1 






2 


42 


Public Utilities 


5 


Transportation, Storage and Corn- 


1 










4 
1 


10 
1 


1 


37 


Trade 




1 




14 








1 




1 








2 


2 




i 


7 




16 






































Total 


19 




9 


4 


40 


83 


5 


9 


21 


51 


3 


244* 







* Of this total 196 fatalities were reported by the various provincial Workmen's Compensation Boards, and the 
Board of Transport Commissioners; details of the remaining 48 were obtained from other non-official sources. 



776 








CANADA 



THE 



ABOUR 
AZETTE 



1 fl| H. mm 



fm 



*«' 



» •.■* 



>' % 5* • 



Published Monthly by the 

EPARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



LABOUR DAY 1959 



Vol. LIX No 8 

AUGUST 31, 1959 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 



Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Assistant Editor 

W. R. Channon 

Circulation Manager 

J. E. Abbey 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. LIX, No. 8 CONTENTS AUGUST 31 , 1959 

Employment Review 777 

Collective Bargaining Review 790 

Notes of Current Interest 796 

Items of Labour Interest from House of Commons 803 

International Association, Employment Security Personnel . . 805 

Labour Day Messages 808 

Professional Distribution of Women 813 

Training and Retraining of Older Workers 814 

50 Years Ago This Month 815 

International Labour Organization: 

43rd Conference Adopts International Labour Instruments 816 

Canada Ratifies Abolition of Forced Labour Convention . . 827 

142nd Session of IL0 Governing Body 827 

Teamwork in Industry 828 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certitication Proceedings 829 

Conciliation Proceedings 831 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decision Affecting Labour 834 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 834 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 839 

Decision of Umpire 840 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 843 

Prices and the Cost of Living 849 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 851 

Labour Statistics 855 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing with 
subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 
25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per year, single copies 50 cents each; Send remittance by 
cheque or post office money order, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's 
Printer, % Superintendent of Government Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in 
advance. Special Group Subscription Offer — Five or more annual subscriptions, $1 per 
subscription (Canada only). Send remittance, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to the 
Circulation Manager. Bound Volumes — $5 per copy delivered in Canada, $7 per copy to other 
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Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Current Situation 

Another substantial increase in activity raised the employment level by 
153,000 between June and July. This gain, when added to that of previous 
months, has made this year's employment expansion one of the largest on 
record. In the four months of heaviest seasonal demand for labour — mid- 
March to mid-July — the economy has provided more than 650,000 additional 
jobs. This represents an increase of 12 per cent, larger than for the correspond- 
ing period of the past three years and equal to that of 1955. The employment 
total in July, 6,206,000, was up 3 per cent over the year. 

The labour force expanded at a more moderate rate than employment, 
increasing by 357,000 from mid-March to mid- July. The margin over last 
year rose to 120,000 by July, which is not much less than the long-term average 
and considerably more than the average gain for the first six months. 

Of the total increase in employment during July, two-thirds was in agri- 
culture and 95 per cent were males. The gain was concentrated among younger 
workers because of the heavy influx of students, who are normally the main 
source of additional labour at this time of year. Among males there was an 
increase of 130,000 in the 14-19 age group, representing more than 80 per 
cent of the total increase in the number of men with jobs. For females there 
was an increase of 60,000 teenage girls with jobs, with off-setting decreases in 
most other age groups. 

The increase in job opportunities had a noticeable effect on the proportion 
of the population participating in the labour force (i.e., either working or 
seeking work). This was particularly true for teenagers. Among males aged 
14-19 the participation rate fell sharply through most of 1958 and the first 
half of 1959. In July it recovered to a level almost as high as a year ago, 
although it was still lower than in previous years. The participation rate for 
females in this age group also showed a sharp recovery from the low levels of 
this spring. 

Since the net increase in jobs was accompanied by an almost equal net 
increase in entrants into the labour force, there was little change in the level of 
unemployment during July. The number seeking work fell only 6,000 between 
June and July, to a total of 228,000. The number on temporary layoff, at 12,000, 
was also down slightly over the month. The comparable figures for the same 
time last year were 291,000 "seekers" and 19,000 on temporary layoff. 

The last half of the month saw unemployment increase in a number of 
manufacturing centres in Ontario, and in parts of British Columbia affected 
by the strike of woodworkers. In total, however, the local labour market 
picture was still much better than a year ago. At this time last year there were 
still 27 areas with a substantial labour surplus. By the end of July this year, 
the number in this category had been reduced to one. 

777 

73835-1—1 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - CANADA 




In nonfarm industries, the employ- 
ment margin over last year rose to 199,- 
000, almost 4 per cent. The construction 
industry was the main factor in the strong 
advance in July. Progress in this industry 
had been rather slow in earlier months 
because of delays in road and highway 
projects and a drop in the number of 
new housing starts. During July, how- 
ever, road building got well underway 
and was supported by renewed expansion 
in industrial and commercial building. As 
a result, employment in the industry was 
again well above last year's level. 

More modest gains were recorded 
in most of the other main industry sub- 
divisions. Of these, services continued to 
account for a major part of the increase 
over last year. Only in mining was em- 
ployment still lower than a year earlier. 
Total manufacturing employment, though 
higher than last year, has been rising 
more slowly in recent months than is 
usual at this time of year. In some parts 
of manufacturing, however, the expansion 
since last fall has been quite rapid. This is 
particularly true in the manufacture of iron and steel products, especially 
primary steel, sheet metal and heating and cooking appliances. 

Weakness in demand for transportation equipment has been one of the 
main factors retarding the advance of employment in manufacturing as a whole. 
Employment in this group of industries in May was down 1 1 per cent over the 
year in spite of a considerable gain in motor vehicles and parts. Most of the 
decrease is concentrated in aircraft manufacturing, in which employment was 
down to two-thirds of its 1957 peak. Almost all of this drop was in Ontario, 
resulting from the cancellation of the Arrow program; employment in the 
Quebec aircraft industry has been fairly stable in recent months, and new 
contracts recently awarded should boost employment there. 

Those employed in manufacturing have been working longer hours this 
year. In the first five months of 1959, the average work week was 40.9 hours, 
up from 40.4 hours a year earlier. Longer hours were evident in most industries, 
particularly in textile and rubber. 

Industrial disputes were more prevalent during July than they have been 
since last fall. In all, some 38,000 workers were on strike at the end of the 
month, close to last year's peak of 42,500, in October. The strike of wood- 
workers in British Columbia accounted for almost all of this year's total. 



J ASONDJ FMAMJ J 






WS 



Characteristics of the Unemployed 

Unemployment has been falling fairly steadily since the end of last year 
and by mid- July amounted to 3.5 per cent of the labour force compared with 
4.6 per cent in July 1958. The decline stems from two developments. The 
first is a substantial increase in employment, and the second is the relatively 
slow rate at which the labour force has expanded during the past year. 

The decline in unemployment has involved both sexes and all age groups. 
In June, male job-seekers,* accounting for 85 per cent of the total, showed a 
year-to-year decline of 77,000; females were 13,000 lower than a year before. 



Thousands 

800 



CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITHOUT JOBS AND SEEKING WORK 
1957 TO DATE 
(Not adjusted for seasonal variation) 



700 



AGE GROUPS 




Thousands 

800 



45 years and over 



<— 25-44 years 



<- 20. 24 years 
«*- 14- 19 years 



1000 
800 
600 



10 



DURATION 



to 6 months 




~i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — r- 
JFMAMJJASOND 
1957 



Semi logarithmic scale 



i — l — f— 1 — r 



700 



600 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 



1000 

800 

600 

400 
300 

200 



100 

80 

60 

40 
30 

20 



10 



1958 



1959 



* Refers to persons without jobs and seeking work, The Labour Force, DBS. 
73835-1— 1J 



779 



At mid-year the number of men seeking work constituted 4.2 per cent of the 
male labour force compared with 5.9 per cent a year before. For women the 
percentage had dropped from 3.2 to 2.3. 

People 20 to 24 years of age registered the largest percentage decrease in 
job seekers during the past year. Unemployed men 64 years of age and over 
were still having difficulty finding jobs, the number seeking work being virtually 
the same as in June 1958. Boys and girls 14 to 19 years of age continued 
to have the highest rates of unemployment, with one of every eleven in the 
labour force seeking a job in June. Teenage job-seekers rose less sharply than 
job-seekers in any other age group during the business downturn, but fell at 
a more moderate rate during the current business upswing. 

Single men constituted a smaller proportion of total male job-seekers in 
June 1959 than in the same month last year. The proportion dropped from 52 
per cent to 48 per cent, reflecting a particularly sharp decline in the number 
of jobless single men. There were very few married women job-seekers in June. 
This category normally accounts for only a small part of the total number of 
job-seekers, and the relative importance of the group showed a still further 
decline over June 1958. Single women registered a substantially smaller decline 
than single men. 

Of the 234,000 job-seekers in June, almost 24 per cent were out of work 
for seven months or more. This proportion was considerably higher for men 
than for women. Older persons appear more subject to long-term unemployment 
than younger persons, and the unskilled more than the skilled workers. 

Both short-term unemployment (persons seeking work less than one 
month) and persons out of work one to six months declined by roughly one- 
third over the year and between them accounted for about 90 per cent of the 
total decline. While the number of persons without jobs for seven months or 
more showed little over-all change from the corresponding month last year, 
there were important differences within this group. The number of persons 
jobless from seven to twelve months declined at much the same rate as those 
in the first two groups, but the drop was offset by an increase in the number 
of persons without jobs for more than a year. 

The year-to-year decline in unem- 
ployment was shared by all regions. 
The most marked improvement oc- 
curred in Ontario and the western 
provinces. Unemployment rates were 
still fairly high during June in Quebec 
and the Atlantic regions; job-seekers 
as a percentage of the labour force 
amounted to 5.4 per cent and 6.8 per 
cent respectively. The rate was lowest 
in the Prairies (1.6 per cent), followed 
by Ontario (2.7 per cent) and the 
Pacific (3.9 per cent). 

780 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 
Manufacturing 



Hours per Week Hours per Week 
43 43 



_ . "59 y: 



^~ 41 



1956 1957 JFMAMJJASONO 

I „ .- : ,,, i, ,;;,,,;.-. .;,;.-,; ,....,....^:.v;.......;....;;.;;;.„, ;,;„.: ..,.r. ,..,..„,. 






CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JULY 1959 




SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




WINDSOR -< — 


Quebec-Levis 
St. John's 
Vancouver- 


Calgary 
Edmonton 
^HALIFAX 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




New Westminster 


Hamilton 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 






Montreal 
Ottawa-Hull 
Toronto 
Winnipeg 








Corner Brook 


Brantford 








Cornwall 


Farnham- 








Joliette 


Granby 








Lac St. Jean 


— VFORT WILLIAM- 








New Glasgow 
NIAGARA 


PORT ARTHUR 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL 




Guelph 




AREAS 




PENINSULA ■<-— 


Kingston 
Kitchener 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 60 




OSHAWA <<-— 




per cent or more in non-agri- 




PETERBOROUGH ■<-— 


London 




cultural activity) 




Rouyn-Val d'Or 
Saint John 
Shawinigan 


— >MONCTON 

>-SARNIA 

Sudbury 
— KTIMMINS- 








Sherbrooke 








^SYDNEY 


KIRKLAND LAKE 








Trois Rivieres 










Victoria 










Barrie 


Brandon 








Thetford-Megantic- 


Charlottetown 








St. Georges 


Chatham 
Lethbridge 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 






Moose Jaw 




AREAS 






North 




(labour force 25.000-75.000; 40 






Battleford 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






Prince Albert 
Red Deer 
Regina 
— >-RIVIERE DU LOUP 


















Saskatoon 










— >-YORKTON 








Brampton 
CENTRAL 


— ^BATHURST 








— >-BEAUHARNOIS 








VANCOUVER 


— ^BELLEVILLE- 








ISLAND •« — 


TRENTON 








Drummondville 


Bracebridge 








Fredericton 


Bridgewater 








Newcastle 


— >-CAMPBELLTON 








Okanagan Valley 


— KHILLIWACK 








Rimouski 


Cranbrook 








St. Stephen 


>-DAUPHIN 








Sorel 


— >-DAWSON CRLEK 








Summerside 


Drumheller 








Victoriaville 


— »-EDMUNDSTON 

Gait 
— >.GASPE 

Goderich 

Grand Falls 

Kamloops 
— >-KENTVILLE 

Kitimat 

Lachute-Ste. Therese 

Lindsay 

Listowel 

Medicine Hat 




MINOR AREAS 






— >»MONTMAGNY 




(labour force 10.000-25,000) 






North Bay 
Owen Sound 
Pembroke 
— >-PORTAGE 

LA PRAIRIE 
— >-PRINCE GEORGE 
Prince Rupert 

>-QUEBEC 

NORTH SHORE 
Ste. Agathe- 
St. Jerome 


















St. Hyacinthe 










St. Jean 










St. Thomas 










Sault Ste. Marie 










Simcoe 










Stratford 










Swift Current 










— >-TRAIL-NELSON 










Truro 










— >-VALLEYFIELD 










Walkerton 










Weyburn 










— >»WOODSTOCK 










Woodstock-Ingersoll 








Yarmouth 





>-The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 

moved. For an explanation of the classification system used, see page 339, March issue. 

781 



Employment Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 

1957-58 



ATLANTIC 




JASONOJ FMAMJ 



Between June and July the over-all 
employment situation in the Atlantic 
region showed very little change. An 
estimated 530,000 persons had jobs in 
July, some 3,000 fewer than in the 
previous month but 12,000 more than a 
year before. Farm employment expanded 
as usual in response to demand for farm 
help, but the gain was offset by re- 
duced activity in some non-farm indus- 
tries. Seasonal slackening occurred in 
fishing, fish processing and logging. Coal 
mines in Nova Scotia operated steadily 
during the month, ending a series of 
periodic shutdowns that began early last 
summer. Apart from the steel industry, 
which showed a further employment gain 
during the month, there was little 
evidence of improvement in heavy manufacturing. The construction industry 
was fairly active during July but most types of skilled construction tradesmen 
were still in plentiful supply. 

While total employment was higher than in July 1958, weaknesses were 
still evident in a number of key industries. Pulpwood logging, which provided 
jobs for some 15,000 workers during the summer of 1957, employed only 
about half that number this summer. Sawmilling was more active this year 
than in 1958 but market conditions have shown little real change and stocks 
of lumber were excessive in most areas. 

The general level of manufacturing employment shows little improvement. 
The pulp and paper products industry has registered an advance of 5 per cent 
over the year, and prospects have also brightened in iron and steel, where some 
workers have been recalled. In both industries, however, the employment 
gains have been smaller than the earlier losses. The transportation equipment 
industry has been a major source of weakness during the last year owing to 
reduced orders in shipbuilding, aircraft and railway rolling stock. 

Unemployment was lower than last year in almost all local areas. The 
classification of the 21 areas in the region at the end of July was as follows 
(last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, (1); in moderate 
surplus, 9 (15); in balance, 12 (5). 



Local Area Developments 

Halifax (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Seasonal 
expansion resulted in greater job opportunities in this area. Skilled construc- 
tion workers were in fairly strong demand; however, construction experienced 
delays due to unfavourable weather. Total industrial employment in Halifax 
was 3.6 per cent higher than a year earlier in May. All industries shared in the 
improvement, with gains ranging from 1 per cent in manufacturing to 11 per 
cent in construction. 



782 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 







Labour 


Surplus 




Approximate Balance 


Labour Shortage 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 


4 




July 
1959 


July 

1958 


July 
1959 


July 
1958 


July 
1959 


July 
1958 


July 
1959 


July 
1958 




1 


3 
10 

2 
12 


5 
15 
4 

27 


7 
13 

4 
36 


7 
10 
10 
31 


2 
3 
8 
10 


- 




















Total 


1 


27 


51 


60 


58 


23 


— 


— 



St. John's (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. The employment situation 
changed very little between June and July. Construction activity was main- 
tained at a high level despite the fact that housing starts during the first half of 
the year were substantially lower than in the comparable period last year. 
Construction of a $13-million university building is expected to provide jobs 
for several hundred workers. The usual movement of farm labourers from 
Newfoundland to Ontario helped to reduce the level of unemployment. 
Sydney (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. Resump- 
tion of full-scale mining operations was a significant development in this area. 
Employment in local fish plants slackened as the lobster fishing season came 
to an end about mid-month. The construction industry showed continuing 
strength: house-building activity was maintained at a higher level than last year. 
Moncton (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Apart 
from seasonal influences, the employment situation changed very little over the 
month in the Moncton area. The general level of industrial employment con- 
tinued higher than last year. 

Kentville, Bathurst, Campbellton, Edmundston and Woodstock (minor) were 
reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



QUEBEC 



Employment in the Quebec region 
was substantially higher in July. At mid- 
month, the number of persons with jobs 
was estimated to be 1,716,000, an in- 
crease of 56,000 since June and 42,000 
more than a year ago. In contrast to 
last year, when agriculture accounted for 
almost the entire gain in employment 
during the month, more than half of the 
increase this year occurred in non-farm 
occupations. It was the largest June-to- 
July increase in non-farm employment in 
many years. 

Construction employment played a 
large part in the improved non-farm job 
situation. Industrial, commercial and 
institutional building was especially act- 
ive; residential building declined moder- 



LAB0UR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 

1957-58 1958-59 



1.800.000 




Labour Force 

1 \ 


— Jr 




-— -ir 








_ _« 


1 "" 1 










1 1 






J ASONDJFMAMJ J 

— 



783 



ately. Summer employment in forestry was markedly higher than last year, and 
the seasonal downturn occurred later. At the end of May, mining employment 
was also higher than a year ago, largely due to increased output of iron ore. 

Manufacturing employment at the end of May was slightly higher than in the 
same month last year. There was greater activity in the textile, clothing, leather, 
transportation equipment and wood products industries. In some instances, the 
level of employment in these industries had reached a point higher than either 
the 1958 or the 1957 figure at this time of year. Further expansion in the 
aircraft and shipbuilding industry is expected to result from new contracts 
recently received. Reports also indicate that production in primary and second- 
ary textile plants will be resumed at relatively high levels after the vacation 
period. 

There was a further decline in unemployment during July. At the end of 
the month, half of the region's labour market areas were in the balanced, and 
half in the moderate surplus, category. Last year all but three of the 24 labour 
market areas had a labour surplus. 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan) remained in Group 3. Employment in construction 
and manufacturing expanded further during the month. In response to the 
high level of construction activity, employment rose in plants manufacturing 
building materials. Improved production was reported in most firms manufac- 
turing iron and steel goods. Increased hiring in the transportation equipment 
industry was reported during the month as a result of new contracts in the 
aircraft and shipbuilding industries. 

Quebec-Levis (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Activity was brisk in the 
woods; saw and planing mills worked at capacity. Holidays prevailed at textile 
mills and clothing factories but reports indicated that workers would be recalled 
earlier than last year. 

Riviere du Loup (major agricultural) and Beauharnois, Gaspe, Montmagny, 
Quebec North Shore and Valleyfield (minor) were reclassified from Group 2 
to Group 3. The continuing high level of employment in the woods, a further 
expansion of construction and a seasonal rise in farm activity resulted in a 
considerable drop in unemployment. 

ONTARIO 

Employment in Ontario continued a greater than seasonal rise during the 
month, reaching the highest level on record at mid-July. The number of per- 
sons with jobs was 2,294,000, an increase of 55,000 from the previous month 
and of 73,000 from the previous year. About two-fifths of the month-to-month 
increase occurred in agriculture; the increase over the year, however, was 
virtually all in non-agricultural industries. 

The first half of July was marked by a steady increase in demand for 
labour, with the anticipation of manpower shortages in a number of skilled 
occupations. This trend was partly arrested in the latter part of the month 
as many industries began closing down their plants for annual vacations, inven- 
tory taking and model change-over. Motor vehicle production came to a stand- 
still in the second half of the month, owing to shutdowns for annual holidays 
and inventory taking. As a result, total production in July was about 15 per cent 
lower than in the previous month but was 26 per cent above last year's level. 

784 




The general upward trend of manu- 
facturing production and employment 
extended to both durable and non-durable 
consumer goods and to some capital 
goods. Most noticeable was the improve- 
ment in the output of steel, agricultural 
implements and other iron and steel prod- 
ucts. Employment in these industries, 
which had been in a rather depressed 
state through most of 1958, has now 
reached an all-time high. At mid- July, 
the steel mills operated at almost 95 per 
cent of rated capacity, compared with less 
than 70 per cent a year earlier. In the 
farm implements industry large-scale 
seasonal layoffs, usual at this time of 
year, have thus far been averted by a 
diversification of production. 

Construction activity continued to increase seasonally, aided by an upturn 
in new housing starts after a decline in the previous month, but total construc- 
tion employment has not reached last year's level. 

An unusually large increase in the labour force during the month, due 
chiefly to the influx of high school students, has been the cause, together with 
layoffs, of a slight rise in unemployment. However, the level of unemployment 
is below last year. Seven of the 34 areas in the region were reclassified during 
the month, three from the moderate surplus to the balanced category, and four 
(the areas where model change-over has affected the auto industry) from the 
balanced to the moderate surplus category. The area classification at the end 
of July was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, 
1 (2); in moderate surplus, 6 (14); in balance, 27 (18). 



ASONDJFMAMJ 



_ , ,,„.,„. -. 



Local Area Developments 

Metropolitan Areas with Classification Unchanged: Hamilton (Group 3). Em- 
ployment remained considerably higher than last year. The iron and steel 
products industries showed the greatest buoyancy. The automobile plant plans 
the shortest model change shutdown in several years. In a number of other 
industries, plants were shut down in July for vacations. Ottawa-Hull (Group 3). 
Employment conditions continued to improve, and labour shortages were avoided 
only by the influx of students and workers from outside points. Activity in 
sawmills and in the pulp and paper industry in the area continued at a high 
level. Toronto (Group 3). Economic activity remained high, despite a slow- 
down during the month due to vacation shutdowns. A high volume of produc- 
tion and new hirings were reported both in consumer durables and non-durables, 
particularly in meat packing, agricultural implements, fabricated and structural 
steel, and light electrical apparatus and supplies. 

Windsor (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Layoffs 
for inventory-taking in the motor vehicles and supplies industries, followed by 
plant shutdowns for annual holidays, resulted in increased unemployment. It 
is expected that production will be resumed in the first half of September, after 
several idle weeks for model change-over. 



73835-1—2 



785 



Niagara Peninsula, Oshawa and Peterborough (major industrial) were reclassi- 
fied from Group 3 to Group 2. The reclassification was mainly the result of 
plant shutdowns for annual holidays. 

Sarnia and Timmins-Kirkland Lake (major industrial) were reclassified from 
Group 2 to Group 3. 
Belleville-Trenton (minor) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

PRAIRIE 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PRAIRIE 



1,150.000 






— h~ 








S2 


i^T 






.- _, -T 


** 


i 




950,000 - 















1,100,000 1- p 

) .050.000 . - •'^ ■»J rS — WH 

1,000,000 — ^^ " "-J — 




JASONDJFMAMJJ 



— . 



Economic activity on the Prairies 
maintained its usual mid-summer buoy- 
ancy. July employment was estimated 
at 1,105,000, an increase of 32,000 from 
the month before. Hay cutting, work on 
specialty and irrigated crops, and pre- 
parations for harvest caused a large 
increase, amounting to 38,000, in the 
farm work force. 

Stands of wheat, barley and flax 
were heavy in Manitoba and crops were 
generally quite good in south-central and 
eastern Saskatchewan and in central 
Alberta. Next to the international bound- 
ary and in large areas around Saskatoon 
and Battleford, however, as well as in 
eastern Alberta and in part of the Peace 
River district, most crops were reported 
grasshoppers, cutworms and hail was not 



moderate to poor. Damage from 
excessive. 

Industrial employment, usually stable in the holiday season, was not quite 
as strong as usual but nevertheless remained more than 5 per cent higher than 
a year earlier. Steadiest during the month were the trade and service industries, 
which during the first half of this year have increased employment levels over 
1958 by 5 and 3 per cent respectively. Manufacturing employment moved from 
fractionally above the 1958 levels early in the year to about 4 per cent higher 
at mid-year, with the largest gains in iron and steel products. Employment in 
food and beverages also improved. Some weaknesses persisted in transportation 
equipment and products of petroleum and coal. In construction, the seasonal 
decline in the first quarter of the year was much smaller than usual, with em- 
ployment roughly 20 per cent higher than in the same period of 1958. It has 
continued strong during the second quarter and at the end of May was 6 per 
cent above the very high level of 1958. 

Unemployment in the Prairie region was lower than last year. Five labour 
market areas were reclassified during the month to categories denoting reduced 
unemployment. In all 20 areas the demand and supply of labour were in balance 
at the end of July. At this time in 1958 two areas were in moderate surplus 
and 18 were in balance. 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg (metropolitan) remained in Group 3. 
Agriculture and summer resorts took on new workers while metropolitan activity 
remained high. Forest fires in the north of Alberta curtailed woods operations, 

786 






although some men were employed in fire fighting. In the Winnipeg area, demand 
for workers at the large construction sites in the north of the province appeared 
to have levelled off. In the city, shortages of sewing machine operators and 
other skilled personnel were evident. Unskilled help was readily available. 
Fort William-Port Arthur (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to 
Group 3. Construction, navigation and transportation labour requirements in- 
creased during the month and mining continued at a high level. Grain elevators 
did some hiring as shipments increased in July. Total grain movements in the 
crop year, however, were about 10 per cent lower than last year. The bus and 
aircraft plant began layoffs in preparation for the removal of its operations to 
Montreal. 

Yorkton (major agricultural), Dauphin, Portage la Prairie, and Dawson Creek 
(minor) were reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 
1957-58 1958-59 



Labour Force 



PACIFIC 

After an initial upsurge, employment in the Pacific region in the first half 
of 1959 was fairly stable, at a level about 5 per cent higher than last year. This 
stability continued between June and July, the number of persons with jobs 
increasing seasonally by 13,000 to 561,000. There was, however, a drop in 
the number of persons at work during the month, because of industrial disputes 
and vacations. During most of July a strike involving some 27,000 workers 
was in progress in logging and lumber manufacturing. Towards the end of 
the month strikes were called in the fishing, fish canning and construction indus- 
tries but were settled by mid- August (for further details see page 790). 

The improvement over last year has 
been largely concentrated in the forest 
industries, employment in logging and 
the manufacture of lumber and paper 
products being up about 10 per cent. 
The re-opening of the Britannia mine 
and increasing activity in other base 
metal developments have boosted mining 
employment, although it still lags behind 
the high levels of two and three years 
ago. Production and employment at 
smelters in Kitimat and Trail have im- 
proved steadily; at Kitimat all of the 
workers previously released have been 
recalled. 

Manufacturing employment in gen- 
eral has improved slowly, led by saw- 
milling and the expanding pulp and paper 
manufacturing industry. Full recovery in manufacturing has been retarded by 
slackness in shipbuilding and related iron and steel products manufacturing 
firms. Construction employment followed the usual seasonal pattern during 
the first half of the year at levels higher than last year but well down from 
1956-57. 

Unemployment, down more than one-third from last year's level, remained 
unchanged from June to July. It increased slightly in Victoria and the logging 
areas of Vancouver Island. Elsewhere seasonal gains in agriculture, construc- 
tion and mining resulted in a further drop in unemployment. The classification 




JASONDJFMAMJJ 



73835-1— 2J 



787 



of the 1 1 labour market areas in the region was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in substantial surplus, (1); in moderate surplus, 4 (5); in 
balance, 7 (5). 

Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Unemploy- 
ment, down to moderate proportions, remained virtually unchanged during the 
month. During the first six months of this year, employment in Vancouver- 
New Westminster was, on the average, about 3 per cent higher than last year. 
During July the IWA strike shut down virtually the entire sawmilling industry, 
which accounts for close to one-third of manufacturing employment. Strikes 
among steel workers, cement masons and floor layers disrupted construction 
work for varying periods, although activity in the industry was maintained at 
a higher level than last year. Strike action also closed down a major part of 
the fishing and fish canning industry. Apart from layoffs in trucking and coastal 
shipping, the indirect effects of these strikes were relatively minor. 
Victoria (major industrial) remained in Group 2. The continued downtrend in 
shipbuilding activity this year has prevented a full recovery in this area; in 
May industrial employment was still down fractionally from last year and was 
6 per cent lower than two years ago. The strike in the lumber industry, involv- 
ing some 3,500 workers directly, resulted in some layoffs among construction 
and trucking firms in July. Unemployment in the area was about the same as 
a month earlier, though still well down from last year. 

Central Vancouver Island (minor) was reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
The strike of woodworkers brought a halt to logging, the main activity of this 
area. It resulted in the layoff of a considerable number of workers in other 
industries. Registrations at National Employment Service offices rose by more 
than one-third during the month. 

Chilliwack, Prince George, Trail-Nelson (minor) were reclassified from Group 
2 to Group 3. Unemployment in these areas dropped as a result of seasonal 
increases in construction, agriculture and mining. 



788 



Current Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of August 10, 1959) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 
Total civilian labour force (a) , 

Persons with jobs 

Agriculture 

Non-Agriculture 

Paid Workers 



Usually work 35 hours or more 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours, or not at 
work due to short time and turnover . 

for other reasons 

Not at work due to temporary layoff. . . . 
Usually work less than 35 hours 



Without jobs and seeking work. 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Claimants for Unemployment Insurance bene- 
fit 



Amount of benefit payments. 



Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100). 



Immigration 

Destined to the labour force. 

Conciliation Services 
Number of cases in progress. . . 
Number of workers involved . 



July 18 
July 18 
July 18 
July 18 
July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 
July 18 
July 18 
July 18 

July 18 



July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 



June 30 
June 

May 

May 

1st Qtr. 1959 
1st Qtr. 1959 



6,434,000 
6,206,000 
835,000 
5,371,000 
4,961,000 

5,879,000 
5,233,000 

50,000 
584,000 

12,000 
327,000 

228,000 



30,200 
90,300 

100,000 
35,100 
35,900 

291,500 



220,548 
$18,157,149 

119.3 
111.5 



+ 2.3 

+ 2.5 

+ 14.2 

+ 0.9 

+ 1.3 

+ 3.3 

- 2.4 

- 13.8 
+ 128.1 

- 14.3 

- 9.7 

- 2.6 



26.9 
8.4 
4.1 

11.1 
3.5 
9.2 



- 21.1 

- 55.1 



16,955 
8,056 



Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved. 
Duration in man days. . . 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) . . . 
Total labour income $000,000. 



Industrial Production 
Total (average 1949 = 100). 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



July 
July 
July 



May 
May 
May 
May 
July 
May 
May 



June 
June 
June 
June 



42 

41,417 

685,505 



$73.84 

$1.73 

41.1 

$70.92 
125.9 
135.3 
1,482 



171.0 
156.2 
161.5 
151.6 



- 2.3 
-r- 391.2 
+1095.9 



0.8 
0.6 
1.0 
1.3 
0.0 
1.2 
3.9 



+ 3.3 

+ 3.5 

+ 4.7 

+ 2.4 



3.0 

1.9 
3.8 
4.4 

3.4 
4.1 

34.2 
3.2 

36.9 
3.0 



21.7 



37.6 
30.0 
26.0 
20.6 
35.6 
29.3 



50.5 
50.9 



0.5 
1.0 



20.2 
23.0 



8.7 
+ 581.4 
+ 712.9 



4.4 
3.6 
1.0 
4.2 
1.0 
3.8 
7.7 



7.3 



4.9 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour Force, a monthly 
publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also page 339, March issue. 

(b) See page 339, March issue. 



789 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Greatly increased strike activity, most of it in British Columbia, marked 
the industrial relations picture in July. Loggers, fishermen and fish cannery 
workers, structural iron workers, garage employees, marine engineers, cement 
masons and carpenters were among the occupations affected. Some disputes 
have been settled, but the largest work stoppage, involving the B.C. loggers, was 
still in effect at the time of writing. In eastern Canada one major work stop- 
page was in effect at the John Inglis plant in Toronto. Meanwhile important 
settlements were reached in the telephone industry, affecting more than 20,000 
workers, and in a variety of other industries affecting smaller numbers of 
employees. 

The 27,000 loggers on strike in British Columbia represented more than 
half of all workers involved in work stoppages during July. This dispute be- 
tween the International Woodworkers of America and the B.C. coastal lumber 
industry centres around wages. No progress has been reported towards settle- 
ment. It is reported that a number of injunctions have been issued by British 
Columbia courts prohibiting picketing of property belonging to companies 
affected by the work stoppage. 

The West Coast fishing industry was tied up by a strike which lasted from 
July 25 to August 7 for salmon fishermen, and from July 29 to August 7 for 
cannery workers and tendermen. The strike involved the Fisheries Association 
of B.C. and the United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union. Some 3,000 can- 
nery workers, 750 tendermen (who take the fish from the boat to cannery) and 
5,000 salmon fishermen were involved. Fishing operations as such are not within 
the scope of the British Columbia Labour Relations Act and thus not subject 
to the usual conciliation board procedure required before a strike is legal. 
However, a conciliation board was set up in connection with negotiations 
affecting salmon tendermen and cannery workers, and a majority report 
recommended a 4-per-cent pay increase spread over two years. The union 
rejected this recommendation. 

The fishermen went on strike first, followed by a strike of the shore 
workers after a government-conducted strike vote in mid- July. The final terms 
of settlement include a two-year agreement. The new prices for sockeye salmon 
will be 31 cents a pound this year and 32 cents next year, compared with 
28 cents in 1958; for cohoe salmon the prices will be 21 cents a pound this 
year and 22 cents next year, compared with 16 cents last year. The base pay 
for shore workers has been increased by 12 cents an hour this year (retro- 
active to April 16) and 5 cents next year over the minimum of $1.60 an hour 
for men, and by an increase of 10 cents an hour this year and a further 5 cents 
next year over the previous minimum of $1.32 for women. Wage rates ranging 
from $215 to $390 a month for tendermen have been raised by $20 a month 
this year and will be increased by a further $10 next year. The new agreement 
calls for the introduction of a pension plan by April 15, 1960. 

Another important West Coast dispute, between the Structural Steel Asso- 
ciation of British Columbia (the Structural Iron Section of the Building and 
Construction Industries Exchange) and the International Association of Bridge, 
Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, involved a relatively small number 

790 



of workers but affected a number of construction operations. Two of the 
major issues in the dispute, which began on June 22, were the companies' 
proposal to bring up to 50 per cent of the work force from Alberta, and the 
proposal to cut travel time for workers in the area immediately outside 
Vancouver. The previous agreement provided that the employer would pay 
regular rates on jobs outside the city of Vancouver, but on jobs within the 
greater Vancouver area would compensate for time spent in travelling from 
the city limits to the job and return. The strike is reported to be approaching 
an end on the basis of a compromise formula on travelling time and an increase 
of at least 57 cents an hour over 27 months on the present base rate of $2.62. 
(This is preliminary information only, the most recent available at the time 
of writing.) 

This dispute has acquired special interest because of the legal proceed- 
ings that developed in connection with it. It is reported that on June 26 
an injunction was issued by a British Columbia court against strike action 
on the Second Narrows Bridge until certain work was completed which 
would put the bridge in a safe condition. It is reported that the union 
withdrew pickets from the bridge but advised members to stay off the job 
until certain safety steps were taken. Early in July a second court order was 
issued ordering the men to return to work on the bridge. Mr. Justice Manson 
of the British Columbia Supreme Court was later quoted as criticizing the union 
for improperly transmitting to the strikers the terms of the court orders. The 
judge said his orders did not affect the strike but were to stop creation of a 
hazard by leaving the bridge in its present condition. Later in July the local 
union was fined $10,000 and three union officials $3,000 each for contempt 
of court. These penalties were imposed by Mr. Justice Manson, who had 
previously issued the injunctions, which, he said in his judgment, the union 
made no honest effort to obey. 

A settlement was reached between the Northland Navigation Company and 
the National Association of Marine Engineers of Canada, ending a strike that 
had lasted from June 26 to July 16. This work stoppage also involved a small 
number of workers but tied up a considerable amount of coastal shipping. It 
is reported that the terms of settlement included a 10-per-cent wage boost for 
engineers retroactive to September 1958, plus another 10 per cent in Sep- 
tember 1959. 

The only strike involving a substantial number of workers in eastern 
Canada during July was at the Toronto plant of the John Inglis Company. 
More than 700 workers in this plant, members of the United Steelworkers of 
America, went out on strike on July 14, after rejecting the company's offer 
that was accepted by workers at the two other John Inglis plants in Scar- 
borough and St. Catharines. The offer included 25i cents an hour over the 
three years of the agreement, and $45 settlement pay. The 251 cents was 
made up of 7 cents an hour each year during the three-year agreement, approxi- 
mately 3 cents an hour for improving the pension plan, and about H cents to 
improve the welfare plan. 

Important negotiations have just been completed or are still in progress 
in the men's clothing and ladies' garment industries. An agreement was recently 
reached between the Montreal Dress Manufacturers' Guild and the International 
Ladies' Garment Workers' Union representing some 8,000 dressmakers. An 
interesting feature of the agreement is provision for maternity benefits of $50 
in the case of the birth of one child and $75 in the case of the birth of twins. 
In addition to the maternity benefits, dressmakers will also receive weekly 

791 



sickness benefits of $16 for women and $19 for men instead of the previous $14 
and $17 respectively. Hospital benefits will be raised from $8 to $10 a day 
up to 45 days, and the ceiling for hospital expenses will be increased from $50 
to $75. In Toronto, negotiations affecting 1,000 workers are being conducted 
between the Dress Manufacturers' Guild and the ILGWU. In Winnipeg, recom- 
mendations of a conciliation board were turned down by the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America in connection with their negotiations with the 
Garment Manufacturers' Association of Western Canada. This industry pro- 
duces chiefly work clothes, sportswear and shirts. 

Negotiations between the Dominion Bridge Company and the United 
Steelworkers of America continue at many locations across the country. Settle- 
ment terms have been conditionally agreed upon with respect to the plants in 
Calgary and Edmonton. The terms include a 7-cent pay increase, providing 
for implementation of the co-operative wage study program with a base rate 
of $1.60 per hour and an increment of 5 cents an hour between job classes. 
Previously, tentative agreement had been reached with respect to the plants 
in Toronto and Sault Ste. Marie. The terms there called for a one-year agree- 
ment with a 4-cent increase from April 16 of this year, plus another 3 cents 
effective from August 16, and establishment of shift premiums of 8 cents and 
9 cents for afternoon and night shifts respectively. The terms of all these nego- 
tiations were accepted by the union on condition that no agreement will be 
signed with the company until settlement has been reached in all plants which 
are currently in negotiation. The company later said that the Toronto and Soo 
proposals would be withdrawn if full acceptance were not forthcoming by 
July 15. The union refused to accept this condition. 

It is reported that agreement has been reached between the Avro Aircraft 
Company of Malton and the International Association of Machinists, providing 
no wage increase at the present time. The agreement continues existing condi- 
tions and wage rates until July 1961, to enable the company to compete advan- 
tageously for production of the new RCAF Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. It is 
reported that there is a clause permitting the agreement to be re-opened in 
the event that the company fails to enter into a contract with the Canadian 
Government for production of the fighter plane. The company, according to 
reports, had earlier asked the union to accept substantial pay cuts in order to 
improve its competitive position. Wages at Avro are now set to range from 
$1.68 to $2.54 an hour with an average of $2.10; the average for de Havilland 
in Toronto, one of the company's competitors, is $1.87, and that for Canadair 
in Montreal will be $1.97 by October 1. 

Unions representing the non-operating railway employees were preparing 
to submit their demands for revisions to the present collective agreements. 
Under the terms of the present agreement, notice of demands may be served 
after September 1. It has been reported that representatives of the unions 
concerned met in Montreal in the week beginning August 17. The forthcoming 
negotiations are expected to cover approximately 130,000 non-operating rail- 
road workers across Canada. 

The possibility of a strike has emerged in connection with negotiations 
between the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway Company and the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen. A federal board of conciliation recently 
reported in connection with this dispute. A key issue has been the railway's 
request to eliminate the rear-end brakemen on ore trains. This railway operates 
from Sept lies, Que., to Knob Lake. Most of its work is hauling iron ore. The 
company claimed that the central control system in effect on the railroad relieves 

792 



the rear brakeman from most of the normal duties that fall to such workers on 
other railroads. The union said that it is far from satisfied that the central 
control system now installed is sufficiently automatic or foolproof to protect 
the crew from human or mechanical failure. The union said that the railway at 
first asked for complete freedom to determine the make-up of a crew, later 
restricted itself to the crew on an ore train, and finally limited its request to 
elimination of brakemen from ore trains, suggesting that this was only the 
beginning of the company's efforts to eliminate jobs. The union added that 
aside from safety reasons, the rear-end brakeman is productive, and performs 
necessary and essential functions. 

The majority report of the conciliation board suggested that ore trains 
on this railroad can be operated efficiently and safely by a crew consisting 
of an engineer, a conductor, and a head-end brakeman; that in the light of the 
restricted duties of the conductor, the present duties of the rear-end brakeman 
can be performed by the conductor. The report recommended that no workers 
currently employed as rear-end brakemen should lose their employment, and 
that a joint study be made by the employer and the union of the operation of 
the ore trains without rear-end brakemen, with the question subject to re-opening 
by either party and to reconsideration by a second board of conciliation. 

Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more workers, excluding agreements 
in the construction industry 

PART 1— Agreements Expiring During August, September and October 1959 

(Except those under negotiation in July) 

Company and Location Union 

Adas Steel, Welland, Ont Cdn. Steel Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Avro Aircraft, Malton, Ont Machinists ((AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bicroft Uranium Mines, Bancroft, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Marconi, Montreal Salaried Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Cdn. Steel Foundries, Montreal Steel and Foundry Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Continental Can, New Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

de Havilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dupont, Shawinigan Falls, Que CCCL-chartered local 

Hotel Mount Royal, Montreal Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hotel Queen Elizabeth, Montreal Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Iron Ore of Canada, Schefferville, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Manitoba Telephone System (province-wide) Man. Tel. Wkrs. (Ind.) (plant empl.) 

Manitoba Telephone System (province- wide) Man. Tel. Wkrs (Ind.) (traffic empl.) 

Manitoba Telephone System (province-wide) Tel. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Meat co.'s (various), Vancouver Meat Cutters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Locomotive Works, Montreal Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Northern Electric, Toronto Communication Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Northspan Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont CLC-chartered local 

Orenda Engines, Malton, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Pacific Press, Vancouver Typographical Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Quebec Natural Gas, Montreal Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Saskatchewan Government, Regina Civil Service Assoc. (Sask.) (CLC) 

Shawinigan Water and Power, Montreal Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

PART II— Negotiations in Progress During July 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Alberta Government Telephones (province-wide) Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Automatic Electric, Brockville, Ont. Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Electric, Vancouver Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bindery room employers, Toronto Bookbinders (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cab co.'s (various), Vancouver Teamsters (CLC) 

Cdn. Acme Screw and Gear, Toronto Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

793 






Company and Location Union 

Cdn. Broadcasting Corp. (company-wide) Stage Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Celanese, Drummondville, Que Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Cdn. General Electric, Montreal Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Industries Ltd., New Haven, Ont Oil, Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Airlines, Vancouver Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Edmonton Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (outside empl.) 

City of Edmonton Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

City of Edmonton Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp, Paper Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Consumers Gas, Toronto Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consumers Glass, Montreal Glass Bottle Blowers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Distillers Corp., Ville Lasalle, Que Distillery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Bridge, Vancouver Bridge, Structural Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Glass, Montreal Glass, Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel and Coal, Sydney, N.S Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Donohue Bros., Clermont, Que Carpenters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dress Mfrs. Guild, Toronto Int. Ladies' Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Duplate Canada, Oshawa, Ont Auto. Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fraser Co.'s, Cabano, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Hotel Chateau Frontenac (CPR), Quebec, Que. Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Chateau Laurier (CNR), Ottawa Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Empress (CPR), Victoria Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Vancouver (CNR & CPR), Vancouver .... Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

John Murdock, St. Raymond, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

New Brunswick Telephone, New Brunswick Bro. of Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Okanagan Federated Shippers' Assoc, Kelowna, 

B.C Okanagan Fed. of Fruit and Vegetable Wkrs. 

(CLC) 

Rowntree Co., Toronto Retail, Wholesale Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Regina Wheat Pool Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

St. Raymond Paper, Desbiens, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Taverns & Hotels (various), Toronto Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Walter M. Lowney, Montreal Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Conciliation Officer 

Algom Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Aluminum Co. of Can., Kingston, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

L'Association Patronale du Commerce, Quebec Commerce Empl. (CCCL) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec Services Fed. (CCCL) (female) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec Services Fed. (CCCL) (male) 

Atlas Asbestos, Montreal Asbestos Wkrs. (CLC) 

Can. Cement, Montreal Cement Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Calgary Nat. Union of Pub. Empl. (CLC) (clerical 

empl.) 
Communaute des Soeurs de Charite de la Provi- 
dence, Montreal Services Fed. (CCCL) 

Dom. Wabana Ore, Bell Island, Nfld Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fairey Aviation, Dartmouth, N.S Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Int. Harvester, Chatham, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Manitoba Rolling Mill, Selkirk, Man Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Normetal Mining, Normetal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Price Bros., Kenogami, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Quemont Mining, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

• Conciliation Board 

British Rubber, Lachine, Que CLC-chartered local 

Cdn. Aviation Electronics, Montreal Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (Western Region) Montreal Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (Eastern Region) Montreal Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Calgary Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (outside empl.) 

City of Hamilton Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) 

Crane Ltd., Montreal Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Textile, Montgomery, Magog, Sherbrooke, 

Drummondville, Que Textile Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Dom. Textile, Montreal United Textile Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dunlop of Canada, Toronto Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fry-Cadbury, Montreal Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Cottons, Valleyfield, Que United Textile Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

North American Cynamid, Niagara Falls, Ont United Electrical Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Trans Canada Air Lines (company- wide) Air Line Pilots (Ind.) 

Post Conciliation Bargaining 

Dom. Bridge, Lachine, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Garment Mfrs.' Assoc, of Western Canada, 

Winnipeg Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

794 



Arbitration Board 

Company and Location Union 

Metro. Board of Commissioners of Police, 
Toronto Metro. Police Assoc. (Ind.) 

Work Stoppage 

Fish canning co.'s (various), B.C. Coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (cannery wkrs.) 

Fish canning co.'s (various), B.C. Coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (salmon tendermen) 

Fish canning co.'s (various), B.C. Coast United Fishermen (Ind.) (fishermen) 

John Inglis, Toronto Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Lumber co.'s (various), B.C. Coast Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

PART III— Settlements Reached During July 1959 

(A summary of the major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Coverage 
figures are approximate.) 

Automobile dealers (various), Vancouver — Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
eff. April 1, 1959 covering 600 empl. — 5% increase (maximum 100 an hr.) retroactive to April 1, 
1959, 5% (maximum 100 an hr.) eff. April 1, 1960, plus a $3 premium for Saturday work. 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ontario and Quebec) — Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. 
(Ind.) (crafts and services): 15-mo. agreement eff. Aug. 31, 1959 covering 11,000 empl. — $3.75-a-wk. 
increase in top rates for plant employees in larger centres; 4 wks. paid vacation after 30 yrs. 
eff. 1960 (currently 4 wks. after 35 yrs.). 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ontario and Quebec) — Traffic Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 
(telephone operators): 15-mo. agreement eff. Aug. 31, 1959 covering 12,000 empl. — $1.75-a-wk. 
increase in top rates for plant employees in larger centres; 4 wks. paid vacation after 30 yrs. 
eff. 1960 (currently 4 wks. after 35 yrs.). 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ontario and Quebec) — Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. 
(Ind.) (clerical empl.): 15-mo. agreement eff. Aug. 31, 1959 covering 8,750 empl. — $1.75-a-wk. 
increase to make $2.50 top rate for clerks in larger centres; 4 wks paid vacation after 30 yrs. 
eff. 1960 (currently 4 wks. after 35 yrs.). 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ontario and Quebec) — Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. 
(Ind.) (equipment salesmen): Settlement terms not yet available. 

Cluett, Peabody, Stratford Ont. — Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 
600 empl. — 5% increase for hourly rated empl. and 2\% for piece workers eff. Aug. 17, 1959; and 
5% for hourly rated empl. and 2|% for piece workers eff. Aug. 17, 1960; work wk. reduced 
from 44 to 42 hrs. eff. Aug. 17, 1960; 3 wks. paid vacation after 15 yrs. (formerly, 3 wks. 
after 20 yrs.); surgical benefits now paid for by company. 

Electric Tamper and Equipment, Montreal — Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 
2-yr. agreement eff. May 1, 1959 covering 550 empl. — 5 to 460 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1959, 
and 50 May 1, 1960; 2 additional half holidays on the days before Christmas and New Years 
making total of 9. 

Hamilton Cottons, Hamilton, Dundas, Trenton, Ont. — Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC): 
Settlement terms not yet available. 

Hamilton General Hospitals, Hamilton, Ont. — Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,100 empl. — 4% wage increase eff. Feb. 1, 1959, and 4% Jan. 1, 1960; reduction in 
work wk. from 42 hrs. to 40 hrs. eff. Jan. 1, 1960. 

Miner Rubber, Granby, Que. — CLC-chartered local: 1-yr. agreement eff. Jan. 1, 1959 
covering 600 empl. — 20-an-hr. increase retroactive to Jan. 1, 1959 and 30-an-hr. during 1960; 
3 wks. paid vacation after 11 yrs. (formerly 3 wks. after 15 yrs.), and 4 wks. after 25 yrs. 
(formerly no 4 wks. provision). 

Norton Co., Chippewa, Ont. — Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 
550 empl. — 70-an-hr. general wage increase retroactive to May 21, 1959; sickness and accident 
indemnity increased from $40 to $50 a wk. 

Trans Canada Airlines, Montreal — Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement eff. May 1, 
1959 covering 4,000 empl. — 3% general wage increase retroactive to May 1, 1959. 



Corrected Report: June Settlement 

Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ont. — Building Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC): $8-a- 
month general increase (original report, July issue, page 679: $8-a wk.). 

795 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Frontier College is Marking 
60th Anniversary This Year 

The Frontier College this year marks its 
60th anniversary. This summer a staff of 
74 labourer-teachers was operating in the 
field, in frontier locations in nine provinces, 
the Northwest Territories and the Yukon. 
To the middle of 1959, a total of 91 
teachers had taught railway gangs and 
workers in mining, logging and construction 
camps. 

The labourer-teachers are specially 
trained and selected for their duties. They 
work daily at the same jobs and under the 
same conditions as the men they teach in 
the evenings. No instructor expects or 
receives any special consideration. The 
result is a growing respect and interest 
among the men that could not be earned 
in any other way. 

Arthur H. Brown, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, is a member of the Board of Gov- 
ernors of The Frontier College. 



Commonwealth Meeting Adopts 
Canadian Scholarship Proposal 

The Commonwealth Education Confer- 
ence, which met at Oxford, England, from 
July 15 to 29, was highly successful, the 
Canadian delegation has reported. The 
conference agreed to adopt a common- 
wealth scholarship scheme on the lines 
proposed by Canada. The scheme will 
have an objective of 1,000 scholarships at 
any one time, of which Canada will 
provide 250. 

Conference discussions on the supply 
and training of teachers centred on the 
shortage of adequate facilities in all com- 
monwealth countries and particularly in the 
less developed areas. In the light of the 
discussions at Oxford, the Canadian dele- 
gation announced that under existing tech- 
nical assistance programs Canada would 
make available about three million dollars 
over the next five years to train teachers 
from other commonwealth countries in 
Canada and to send to those countries 
qualified individual Canadian teachers or 
teams of teachers to assist with the estab- 
lishment or extension of teacher training 
institutions. 

This announcement, together with the 
earlier announcement made jointly by the 
leaders of the Canadian and Indian dele- 



gations that Canada and India had agreed 
to devote the equivalent of about $10 mil- 
lion in counterpart funds to the develop- 
ment of higher technological and poly- 
technic schools in India, reflects the keen 
interest taken by Canada in the develop- 
ment of teacher training facilities and the 
provision of adequate technical education 
institutions in commonwealth countries. 
Both these indications that Canada is pre- 
pared to provide increased assistance for 
these purposes were extremely well re- 
ceived at the conference. 

The counterpart funds were generated 
through the disposal, by the Government 
of India, of Canadian wheat and other 
commodities, including non-ferrous metals, 
provided by Canada to India under the 
Colombo Plan. 

The extension of the arrangements for 
training teachers in Canada and abroad 
will, of course, be undertaken as part of 
Canada's existing technical assistance pro- 
gram to which the provincial Departments 
of Education have made a most valuable 
contribution. 

The idea of a Commonwealth Education 
Conference originated at the Common- 
wealth Trade and Economic Conference 
held at Montreal in 1958, when Canada 
proposed that in addition to the exchange 
of teachers and students between common- 
wealth countries which took place under 
the Technical Assistance Program of the 
Colombo Plan, there should be exchanges 
at a high educational level to encompass 
the natural and social sciences, law and 
other academic disciplines not normally 
covered by technical assistance. It was 
agreed at Montreal that a conference should 
be held this year in the United Kingdom 
to formulate the scope and detailed ar- 
rangements for a reciprocal scholarship 
scheme and to review the existing arrange- 
ments for commonwealth co-operation in 
all fields of education, particularly with 
respect to the supply and training of 
teachers and facilities for technical and 
scientific education which were known to 
be of particular concern to the under- 
developed countries and territories of the 
Commonwealth. 

The Canadian delegation at Oxford was 
headed by Hon. George Drew, Canadian 
High Commissioner in London, and in- 
cluded Government officials and repre- 
sentatives of Canadian universities. 



796 



CLC Establishes Committee 
On White-Collar Organization 

The Canadian Labour Congress has 
established a committee to co-ordinate or- 
ganizing efforts in the white-collar field. 
Joe MacKenzie, CLC Director of Organi- 
zation, is chairman of the committee. 

The committee is composed of repre- 
sentatives of 20 CLC-affiliated unions with 
members in white-collar occupations, and 
is intended to be a clearing house for in- 
formation on the extent of organization, 
trends in bargaining and wage and salary 
data in the field. 

Potential eligible union membership of 
white-collar workers in Canada is estimated 
at more than 500,000. Only about 10 per 
cent of this total is at present organized 
in the trade union movement. 



Electronic Computers Creating 
Better Paid Office Positions 

New office jobs that are better paid and 
require more skill and training than many 
other clerical posts are being created by 
the use of electronic computers and related 
equipment, according to a bulletin, Auto- 
mation and Employment Opportunities for 
Officeworkers, issued by the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics of the United States 
Department of Labor. New occupations 
mentioned include: methods analyst, pro- 
grammer, computer console operator, and 
card-tape converter operator. 

In the long run, the remarkable growth 
in the numbers of clerical workers, which 
in the United States has brought the pro- 
portion of such workers from one in twenty 
in 1910 to one in eight in 1950, is sure to 
be restricted by the use of electronic com- 
puters, the Bureau says. In general, clerks 
employed in routine and repetitive work 
are most likely to be unfavourably affected 
by office automation. 

Those doing work which requires the use 
of considerable judgment or contact with 
other people, e.g., secretaries, receptionists, 
claim clerks, complaint clerks, and bill col- 
lectors, are least likely to be displaced. 
Another large occupation not likely to be 
much affected is that of stenographer. 

The greatest progress in the introduction 
of electronic date-processing equipment is 
being made, the Bureau says, in large organ- 
izations, especially in those whose em- 
ployees include a high proportion of cler- 
ical workers. So far government agencies, 
insurance companies, and public utilities 
have been among the leading users of elec- 
tronic computing systems; but banks are 
expected to become important users in the 
future. 



Canada's Colombo Plan Donations 
Reach Total of $230 Million 

During the fiscal year 1958-59 Canada 
contributed $35,000,000 for aid in develop- 
ment and technical assistance under the 
Colombo Plan, bringing her total contribu- 
tion up to March 31, 1959, to more than 
$230,000,000, the Department of External 
Affairs has announced. This was in addi- 
tion to contributions to numerous programs 
carried out under United Nations auspices. 

In addition to aid in India, Pakistan and 
Ceylon given under the Plan, Canada made 
special grants of wheat and flour aggregat- 
ing $28,500,000 to these three countries 
between January 1, 1958 and March 31, 
1959. During the same period she also 
made loans amounting to $35,000,000 to 
countries in the Colombo Plan area to 
finance the purchase of wheat and flour to 
meet food shortages, bringing the total of 
special grants and loans for wheat and 
flour, over and above contributions to the 
Colombo Plan, to $70,000,000. 

At the Commonwealth Trade and Econ- 
omic Conference in Montreal, Canada 
announced an increase from $35,000,000 to 
$50,000,000 in her annual contribution to 
the Colombo Plan over the next three 
years. A $10,000,000 program of economic 
assistance to the West Indies over the next 
five years, and a $500,000 technical assist- 
ance program for Commonwealth coun- 
tries in Africa and elsewhere which are not 
covered by the Colombo Plan or the West 
Indies program were also announced. 



Was Organizer of Co-operative 
Movement, Msgr. Coady Dies 

A noted co-operative leader, Msgr. Moses 
M. Coady, Ph.D., D.D., whose guidance is 
credited with helping thousands in the 
Maritime Provinces out of the economic 
depression of the 1930's, died last month at 
Antigonish, N-S. He was 77. 

In 1927 Msgr. Coady presented a co-op- 
erative organization plan for Nova Scotia 
fishermen to a federal Royal Commission. 
Later he was asked to implement this plan 
and in doing so organized 40,000 fishermen 
in a period of ten months. 

Msgr. Coady's simple techniques for com- 
munity self-help became known as the 
Antigonish Movement and spread to Asia, 
Africa, the Caribbean area and South 
America. 

He had retired in 1952 from the director- 
ship of the Extension Department of St. 
Francis Xavier University, a post he had 
held since 1948. Before joining the Uni- 
versity, he reorganized the Nova Scotia 
Teachers Union. 



797 



Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
Plan Campaign against Imports 

Plans for an intensive campaign against 
imports of clothing coming into Canadian 
and American markets were discussed at a 
meeting in Montreal last month of the 
executive board of the Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers of America. A national health 
plan for the United States and the tendency 
for employment in the clothing industry 
to diminish were among the other topics 
considered. 

Jacob S. Potofsky, President of the union, 
explained that the fight against imports will 
be directed mainly against those from 
Japan and Hong Kong, which are said to 
have increased 800 per cent in the last 15 
years. He proposed "corrective" action in 
Canada and the United States by way of 
exerting pressure on the federal Govern- 
ment and by persuading the public not to 
buy these imported goods. 

10 Cents an Hour 

Mr. Potofsky asserted that wages in the 
countries exporting to Canada are equal 
to 10 cents an hour, and that output was 
"often the product of homework". 

President Potofsky expressed the view 
that organized labour in the United States 
is in favour of Government-helped hospital 
plans. He said that the cost of medical, 
surgical and hospital care has become pro- 
hibitive for large sections of the popula- 
tion, and is still rising. "Some form of 
government aid has become necessary," he 
asserted. 

About 50 delegates attended the meeting, 
and these included: Hyman Reiff, Manager, 
Montreal Joint Board; Sol Spivak, Manager, 
Toronto Joint Board; Joseph James, Winni- 
peg; and Saul Linds, Associate Manager 
of the Montreal Joint Board. 



Leather Goods Workers Plan 
Organizing Drive in Canada 

A fund of $150,000 has been set aside 
for organizational purposes in Canada, it 
was announced at a meeting in Montreal 
last month of the general executive board 
of the International Leather Goods, Plastics 
and Novelty Workers Union. The an- 
nouncement was made by Norman Zukow- 
sky, President of the Union. 

The Union has about 45,000 members, 
of whom slightly more than 1,000 are in 
Canada, in Montreal and Toronto locals. 

An increase in the per capita levy will 
be sought at next year's international con- 
vention to meet the cost of the intensified 
organizing campaign in Canada and the 
United States. 



The importance of uniform contract 
standards regarding wage and working con- 
ditions was agreed upon at the meeting. 
One of the main aims of the union will be 
the attainment of a 35-hour week, instead 
of the present 37i-hour one. Uniformity 
will also be sought in wages and in health, 
welfare and pension benefits. 

Apparel Trades Department 

The Union wants needle trades unions 
to join it in forming an apparel trades de- 
partment of the AFL-CIO. The purpose 
of establishing such a department would 
be to co-ordinate organizing, to develop a 
joint union label and to promote the sale 
of union-made goods, to stimulate demand 
for apparel goods designed and manufac- 
tured in Canada and the United States, 
and to plan the training and assimilation of 
new immigrants, many of whom enter the 
needle trades industries. 

A jurisdictional dispute with the Amal- 
gamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Work- 
men was to be submitted to President 
George Meany of the AFL-CIO at an 
executive meeting in Pennsylvania this 
month, it was decided. If no settlement 
is reached it will be taken to the AFL-CIO 
convention in September. 

The Leather Goods Union asserts its 
right to bargain for a group of workers, 
former members of the International Fur 
and Leather Workers' Union, over whom 
it claims to have exclusive jurisdiction but 
who now belong to the Amalgamated Meat 
Cutters and Butcher Workmen. The Meat 
Cutters absorbed the Fur and Leather 
Workers in 1955, after the latter was ex- 
pelled from the CIO and the CCL. 



Steelworkers' Meeting Outlines 
Collective Bargaining Objectives 

General wage increases were advocated 
by the United Steelworkers as a leading 
collective bargaining objective in Canada 
this year, at the union's two-day national 
policy conference in Toronto attended by 
307 delegates representing nearly 300 locals 
across the country. 

The new policy target is for "general 
wage increases that take into account the 
close relationship between Canadian and 
American price policies in the steel manu- 
facturing and mining industries". The 
union argued that the price policies "prove 
that Canadian wages can be at least equal 
to the wages paid in similar American 
industries". 



798 



Other aims approved by - the conference 
included: higher shift premiums, better 
incentive rates, a 40-hour work week across 
Canada, nine paid statutory holidays, 
longer paid vacations, and severance pay. 
The importance of extending fringe benefits 
in contract negotiations was emphasized in 
the discussions. 

The delegates asked for changes in the 
Unemployment Insurance Act to provide 
bigger benefits, elimination of the waiting 
period, and provision for universal cover- 
age regardless of earnings. 

In addressing the conference, Canadian 
Director William Mahoney, charged Prime 
Minister Diefenbaker with accepting man- 
agement's point of view that wage increases 
cause inflation, without making an inde- 
pendent investigation of the facts. (An 
investigation into steel prices had earlier 
been urged by the union.) 



Operative Potters Convene 
In Canada for First Time 

The 65th annual convention of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Operative Potters, 
held in Montreal early in July, was the first 
the union had ever held in Canada. About 
250 delegates attended. 

Head officers of the union, elected last 
May by secret referendum ballot, were 
installed during the convention. L- E. 
Wheatley and Charles F- Jordan were 
re-elected President and Secretary-Treasurer 
respectively. 

The Brotherhood, with locals at Joliette, 
St. Jean, Quebec City, Toronto and New 
Westminster, has close to 1,000 members 
in Canada 



Canadian Co-operatives Report 
Gains in Assets and Business 

Canadian co-operatives reported gains in 
total assets, members' equity and total 
volume of business during the crop year 
ended July 31, 1958, it was reported by 
the Economics Division of the Department 
of Agriculture in its 27th annual summary 
of the operations of co-operative associa- 
tions in Canada, Co-operation in Canada, 
1958. 

No Membership Gain 

While gains indicative of continued 
growth were reported on all fronts except 
membership, these gains were generally 
small on a percentage basis to the size of 
the co-operative movement in Canada. 

The total volume of business done by 
marketing, purchasing, fishermen's and 
service co-operatives for the year was 



$1,244,558,000. This was an increase of 
$92 million over the previous year and 
represented a new high for total co-oper- 
ative business. A total of 2,002 marketing 
and purchasing co-operatives, 94 per cent 
of the known co-operatives in these cate- 
gories, reported business of $1,208,455,000 
for the 12-month period. 

The sales volume of farm products 
marketed through co-operatives amounted 
to $895 million, an increase of $77.7 mil- 
lion over the previous year's figure. All 
provinces reported increases in the total 
value of farm products marketed. Co-op- 
eratives marketed about 33 per cent of all 
agricultural products entering commercial 
trade in Canada during the year. 

Sales in merchandise and farm supplies 
advanced to $296 million in the year, an 
increase of $13 million over the previous 
year's sales. 

Total assets of marketing and purchasing 
co-operatives increased from $48 19 million 
a year earlier to $506.8 million, a gain of 
5 per cent. 

Fishermen's co-operatives reported a 
general increase in business during the 
year. The value of fish marketed increased 
from $17.4 million to $19.5 million. 



U.S. Department of Labour Given 
Full Control over Job Statistics 

Effective July 1, the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor took over sole responsibility 
for employment statistics, under a new 
plan designed to improve federal statistical 
services. 

The Department will publish all figures 
on employment, including all labour force 
data, nonfarm employment based on payroll 
reports, and unemployment insurance claims. 

Labour force statistics will be collected 
and tabulated for the Department by the 
Commerce Department's Bureau of the 
Census. 

The Labor Department will continue to 
collect figures on employment and labour 
requirements in the construction industry. 

All other phases of the construction indus- 
try, including data on housing starts and 
dollar volume of construction activity, are 
to be transferred to the Commerce Depart- 
ment. 

Previously, the responsibility for employ- 
ment statistics was split between the two 
Departments. In Canada, the Dominion 
Bureau of Statisics conducts the monthly 
labour force survey, the National Employ- 
ment Service compiles statistics on unem- 
ployment insurance claimants and job 
applicants. 



799 



Nonfarm Canadians' Income 
Averaged $4,269 in 1957 

Average income of nonfarm families and 
unattached individuals in 1957 was $4,269, 
an increase of approximately 11 per cent 
over 1955 and 34 per cent over the 1951 
average income of $3,185, according to data 
collected from a sample survey, the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics announced 
last month. 

Some price increases occurred during this 
period so that the increase in real income 
between 1951 and 1957 was approximately 
20 per cent. 

Approximately a quarter of families and 
unattached individuals had incomes below 
$2,000, almost half had incomes of $2,000 
to $5,000, and the remaining quarter had 
incomes of $5,000 and over. 

For families only, i.e., excluding unat- 
tached individuals, slightly more than a 
fifth had incomes below $2,500 and slightly 
more than a third had incomes exceeding 
$5,000. 



First-Quarter Farm Cash Income 
Highest Total Yet Recorded 

Farm cash income in the first quarter 
of 1959 from the sale of farm products 
and participation payments on the previous 
year's grain crop was estimated at $625,000,- 
000, the highest first-quarter estimate 
recorded to date and 6 per cent larger than 
last year's first-quarter total of $613,000,- 
000, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
has reported. 

Earlier, DBS reported that the net income 
of Canadian farmers (excluding New- 
foundland) from farming operations was 
an estimated $1.3 billion in 1958, up 20 
per cent from the 1957 estimate of $1.1 
billion and approximately the same as the 
five-year (1953-57) average. 



Trace Changes in Buying Habits 
Of U.S. Urban Workers' Families 

United States urban workers and their 
families now have "remarkably higher" 
living standards than in earlier times, it is 
said in a new book, published by the U.S. 
Department of Labor, that traces changes 
in American city workers' buying habits. 

The publication, How American Buying 
Habits Change, summarizes and analyzes 
findings from six major surveys conducted 
by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
during the period since 1875. 

The study shows that the buying power 
of wages and salaries of average city work- 
ers, in terms of constant buying power 



dollars, is roughly three times as great as 
it was at the beginning of this century. 
This comparison does not include the added 
income not in the form of cash from 
today's fringe benefits, such as sick leave, 
paid vacations, and hospitalization. 

The new publication may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington 25, D.C, price $1. 



Average Fringe Benefit Cost 
$700 per Employee per Year 

The average outlay for fringe benefits 
by 108 Canadian companies in a variety of 
industries in 1957 was 16.4 per cent of 
payroll or $701 per employee per year, 
it is reported in Fringe Benefit Costs in 
Canada — 1957, No. 4 in the series of 
studies in industrial relations published by 
Industrial Relations Counselors Service, 
Inc., Toronto. 

As in 1953, the survey showed no signi- 
ficant relationship between fringe benefit 
costs and size of company. 

The 108 companies participating in the 
survey had a total of 537,653 employees- 
The companies reported their fringe benefit 
outlays for paid vacations, paid holidays, 
other paid time off (for family deaths, jury 
duty, etc.), pension plans, welfare plans 
(group life, medical, sick pay, etc.), sever- 
ance and termination plans, saving and 
thrift plans, non-cash benefits other than 
pension and welfare plans (free lodging, 
recreational projects, etc.), unemployment 
insurance, workmen's compensation, and 
old age security. 

Other findings of the study were: 

— Four major types of fringe benefits — 
paid vacations, paid holidays, pension plans 
and welfare plans — were in effect in all 
or nearly all of the 108 companies sur- 
veyed. Unemployment insurance and work- 
men's compensation were, of course, also 
in force in all companies since they are 
required by law throughout Canada. Also, 
payments under the Old Age Security Act 
are required from all companies. 

— Average outlays for fringe benefits by 
industry ranged from 13.1 per cent of 
payroll in textile mill products to 22.2 per 
cent in food, beverages and tobacco. Among 
individual companies within most industry 
groups there was an equal or even greater 
variation in fringe benefit costs. 

— The largest items of fringe benefit costs 
were employer contributions to private pen- 
sion plans and the costs of vacation pay, 
each averaging 3.9 per cent of payroll, 
followed by outlay for holidays, amounting 
to 2.7 per cent of payroll, and payments 
for welfare plans, at 2.1 per cent of payroll- 



800 



— For pension plans, costs (an average 
of 3.9 per cent for all companies) varied 
widely between industry groups, from 2.2 
per cent in trade to 7.1 per cent in finance 
and insurance. 

— Outlays for welfare plans also showed 
a wide variation, from 0.4 per cent in finance 
and insurance to 3.3 per cent in public 
utilities. The average outlay for welfare 
plans in all companies was 2.1 per cent. 

— Of those benefits required by compul- 
sory or minimum legislation, workmen's 
compensation showed more moderate inter- 
industry variations — less than 0.05 in finance 
and insurance to 0.9 per cent in iron and 
steel, metal products and machinery. The 
average for all companies was 0.5 per cent. 

— Employers' compulsory liability under 
the Old Age Security Act is assessed at 2 
per cent of corporate taxable income. Total 
outlay averaged for all 108 companies was 
0.8 per cent of payroll, ranging from 0.1 
per cent in textile mill products and trans- 
portation to 1.6 per cent in petroleum pro- 
ducts. 

— Premium pay for time worked — the 
principal wage supplement outside of fringe 
benefits — averaged 3-2 per cent of payroll 
in the manufacturing companies surveyed, 
and 5.2 per cent in public utility companies. 
In non-manufacturing industries, either it 
was not the practice to pay premium com- 
pensation, or separate data for premium 
pay were not available. 

— Employer payments for pension and 
other benefit plans were 4.0 per cent of 
payroll or $168 per employee for pension 
plans, 2.1 per cent of payroll or $89 per 
employee for welfare plans (including 
premiums for group life, hospitalization, 
surgical, medical care and sick pay insur- 
ance). 

Comparing the years 1953 and 1957 on 
the basis of data received from the 72 com- 
panies participating in both studies, the 
average total employer outlay for fringe 
benefits rose, as a percentage of payroll, 
from 15.3 to 158, and in dollars per em- 
ployee, from $530 to $673. 

Comparison of costs reported in this 
study with those in a similar study of fringe 
benefit costs by the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States in 1957 indicates that 
total outlay for fringe benefits in Canada 
and the United States did not differ sub- 
stantially with respect to the major fringe 
benefits, the report says. 

The report was the second such study by 
the organization, the first being for 1953. 
The organization now plans to publish 
similar reports every second year. 



Copies of the report are available from 
Industrial Relations Counselors Service, 
Inc., 85 Bloor Street East, Toronto 5, 
at $5.00 each. 



Most U.S. Collective Agreements 
Provide for Shift Differentials 

More than 90 per cent of major collec- 
tive agreements in the United States include 
provisions for extra pay or shorter hours 
for persons engaged on night work, and a 
growing number call for both. 

More than half of all second-shift workers 
receive differentials of 8 cents an hour or 
higher, according to the AFL-CIO Depart- 
ment of Research publication, Collective 
Bargaining Report. More than a third get 
premium pay of 10 cents an hour or more- 

For workers on the third shift, the rate 
is 12 cents an hour or 10 per cent — the 
latter for those whose differential is on a 
percentage basis — and is by far the most 
common in contracts covering 1,000 or 
more workers. 



New Booklet Assembles Laws 
Applicable to Pension Plans 

A booklet that deals with the way in 
which the tax laws of the Dominion, Que- 
bec and Ontario bear on the operation of 
employee pension plans has recently been 
published by The Wyatt Company, actuaries 
and employee benefit consultants, Ottawa 
and Toronto. The booklet, The Law and 
Regulations affecting Employee Pension 
Plans, Canada, Quebec, Ontario, may be 
obtained from the company without charge. 

The booklet assembles, for the first time, 
the various laws and regulations, both 
federal and provincial, that are applicable 
in the operation of pension plans, and is 
aimed at assisting employers to operate in 
accordance with the legal requirements. 

The pamphlet, which is in the form of 
question and answer, explains what con- 
stitutes a "registered pension plan" and 
describes the regulations regarding employer 
and employee contributions for past and 
future service, terminal funding, taxation 
of pension benefits, and the appointment of 
beneficiaries under provincial laws. The 
effect of estate and succession duty acts on 
pension plans, and restrictions on the invest- 
ment of pension fund monies are also dealt 
with. 

The author of the pamphlet, John S. 
Forsyth, Canadian Manager of the Com- 
pany, was formerly employed in the Legal 
Branch, Taxation Division, Department of 
National Revenue, and later was Director 
of the Pension Fund Branch of that Depart- 
ment. 



801 



Quebec Signs Agreement under 
Unemployment Assistance Act 

All provinces are now under the federal- 
provincial unemployment relief scheme. The 
Minister of National Health and Welfare 
announced in the Commons on July 4 that 
on July 1 Quebec, the last province to do 
so, had signed an agreement to enter the 
plan (see page 803). 

The agreement is the standard one 
between the federal Government and the 
provinces; and while it took effect on July 
1, Quebec, like the other signatory prov- 
inces, will be able retroactively to draw 
contributions from the federal treasury in 
connection with relief payments going back 
to July 1, 1958. 

The Unemployment Assistance Act, passed 
at the 1956 Session of Parliament (L.G., 
Dec. 1956, p. 1569), authorizes the federal 
Government to enter into agreements with 
the provincial governments to provide for 
contributions to be made out of the federal 
treasury for local unemployment assistance 
costs. Under the Act, federal contributions 
may not exceed 50 per cent of the unem- 
ployment assistance costs provided under 
the agreement in the province concerned. 

Under the memorandum of agreement 
appended to the legislation, for all provinces 
except Nova Scotia, federal aid was to be 
given when the number of unemployed and 
their dependents exceeds .45 per cent of 
the population of the province. In Nova 
Scotia, because of particular circumstances 
prevailing in the province, federal assistance 
was to be given when the unemployment 
figure exceeded .30 per cent of the popula- 
tion. 

An amendment to the Act, passed in 
December 1957, repealed the requirement 
that federal reimbursements might be made 
only with respect of aid to recipients in 
excess of .45 per cent of the provincial 
population, with effect January 1, 1958 
(L.G., April, p. 373). The federal Govern- 
ment now pays to provinces which have 
signed agreements under the Act 50 per 
cent of the total costs of assistance to the 
needy unemployed, with some exclusions, 
such as aid to recipients of mothers' allow- 
ances and certain other costs. 



Nfld. Federation's Convention 
Attacks Province's Labour Laws 

Criticism of Newfoundland's recent con- 
troversial labour legislation was voiced at 
the 23rd annual convention of the New- 
foundland Federation of Labour, held in 
Corner Brook last month. Some 100 dele- 
gates attended. 



Federation President Larry Daley charged 
that the Government had made an "unsuc- 
cessful" attempt to divide organized labour. 

The Federation proposed formation of a 
union — "not a federation" — of fishermen; 
a producer's board, owned and controlled 
by fishermen, to sell all cured and salt fish; 
government price supports and subsidies; 
producers co-operatives to secure salt and 
bait supplies, bait facilities, community 
stages, stores and curing facilities; and 
producer-owned curing plants. 

President Daley said the existing New- 
foundland Federation of Fishermen, an 
unaffiliated organization with a present 
membership of about 8,100, was "politically 
dominated". Secretary of the union is 
C. Max Lane, a member of the provincial 
Legislature who was named President of 
the Newfoundland Brotherhood of Woods- 
Workers that was formed by the Govern- 
ment on decertification of the International 
Woodworkers of America (L.G., April, p. 
360). 

The convention discussed a resolution 
calling for a committee to study charges 
that certain Grand Falls paper mill unions 
"publicly supported certain companies and 
the provincial Government in an attempt to 
oust other affiliated unions from their 
legally established bargaining position and 
from the province". 

Another resolution called for the removal 
of a constitutional barrier against discussion 
of "partisan political" matters. Others pro- 
posed that the Federation disassociate itself 
from all political parties in Canada, not 
affiliate with any political parties in Canada, 
and initiate a political education program 
to acquaint affiliated unions with the "intent 
and purposes of the CLC resolution" on a 
new political party for Canada and to bring 
to their members a "political awareness". 



Britain's Ministry of Labour 
Publishes 1958 Annual Report 

The number of persons in civil employ- 
ment in the United Kingdom diminished 
by more than 250,000 as a result of reduced 
demand in many industries, according to 
the Annual Report of the Ministry of 
Labour and National Service for 1958, 
which was published recently. 

Unemployment rose throughout the year, 
the November total of 536,000 representing 
2.4 per cent of the estimated total number 
of employees. There was a slight improve- 
ment in December. The average number 
registered as unemployed was 457,000 com- 
pared with an average of 313,000 for 1957, 
the report says. 



802 



Unemployment among the disabled in- 
creased much less sharply than among the 
able-bodied. 

Unemployment was accentuated by the 
larger numbers of boys and girls reaching 
school-leaving age and by the considerable 
numbers of men leaving the armed forces, 
while at the same time 20,000 fewer men 
were posted under the National Service Acts 
than in 1957. 

"In many cases employers took the 
Ministry into their confidence when con- 
templating reductions in the size of their 
labour force, and the Department was able 
to give advice and to assist in the handling 
of redundancy problems by arranging for 
the Employment Exchange staffs to inter- 
view the workers affected before their 
notices expired and thus speed up the pro- 
cess of finding alternative employment for 
them," the report states. 

"In addition, training and industrial 
rehabilitation helped to fit people for em- 
ployment in industry, commerce and the 
professions . • . About 89 per cent of those 
who completed vocational training courses 
were found employment in the occupations 
for which they had been trained." 

Some firms affected by the trade recession, 
according to the report, "resorted to short- 
time working rather than a reduction in the 
number of workers. The numbers on short- 
time more than doubled. Overtime was at 
a considerably lower level than in 1957." 



The report states that there was no sub- 
stantial change in the number of industrial 
disputes compared with preceding years- 

Weekly wage rates increased by about 3i 
per cent, compared with 51 per cent in 
1957. Nearly 11,250,000 wage-earners had 
their weekly rates of wages increased and 
about 339,000 had their normal weekly 
hours of work reduced. In 1957, the corre- 
sponding numbers were 12,333,000 and 
434,000. 

The report states that most wage claims 
were settled by direct negotiation between 
the parties or through the voluntary negotiat- 
ing machinery of the industry concerned. 
However, many disputing parties sought the 
help of the Ministry's conciliation officers- 



Find British Workers on Holiday 
For One Third of Each Year 

Most persons in British industry, accord- 
ing to a survey published in London 
recently, work during two thirds of each 
year and spend the other third on vacation. 

The survey, conducted by the Industrial 
Welfare Society, showed that in addition to 
104 work-free days created by the almost 
universal application of the five-day week, 
the vast majority of British workers receive 
10 working days paid vacation and six 
statutory holidays. 

It was also established that fewer than 
one in a hundred British industrial com- 
panies now offer less than two weeks' 
annual vacation. 



Items of Interest to Labour from House of Commons 



June 30 — Bill C-68 to amend the Mari- 
time Coal Production Assistance Act given 
first reading. The amendment extends the 
application of the Act to all parts of 
Canada, increases the total amount of loans 
that may be made from 10 to 20 million 
dollars, extends the time limit by five years 
to October 31, 1964, and increases the 
amount that may be loaned to one operator 
from $7,500,000 to $12,000,000. 

July 2 — Winter Works Program next fall 
and winter will be announced to the House 
when the Government thinks such a pro- 
gram is necessary, the Minister of Labour 
replied to question. 

Announcement respecting salary in- 
creases for civil servants will be made 
"when the proper time comes," the Min- 
ister of Finance said in answer to a 
question. 

July 3 — Disallowance of Newfoundland 
labour legislation is receiving continuing 
consideration, the Prime Minister told a 



questioner, reminding him that the constitu- 
tion sets a period within which a decision 
must be made, and assuring him that the 
constitutional requirements will be met. 

July 4 — Unemployment Assistance Act 
is in effect in all 10 provinces following the 
signing of an agreement on July 1 between 
the federal Government and the Province 
of Quebec, the Minister of National Health 
and Welfare announced. 

July 6 — Legislation based on the Clark 
report on old age pensions will not be 
introduced at the present session, the Min- 
ister of National Health and Welfare in- 
formed a questioner. 

Bill C-68 to amend the Maritime Coal 
Production Assistance Act given second 
reading: consideration in committee begun. 
During the debate on the motion for second 
reading, the Minister of Mines and Tech- 
nical Surveys said that co-ordination be- 
tween the new National Energy Board and 



803 



the "long-established" Dominion Coal 
Board will be studied in the next few 
years. 

July 7 — Third reading given Bill C-68 
to amend the Maritime Coal Production 
Assistance Act. 

Agreement on a hospital insurance plan 
has been reached between Prince Edward 
Island and the federal Government, the 
Minister of National Health and Welfare 
announced. 

Intention to insert a clause in Bill C-59 
(to amend the Combines Investigation Act) 
to the effect that the anti-combines legisla- 
tion shall not apply to arrangement be- 
tween fishermen or associations of fisher- 
men and persons or associations engaged 
in the buying or processing of fish in British 
Columbia from January 1, 1959 to Decem- 
ber 31, 1960 was announced by the Minister 
of Justice. (See L.G., July p. 675). 

July 8 — Principle of production sharing 
with United States firms in connection 
with the manufacture of the F-104G has 
been accepted by the U.S. firms, the Min- 
ister of Defence Production said when in- 
troducing his Department's estimates. 

Royal assent given, among others to the 
act to make provision for the reduction of 
certain class and commodity rates on 
freight traffic and the act to amend the 
Unemployment Insurance Act. 

July 9— Bill C-70 to amend the Com- 
bines Investigation Act and the Criminal 
Code including the clause exempting until 
the end of 1960 arrangements between fish- 
ermen and fisheries associations in British 
Columbia given first reading. 

Report from Civil Service Commission 
concerning salary increases for civil ser- 
vants was received by Government the 
Minister of Finance reported, but he did 
not regard it as a final submission. 

Royal Commission on Freight Rates in- 
tends to begin hearings in early September, 
the Minister of Transport announces in an 
answer to a question. 

July 10— Between 135,000 and 140,000 
housing starts will be made in Canada this 
year, the Minister of Public Works pre- 
dicted. He had been asked when the Gov- 
ernment intended, in view of the decline in 
starts, to make direct loans to builders; 
he said he couldn't make an announcement 
at that time. 

Report of Royal Commission on Price 
Spreads will not be "very long delayed," 
the Prime Minister told a questioner. 

July 11 — No portion of the subvention 
payable to the Northland Navigation Com- 
pany is being "used to finance the activities 
of gangsters and racketeers in their attempt 



to destroy a legitimate and responsible 
union which is the certified bargaining agent 
for certain employees of the company," the 
Minister of Transport assured a questioner. 

July 14 — Because unemployment figures 
are still decreasing appreciably, the Gov- 
ernment is hoping that it will not be neces- 
sary to repeat this winter the Winter Works 
Program of the 1958-1959 winter, the Min- 
ister of Labour told a questioner. 

Payment of $560,000, representing 20 
per cent of the purchase price of 
$2,800,000, has been received in respect 
of the sale of the Canadian National (West 
Indies ) Steamships fleet, the Minister of 
Transport advised a questioner. 

Ratification of the U.N. Convention on 
the nationality of married women approved. 

July 16 — Report of Royal Commission 
on Price Spreads will be ready by mid- 
September, according to the chairman of 
the Commission, the Prime Minister said. 

July 17 — Consultation will be held at all 
times with labour organizations concerning 
appointments to certain government com- 
missions "but consultation does not mean 
determination," the Prime Minister said in 
reporting on a meeting with Canadian 
Labour Congress officers. "Consultation 
means consideration of the suggestions 
made but does not imply a determination 
of the issue by reason of the names 
suggested." 

Nova Scotia miners who were laid off 
because of a breakdown at their place of 
employment received unemployment insur- 
ance benefits if they were eligible under the 
Act to do so, the Minister of Labour in- 
formed a questioner. 

Settlement of strike involving the North- 
land Navigation Company Limited and the 
National Association of Marine Engineers 
announced by the Minister of Labour. 

July 18 — Draft bill on human rights will 
be introduced at the next session of Parlia- 
ment, Prime Minister asserts, and after in- 
troduction, discussion and second reading 
it will be submitted to a joint committee 
of both houses to study the terminology of 
the bill. 

Bill C-70 to amend the Combines In- 
vestigation Act read the second and third 
times and passed. 

Royal assent given to the amendment to 
the Maritime Coal Production Assistance 
Act, the act to provide for the establish- 
ment of a National Energy Board, and the 
act to amend the Combines Investigation 
Act. 

Second Session of Twenty-Fourth Parlia- 
ment prorogued. 



804 



46th Convention, International Association 

of Personnel in Employment Security 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister of Labour, awarded Association's highest honour, 
the Citation of Merit, for his contributions to Canada's National Employment 
Service. Canadian delegates participate in convention forums and workshops 



Hon. Michael Starr, Minister of Labour, 
received the highest honour given by the 
International Association of Personnel in 
Employment Security, on June 23 in Boston, 
Mass. 

The award, the Association's Citation of 
Merit, was presented during the opening 
session of the 46th annual convention of 
the I APES in recognition of Mr. Starr's 
contributions to Canada's National Employ- 
ment Service. Alan L. Tosland, Assistant 
Director of the NES and a member of the 
IAPES executive board, made the presenta- 
tion. 

The convention was attended by dele- 
gates from Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, 
Pakistan, Peru and the Philippine Islands 
in addition to Canada and the United 
:States. 

Soon after he was appointed Minister of 
Labour two years ago, his nomination 
^pointed out, Mr. Starr announced his in- 
tention of seeing that the National Employ- 
ment Service "fulfilled its proper function" 
and asked the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission to develop a program "to 
strengthen and improve" employment 
operations. 

"Such problems as the difficulty people 
past 40 have in getting employment, re- 
habilitation and employment of the dis- 
abled, discrimination in employment, and 
unemployment resulting from cold weather 
in the winter have concerned me," he said 
at that time. 

The program which resulted included in- 
-creases in staff, stepped-up employer rela- 
tions and publicity, area schools and con- 
ferences for employment personnel, in- 
creased use of testing facilities for screen- 
ing job applicants, and other activities. 

The Minister called a nation-wide con- 
ference in Ottawa last July to study 
-Canada's annual problem of winter unem- 
ployment, with representatives of industry, 
labour, trade and commerce and many 
national organizations in attendance, the 
nomination stated. 

The conference received national publi- 
city, resulted in greater public awareness 
of the causes of unemployment, and 
brought pledges from many in influential 
positions that all possible efforts would be 
made to support a winter employment 
•campaign. 



Mr. Starr was instrumental in securing 
the adoption of a Municipal Winter Works 
Incentive Program which had created more 
than 40,000 jobs by the end of April with 
resulting improved morale, greater response 
to the efforts of the Employment Service 
and the most productive winter employ- 
ment campaign of any staged to date it 
was pointed out. 

Hamilton Baird 

There is a trend in both Canada and the 
United States towards a uniform standard 
for judging unemployment benefit claims 
namely "if a man is out of work he should 
be paid," Hamilton Baird, Moncton, told 
the delegates. 

Mr. Baird, who is Atlantic Regional In- 
surance Officer for the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission, described the emer- 
gence of the uniform standard as a by- 
product of what he called "the redistribu- 
tion of the wealth in our two countries". 
It is happening "whether we like it or not," 
he added. 




A. L. Tosland 



805 




I APES President Harry Van Brunt (left) introduces Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 
of Labour, who holds the Association's Citation of Merit that he received at the 
convention. The presentation was made by A. L. Tosland, Assistant Director, NES. 



He described Canada's centralized system 
of judging unemployment claims and said 
the country had virtually adopted the uni- 
form standard. "It seems qualification 
enough," he said, "that if a man is out of 
work he be paid something to enable him 
to keep his family going." 

His remarks were made during a work- 
shop session on "Benefit Payments and 
Non-Monetary Claims Examining". 

Co-ordinating for Employment Security 

William Thomson, Director of the 
National Employment Service, during a 
forum, "Co-ordinating for Employment 
Security," outlined the operations of the 
NES and its more recent accomplishments 
and progress toward a more effective and 
better integrated program. 

Robert C. Goodwin, Director of the U.S. 
Bureau of Employment Security, the forum 
moderator, saw immobility of displaced 
workers as a major economic problem. He 
said schools should be kept aware of labour 
market changes and that employment secur- 
ity offices should co-operate with industrial 
development groups and with industry 
itself. 

Edward L. Keenan, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Manpower, U.S. Office of 
Civil and Defense Mobilization, and Dr. 
William H. Miernyk, Professor of Eco- 
nomics and Director of the Bureau of 



Business and Economic Research at North- 
eastern University, Boston, shared the 
forum. 

Mr. Keenan suggested that results of 
skill surveys be made known to schools and 
employers of the areas concerned for plan- 
ning purposes and prodded employment 
security personnel to keep pace with 
stepped-up demands for top-level technical 
workers. Dr. Miernyk saw chronic, local- 
ized unemployment as a major economic 
problem, suggested that employment secur- 
ity offices furnish applicants with informa- 
tion about jobs outside their own areas, 
and advised stepped-up efforts to place 
older workers and greater use of aptitude 
testing. 

S. B. O'Brien, Staff Training Division, 
Unemployment Insurance Commission, took 
part in a session on "Flexibility of Regula- 
tions and Procedures to Meet Changes in 
Local Economic Conditions". 

Development of Manpower 

The development of manpower to its 
greatest potential received repeated em- 
phasis during the convention, the theme of 
which was "Economic Security through 
Employment Security." 

Survival of the free way of life in the 
United States depends on more than 
defence, Newell Brown, U.S. Assistant 
Secretary of Labor, told the convention. 






806 





Members of the forum, "Co-ordinating for Employment Security," at the 46th annual 
convention of the I APES (left to right) : William Thomson, Director, National 
Employment Service; Dr. William R. Miernyk, Director, Bureau of Business and 
Economic Research, Northeastern University, Boston; Robert C Goodwin, Director, 
U.S. Bureau of Employment Security, forum moderator; and Edward L. Keenan, 
Assistant Director for Manpower, U.S. Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. 



He predicted that "explosion of the world 
population" between now and the year 
2000 would bring mounting and dangerous 
pressures to all free-societies. 

"One of the ways to meet the pressures 
is to take every possible step to be sure 
that maximum use is made of the human 
resources of the country . . . 

"In my judgment, unless we conclusively 
and conscientiously go after this objective, 
the possibility that this country will con- 
tinue to exist as we know it seems to be 
pretty dim." 

Mr. Brown emphasized that it will be 
the continuing responsibility of persons en- 
gaged in job placement and counselling to 
"see to it that everyone is trained to do 
the job he can do best". 

Workshops 

The convention's 12 workshops con- 
sidered various subjects and discussion in- 
dicated that many employers, understanding 
neither the employment security nor special 
applicant programs, have fears and appre- 
hensions of both; that services rendered in- 
fluence community acceptance; that the 
Employment Service should provide voca- 
tional counselling, leaving educational coun- 
selling to the schools; that electronic data 



equipment has not changed basic principles, 
only methods of application; and that 
there should be more flexibility in employer 
visiting programs and duration of benefits, 
depending on economic conditions. 

Other workshops indicated that the 
veteran program should be an integral part 
of operations; that Employment Service 
offices can staff industry with good planning 
and full utilization of tools and techniques; 
that lack of funds should not be used as an 
excuse for curtailing community activities; 
that audit and field investigation functions 
should be separated; that management train- 
ing should consider long-range objectives; 
that clerical personnel should know agency 
programs; and that, in the farm labour 
field, there is need for follow-up of place- 
ments, and better understanding of trans- 
portation and housing problems. 

Election of Officers 

Mrs. Mark B. Keller, Columbus, Ohio, 
Employment Security Supervisor for the 
Ohio Bureau of Unemployment Compensa- 
tion, was elected President of the IAPES; 
she succeeds Harry R. Van Brunt of Talla- 
hassee, Fla. Benjamin Cohen, Baltimore, 
Md., stepped up to First Vice-President; 

(Continued on page 838) 



807 




Hon. Michael Starr, 
Minister of Labour 

On behalf of the Government of Canada 
I extend my best wishes to all working 
people throughout the country, in honour 
of whom this national holiday has been 
established. 

We are all happy that Labour Day sees 
our Canadian economy in a substantially 
improved position over that of a year ago. 
Employment has expanded steadily this 
year, and by June had reached an all-time 



Claude Jodoin, President 
Canadian Labour Congress 

The year since last Labour Day has been 
an important one for labour; the year 
ahead is likely to be even more important. 
It is traditional on this, labour's holiday, 
for people to look back on the accomplish- 
ments of organized labour and to recall 
some of the achievements that have been 
attained through workers' banding together 
in their common interest. 



LABOUR DAY 






record level. This has resulted from a 
broadly based expansion of business activity 
that has developed during the past twelve 
months. I have no doubt that this expan- 
sion will continue to favourably affect the 
standard of living and employment pros- 
pects of Canadian workers for some time 
to come. 

While prosperity benefits most of us, it 
does not automatically solve the serious 
problems that several groups of workers 
face in obtaining suitable employment. 
Among these are the physically handi- 
capped, the older worker, those laid off in 

(Continued on page 810) 

808 



It is particularly timely that we should 
do that this year because, despite their 
achievements — and they are many — the 
organizations that have made this possible 
are under attack as never before in Canada. 
No doubt this Labour Day will bring hol- 
low praise for organized labour from some 
of those who are exerting their efforts to 
weaken our movement. These are the 
people who preface their remarks with the 
phrase, "I believe in trade unions but . . .". 

Certainly no one associated with the trade 
union movement would pretend for a 
moment that it is perfect in every particular. 

(Continued on page 810) 







Roger Mathieu, General President, 
Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 

(Translation) 

This first Monday in September, the 
workers' holiday, is also organized labour's 
day. 

So I should like to make a wish, in addi- 
tion to the usual congratulations and good 
wishes, which is intended for all but which 
more particularly concerns trade unionism 
as such. 



A. H. Balch, Chairman, 

National Legislative Committee, 

International Railroad Brotherhoods 

On this national holiday the National 
Legislative Committee, International Rail- 
road Brotherhoods sends greetings to all 
labour groups. 

Of interest to railroad men is the an- 
nouncement that a Royal Commission has 
been named to make "a comprehensive and 
careful inquiry with all reasonable dispatch 



MESSAGES 



It would not be wise for us to shut our 
eyes to the serious attacks made during 
the past year on the prestige of the labour 
movement in North America. Because of 
the few unworthy leaders whose criminal 
conduct has been made known to the public 
by the United States press, the reputation 
of the whole labour movement has been 
sullied. Justly shocked by these truthful 
revelations, but dereived at the same time 
by enemies of the labour cause who are 
exploiting the situation, public opinion, it 
is even to be feared, may be tempted to 
place all union leaders in the same category 
with the few who are guilty. 

(Continued on page 811) 



73835-1—3 



into problems relating to railway trans- 
portation in Canada and the possibility of 
removing or alleviating inequities in the 
freight rate structure". 

Under the "Terms of Reference" the 
Royal Commission is to make recom- 
mendations on five points, but no sugges- 
tion is made that the Commission should 
study and make recommendation for a 
national transportation policy; however, it 
is gratifying to note that a statement was 
issued from the Government to the effect 
that a Royal Commission will be named 
after the present commission to study and 

(Continued on page 812) 

809 



Hon. Michael Starr 

(Continued from page 80b) 

cold weather from seasonal industries, and 
those who suffer discrimination because of 
their race, creed, colour or national origin. 
Buoyant employment conditions should help 
us meet these problems more effectively 
and thus call for a greater effort in solving 
them. 

Today we are living in a world of chang- 
ing technology and increasing competition, 
which presents a growing challenge for 
Canadians to meet. One of our basic 
objectives must be the strengthening of 
Canada's resources of skilled and profes- 
sional manpower. The Government of 
Canada is providing, in co-operation with 
the provinces, financial support both for 
higher education and for vocational train- 
ing. The important relationships between 
changing technology and manpower are 
being studied by the Department of Labour 
so that Canada will be better able to meet 
her manpower needs in a changing world. 

At the same time we must always keep 
before us our responsibilities to the rest of 
the world. Although economic conditions 
for most Canadians are good, the same 
cannot be said for large numbers of workers 
around the world. There is much poverty, 
lack of food, poor shelter and inadequate 
schooling in many countries. In many ways 
Canada is making a direct contribution to 
the improvement of these conditions; but 
we cannot afford to relax our efforts in 
this direction. 

Progress has been made during the past 
year in strengthening our unemployment in- 
surance program, in developing a still more 
effective winter employment program, in 
providing a more aggressive placement ser- 
vice for jobless workers and in introducing 
new labour legislation covering vacations 
with pay for emplyees under federal 
jurisdiction. 

It is 65 years since Labour Day was pro- 
claimed as a national holiday by the Gov- 
ernment of Canada under the leadership of 
Sir John Thompson, then Prime Minister. 

Tremendous strides in betterment of liv- 
ing and working conditions have been made 
during that time because of advancing 
technology, enlightened labour and social 
security legislative measures, the increased 
social consciousness of employers, and the 
increasingly influential voice of Organized 
Labour. 

We in Canada can look back over these 
advances with satisfaction; but there is no 
room for smugness. There are many prob- 
lems calling for the attention of Organ- 
ized Labour, employers, and governments 
at all levels in Canada; 



Claude Jodoin 

(Continued from page 808) 

It is essentially a human organization and 
as such it can be expected to suffer from 
human frailties. It is equally true that 
those closely associated with organized 
labour are most anxious and are exerting 
great efforts to overcome these weaknesses. 

But there are others, and it is surely sig- 
nificant that they are largely those who 
stand to gain from a weakened labour move- 
ment, who would impose restrictions that 
would seriously interfere with the right of 
workers to make a free choice of their or- 
ganization and bargain collectively in the 
truest sense of the words. 

The significance of these efforts to weaken 
organized labour goes considerably beyond 
the ranks of trade unions. Those who would 
undermine trade unions are threatening the 
standard of life enjoyed by every Canadian. 
Wages and working conditions are to a 
very large degree determined by collective 
bargaining. The benefits won in contracts 
negotiated between employers and employees 
under union conditions are usually extended, 
to some degree, to those who do not enjoy 
the benefits of collective bargaining. 

Organized labour has always been in the 
forefront of the struggle for shorter hours, 
and the leisure which is generally enjoyed 
today is to a very large extent the fruit of 
collective bargaining. Organized labour is 
in the forefront of the struggle for better 
wages. Recently we have been bitterly criti- 
cized for this. All sorts of dire predictions 
were made about the effects on the Cana- 
dian economy should labour continue to 
press for and win wage increases. Such 
increases were won in a number of very 
important negotiations, affecting many 
thousands of people; and those who were 
loudest in their criticism and most pessi- 
mistic in their predictions are now pro- 
claiming the improvements in the economic 
situation since the recession. 

But it is not only in the matter of hours 
and wages that Canadians as a whole have 
a stake in labour's future. Labour's activi- 
ties have by no means been limited to this 
field; great efforts have been expended and 
much has been accomplished in the legisla- 
tive field, and particularly in forms of 
social legislation. 

Since their very formation trade unions 
have been actively striving for better condi- 
tions for all people. The records of our 
movement tell the story of the struggle for 
better pensions, better widows' allowances, 
hospital and health insurance, unemploy- 
ment insurance, workmen's compensation, 
and other such legislation. 



810 



It is surely significant that some em- 
ployer organizations, which would now im- 
pose all sorts of restrictions to weaken 
labour, have been missing from the leader- 
ship in these efforts in Canada. Time and 
again, in fact, employer organizations have 
been among the bitterest opponents of such 
measures. The significance of this is 
surely clear — those who would weaken 
labour would also weaken the social struc- 
ture which has brought a better life to so 
many Canadians. This is at stake in the 
struggle now going on and this will be 
part of the price Canadians will have to 
pay if the opponents of labour gain ground. 

Great strides have been made in this 
direction; but the governments which have 
introduced legislation of this type have 
acted with great hesitation, and only after 
evidence of public support has become 
abundantly clear. Labour is proud of the 
role it has played in rallying that support. 
Some are now saying that organized labour 
has become too big. The fact is that trade 
union members number less than a third 
of the potential membership. We look for- 
fard to expanded organization so that we 
may speak with a louder voice to attain 
a better life for the people of our country, 
and so that we can come closer to balanc- 
ing the strength of the giant corporations 
that control to such a great extent the 
economy of our country. 

During the past year we have once again 
suffered the ravages of unemployment. We 
have continually pressed for action in two 
particular fields — combatting seasonal un- 
employment and planning to meet the 
effects of automation. Here, as with social 
legislation, the response has been, to say 
the least, slow. 

The Canadian Labour Congress has re- 
peatedly taken the position that there is far 
too much readiness to accept seasonal un- 
employment as inevitable. Surely in this 
age, when such tremendous strides are be- 
ing made in so many fields demanding keen 
intellect, it is not too much to think that 
means can be devised of reducing the tre- 
mendous wastage and suffering that come 
from idle hands during the winter months. 

Across Canada many others are experi- 
encing the idleness that comes when the 
methods of production are changed, through 
automation or some other method. An in- 
crease can be expected in this trend and 
here, too, the Canadian Labour Congress 
has repeatedly advanced suggestions for 
plans to meet these conditions; but here too 
there has been great hesitancy. 

Before we next celebrate Labour Day the 
Canadian Labour Congress, representing 
1,160,000 workers, will meet in convention 
— a convention which has often been 



described as the Parliament of Labour. Our 
organization represents more than four- 
fifths of the union members in Canada and 
they, with their families, constitute about 
a quarter of the Canadian population. Obvi- 
ously the deliberations of such a conven- 
tion are of national importance. 

The matters I have been discussing will 
come under review at those meetings in 
Montreal next April, as will many other 
matters. A great deal is being said of 
labour's role in the political field. Some are 
suggesting that organized labour has no 
place in politics or public affairs. Surely 
this is the business of everybody. It is 
simply good citizenship to take an interest 
in the affairs of our nation, and that is 
exactly what organized labour is doing. 

The Canadian Labour Congress has con- 
ducted an active campaign of political edu- 
cation in an effort to inform members of 
our organization concerning public issues. 
The decision they reach as a result of this 
information is, in the best traditions of 
democracy, their affair and theirs alone. 
There is not the slightest doubt that what- 
ever decision is reached by the delegates 
to the Montreal convention, it will protect 
fully the right of every individual to exercise 
the ballot which is his personal possession, 
as he wishes; anything less would be a 
violation of the democratic basis on which 
our union movement has been built. The 
threat to such freedom comes rather from 
those outside the labour movement who 
would interfere with workers' discussing 
and acting upon their political convictions. 

And so, I say again, that the year will 
be a vitally important one for organized 
labour. We face it with the conviction that 
in the future, as in the past, workers, unit- 
ing in their own organizations, can and will 
make a truly valuable contribution to the 
welfare of our country and all its citizens. 

Roger Mathieu 

(Continued from page 809) 

So I should like to appeal to the 
Christian sense of justice which most citi- 
zens certainly possess. I should like to 
ask them not to condemn, because of a 
few isolated cases, an army of men who, 
for the most part, are working conscien- 
tiously and devoting themselves to the well- 
being of the workers. 

I wish to remind the workers themselves 
that they must rise to the active defence 
of their unions against all attempts at 
slander; his is an urgent duty. 

Let us therefore take advantage of this 
Labour Day to remind one and all that 
even if the labour movement has its black 
sheep (as all large families have, it is still, 



73835-1— 3£ 



811 



with very few exceptions, fundamentally 
honest, and still constitutes the only organ- 
ized force in the service of the working 
classes. 



A. H. Balch 

(Continued from page 809) 

make recommendations for a national trans- 
portation policy. This has been long over- 
due. The railways, like many other indus- 
tries, have been caught in an economic 
squeeze between rising operating costs (in 
spite of major improvement and diminish- 
ing returns; however, railways, unlike most 
enterprises, are not free to solve their 
problems by discretionary executive action. 
A national transportation policy should in- 
clude control of interprovincial and inter- 
national motor vehicle traffic. 

Railway income is subject to regulation 
and statutory control to an extent not ex- 
perienced by the rest of Canadian industry. 
This regulation and statutory control re- 
sults in the railways' being required to per- 
form uneconomical services for the benefit 
of the Canadian economy and the Canadian 
people as a whole. Inevitably their net 
earnings are adversely affected. Public 
policy is largely responsible for the low 
level of railway earnings, which in turn is 
reflected in resistance to wage demands 
made by railroad unions. 

There is the need for railways in our 
economy to supply service to the public. 
We accept that the railways must often 
operate in an "uneconomic" territory in the 
general interest, but we reject that such 
operations should be subsidized by the em- 
ployees, or by any single group of the 
economy. 

Increased competition from other modes 
of transportation should be subject to super- 
vision, control and regulation by appropri- 
ate governmental authority. It is obvious 
that to control one class, i.e., the railways, 
over which there is rigid regulation, and 
allow competitors to operate without com- 
parable regulations will never be a sound 
basis for a "national transportation policy". 

We trust that the Government, after the 
present Royal Commission has made its 
report, will again appoint a commission to 
study and make recommendations for a 
national transportation policy. 

Railroad unions are concerned about the 
expansion of automation and electronics 
in the railroad industry. It is recognized 
that automation is here to stay and must 



be accepted; however, protection must be 
given those who lose their employment 
through installation of the new methods. It 
is right to expect that agreements between 
unions and managemen should contain pro- 
vision for severance pay. 



From our small beginning we have grown, 
in spite of opposition, to an organization 
representing more than a million and a 
quarter Canadian workers . . . 

We have spoken out against injustice, 
poverty and discrimination. We have pio- 
neered legislation that has given Canadians 
some peace and contentment in their old 
age. We have finally won a partial victory 
to secure . . . partial protection against hospi- 
tal bills; compensation laws, factory inspec- 
tion, minimum wages, etc. . . . 

Recently the trade union movement has 
become more active in community affairs. 
In international affairs we are awakening 
to our great responsibility . . . During the 
past year the Canadian trade union move- 
ment has tried to play its full role in the 
democratic development of our country . . . 
We shall continue in the coming years to 
strive to see (organized labour's objectives) 
become reality. 

— Labour Day Message, David Archer, 
President, Ontario Federation of Labour. 




Dr. Helen R. Belyea 



812 



Women's Bureau 



Professional Distribution of Women 

Canadian woman has made name for herself in geology, once regarded as a man's 
profession. U.S. survey of recent graduates shows predominance of traditional 
occupations. U.S sorority publishes useful pamphlet on pharmacy as a career 



"Women are gradually making a name 
for themselves in many professions once 
regarded as men's work. Yet the great 
majority of professional women are in fields 
that have., been., traditionally considered 
'suitable for women'." — Women at Work 
in Canada, 1958. 

One of those who are 'making a name for 
themselves" in a profession once regarded 
as men's work is Dr. Helen R. Belyea, a 
geologist in the federal Department of 
Mines and Technical Surveys. 

Dr. Belyea was recently awarded the 
Barlow Memorial Medal for a paper en- 
titled, "Distribution and Lithography of 
Organic Carbonate Unit of Upper Devonian 
Fairholme Group, Alberta". She was the 
first woman to be so honoured. 

Dr. Belyea has worked in gas and oil 
fields, first in Eastern Canada and since 
1950 in the West, as a member of the 
Geological Survey of Canada. She is an 
active member of several professional asso- 
ciations of geologists and has published a 
number of reports and papers on petroleum 
geology. 

Holding to Tradition — Tradition still pre- 
vails, however, not only in Canada but in 
other countries, particularly the United 
States. This is confirmed by a report on 
women graduates of 1957* recently pub- 
lished by the Women's Bureau, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Labor in co-operation with the 
Women's Section of the National Vocational 
Guidance Association. 

Almost 88,000 women who were grad- 
uated in June 1957 from colleges and 
universities granting the B.A. degree were 
included in the mail questionnaire survey 
on which the report is based. As in earlier 
similar studies, teaching was the profession 
most often chosen by the graduates. By 
far the largest proportion of those who 
chose this profession were elementary school 
teachers, only half as many having entered 
high school teaching. 

Probably as a result of recent intensified 
efforts to increase the number of "degree" 
nurses, the nursing profession had moved 
into second place, displacing secretaries and 
stenographers, now third on the list. 

*First Jobs of College Women, Women's Bureau 
Bulletin, No. 268. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C. 



Equal numbers were employed on the 
one hand as scientists, mathematicians and 
statisticians and on the other, as recrea- 
tional, religious and social welfare workers. 
Home economists and dietitians formed a 
slightly smaller group. Each of four remain- 
ing fields accounts for still smaller but 
about equal numbers: retail store workers, 
therapists, advertising and editorial assist- 
ants, and bookkeeping and accounting 
clerks. 

In contrast to a marked increase in the 
number of women who were receiving 
appropriate training for teaching and nurs- 
ing, there was no evidence that more women 
had been motivated to obtain suitable train- 
ing for occupations in the physical and 
biological sciences, the social sciences, 
mathematics and engineering. 

The report underlines the need of a 
greater awareness of the expanding employ- 
ment opportunities in professions that are 
less usual for women. 

Occupational Information — A pamphlet 
on pharmacy as a field for women* recently 
published by a U.S. sorority is a good 
example of the type of occupational infor- 
mation that helps to stimulate such aware- 
ness. 

The pamphlet answers the questions of a 
high school girl who is interested in a 
career in pharmacy by means of a series 
of interviews with women pharmacists in 
various settings: a retail pharmacy, a medi- 
cal arts pharmacy used by doctors engaged 
in diagnostic work, a large hospital where 
the pharmacist prepares under medical 
supervision medications for patients and the 
out-patient department, a pharmaceutical 
laboratory carrying on research, and a 
school of pharmacy where the pharmacist 
is a member of the teaching staff. 

Pharmacy is a field in which girls are 
likely to be interested; women in some 
European countries have become established 
in it. With the necessary adaptation of the 
information regarding qualifications and 
training, this pamphlet could be of use to 
Canadian girls wishing to enter the field. 



*She is a Pharmacist, by Eunice R. Bonow, Ph. D., 
Assistant Professor of Pharmacy, University of Wis- 
consin, Milwaukee, Published by The Grand Council 
of Kappa Epsilon, Career Guidance Committee, 1539 
N. 51 Street, Milwaukee 8, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 



813 



Older Workers 



Training and Re-training of Older Workers 

Toronto committee recommends research to determine extent of employment problem 
of older workers and numbers of older persons who need training or re-training, 
and urges pilot project to provide experience in operating training programs 



A special committee of the Social Plan- 
ning Council of Metropolitan Toronto has 
been considering problems connected with 
the training and re-training of older 
workers for employment. 

This committee, established in 1955 as a 
result of recommendations made at the 
Conference on Earning Opportunities for 
Older People held in Toronto in 1954, had 
as chairman Norman White, Superintendent 
of Business Development Domestic, Tor- 
onto-Dominion Bank. It was made up of 
representatives from industry, voluntary 
agencies, organized labour, education, and 
Toronto officials of the Department of 
Veterans' Affairs and the National Employ- 
ment Service. 

In studying the problem, the committee 
classified older workers as follows: 

( 1 ) Those in their middle years who find 
age an obstacle to getting employment; 

(2) Those from 50 to 65 years of age 
who for a variety of reasons lose their jobs 
and are unable to find others; 

(3) Those of or near normal retirement 
age who, for financial or other reasons, wish 
to keep on working. 

For all these groups the committee 
thought that an educational program de- 
signed to improve their qualifications for 
and prospects of employment was of prime 
importance. The members agreed that the 
ideal solution was for older persons to find 
jobs where existing skills could be used. 
They realized, however, that this might not 
be possible and that without training or re- 
training, the older persons might be faced 
with a long period of unemployment. 

In their report, the committee emphasized 
the importance of counselling as part of the 
training process to overcome feelings of in- 
feriority and despondency and to help the 
trainees to realize their capabilities. They 
agreed that the provision of adequate coun- 
selling services was basic to any program 
designed to provide greater opportunities 
for work for older people. It was thought 
that good counselling might even, in many 
cases, render training unnecessary. 

Experience had indicated that the ability 
of older persons to learn was beyond doubt, 
the committee knew. In the re-training of 
older women office workers in the United 
States, little difficulty was found in bring- 



ing unused or rusty skills back to employ- 
ment standards. Experience in re-training 
suggests that preliminary counselling should 
try to uncover dormant skills or abilities. 

The committee's report describes a train- 
ing program initiated by a Milwaukee bank. 
The bank was faced with a shortage of busi- 
ness machine operators. The work had pre- 
viously been done by younger women but it 
was decided to train older women to do it on 
a part-time basis. Intensive training with full 
wages was provided. Begun as an experiment, 
the program became a permanent part of 
the bank's operations, and several hundred 
older women were employed. The bank 
found that in low job turnover, less absen- 
teeism, greater accuracy and dependability, 
the older worker proved his superiority. 

It was agreed by the committee that 
training on the job offered distinct possi- 
bilities. They considered that this could be 
done either by training existing employees 
for new work more adapted to their abil- 
ities, or by the employment and training 
of new recruits. It was, however, recognized 
that to obtain the employers' co-operation in 
such methods required considerable urging. 

In their report, the committee made sev- 
eral recommendations regarding the problem 
of employment for older workers. One of 
these was the need for research to deter- 
mine the extent of the problem, in particu- 
lar, on the numbers of older persons who 
need or would benefit from training or re- 
training. Members thought that such studies 
should be undertaken at the national level; 
but they also recommended that, following 
an assessment of local needs, a pilot project 
in training and re-training be set up in 
Metropolitan Toronto to provide experience 
in the operation of a program to meet such 
needs. 

Because a major contribution by business 
and industry towards solving the employ- 
ment problems of older people is needed, 
the committee recommended, as an educa- 
tional program, the exploration of methods 
of collecting and preparing case histories of 
successful older worker programs under- 
taken by business and industry. 

A special committee has been set up to 
plan the implementation of the report, copies 
of which are obtainable from the Council 
at 160 Bay Street, Toronto. 



814 



From the Labour Gazette, August 1909 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Three strikes occur in Nova Scotia coalfields over demand for recognition of 
United Mine Workers as bargaining agent. Conciliation board again described 
the UMW as a "foreign" organization and recommended against its recognition 



Serious labour disputes in the coalfields 
of Nova Scotia marked the latter half of 
1909. The beginning of two strikes early 
in July was recorded in the August 1909 
issue of the Labour Gazette; a third, which 
proved to be the most prolonged, started 
about a month later. 

In all three disputes the refusal of the 
companies to recognize the nUited Mine 
Workers as the bargaining agent of the em- 
ployees, and their determination rather to 
continue to deal with the Provincial Work- 
men's Association, was one of the main 
causes of trouble. 

A strike of 526 employees of the Inver- 
ness Railway and Canal Co. at Inverness 
began on July 9. (Although not officially 
settled, the strike was reported to be prac- 
tically over by the beginning of August, 
most of the miners having returned to 
work.) 

A strike of employees of the Dominion 
Coal Company at Glace Bay, which began 
on July 6 and which originally affected 
about 2,500 miners, lasted much longer. 
(The Labour Gazette of May 1910 
reported the UMW's declaration that the 
strike had ended on April 28, 1910.) 

The third strike, originally by about 
1,700 men, against the Cumberland Rail- 
way and Coal Company at Springhill, which 
began on August 10, according to the Sep- 
tember 1909 issue of the Labour Gazette, 
resulted in the complete shutdown of the 
mine until the end of 1909, and did not 
officially end until May 27, 1911. 

The August issue of the Gazette pub- 
lished the report of a conciliation board 
which investigated this third dispute. From 
this report it appears that, besides the 
demand for recognition of the United Mine 
Workers, wages were an important issue 
but that the employees were not inclined to 
press a claim for increased remuneration. 
Notwithstanding this, the board's report was 
not accepted by the men. 

The company, on its side, at first appar- 
ently made no demand for a reduction in 
wages. It did, however, present some 
lengthy statements which purported to show 
that it had been losing money every year 
since 1906; and that while wages had gone 
up in every year except one since 1900, 
productivity was lower than it had been in 
the years between 1895 and 1899. 

The company's statements, which the 
Board said were not disputed by the em- 



ployees, showed a total loss on operations 
for 1906, 1907, 1908 and the first four 
months of 1909 of nearly $300,000. Figures 
were also presented which showed that the 
average daily pay of the company's miners 
had risen from $1.83 in 1895 to $3.14 in 
1907, while production per miner per day 
had dropped from 5.52 tons in 1895 to 4.1 
tons in 1907. The company also com- 
plained of a very high rate of absenteeism. 

Giving figures showing the cost per ton 
of its coal and the price received per ton 
during the years 1906 to the end of April 
1909, which represented losses of from 17 
to 51 cents a ton, the company said: "There 
is no other operation in Nova Scotia where 
the cost of production is within 50 to 75 
cents per ton of the foregoing figures . . . 
There is no hope for the property under 
these adverse terms." 

In the same August issue the Labour 
Gazette published the report of a con- 
ciliation board on a dispute between the 
Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company and 
Local 1746, UMW. 

On the question of recognition of the 
United Mine Workers, which was an im- 
portant issue in this dispute also, the 
majority report of the board, like that of 
a board which had reported earlier on a 
dispute involving the Dominion Coal Com- 
pany and the UMW (L.G., May, p. 470), 
sided with the company. Like the former 
board's majority report, this report took 
the view that the UMW was "a foreign 
corporation, the majority of its members 
residing in the United States," and that if 
it represented Canadian miners it might use 
its power to further the interests of the 
American coal industry as against those of 
the industry in Canada. 

"We believe this power is too great to 
place in the hands of any foreign body as 
it practically means the control of our 
mining industries," the report said. 

On the other hand, a minority report by 
the representative of the Miners said, "We 
claim that the United Mine Workers are not 
an American organization, and that the 
operators of this country, when the people 
say so, should meet the union, more par- 
ticularly when 90 per cent of their work- 
men are members of the organization, 
Canadian or American, from the fact: first, 
that it is international; and second, that 
it is already successfully operating in 
British Columbia and Alberta." 



815 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



43rd Conference Adopts Four New 

International Labour Instruments 

Delegates approve Convention providing for minimum age of admission of fisher- 
men to employment, Convention on medical examination of fishermen, Convention on 
fishermen's articles of agreement, Recommendation on health services in industry 



The 43rd International Labour Confer- 
ence, held in Geneva June 3 to 25, accomp- 
lished the following: 

— Adopted four new international instru- 
ments: a Convention providing for the 
minimum age of admission of fishermen to 
employment; a Convention concerning the 
medical examination of fishermen; a Con- 
vention concerning fishermen's articles of 
agreement; and a Recommendation provid- 
ing for the organization of health services 
in places of employment. This brings the 
total number of Conventions to 114 and the 
number of Recommendations to 112. On 
the question of the organization of health 
services in places of employment, the Con- 
ference also adopted a resolution inviting 
the ILO Governing Body to consider plac- 
ing the question of the possibility of adopt- 
ing a Convention on this subject on the 
agenda of the earliest possible Session of 
the Conference; 

— Took preliminary action with a view to 
final discussion next year on three other 
instruments: a proposed draft Convention, 
supplemented by a formal Recommenda- 
tion, dealing with the protection of workers 
against ionizing radiations, and a proposed 
draft Recommendation on the question of 
the collaboration between public authorities 
and employers' and workers' organizations 
at the industrial and national levels; 

— Held a general discussion on the 
problems of non-manual workers, including 
technicians, supervisory staff, etc., and ap- 
proved a report outlining a long-term pro- 
gram for the ILO with respect to the 
problems of these workers; 

— Adopted resolutions on questions not 
on the agenda of the Conference: on the 
operational activities of the ILO; on the 
problems of young workers; on ILO activi- 
ties in the field of occupational health and 
safety and participation by the ILO in the 
proposed international health and medical 

816 



research year; and on the development of 
the activities of the ILO in respect of the 
problems of the underdeveloped countries; 

— Examined a report on the manner in 
which member countries are applying ILO 
Conventions; 

— Adopted an ILO budget for 1960 of 
$9,300,909; 

— Held a general debate on the annual 
Report of the Director-General, David A. 
Morse, and heard him reply to the discus- 
sion; 

— Held a special sitting to celebrate the 
40th Anniversary of the ILO; 

— Adopted a new procedure for dealing 
with the membership of technical commit- 
tees designed to resolve difficulties which 
have arisen at the past six Sessions of the 
Conference. 

More than 900 delegates, advisers and 
observers from 75 member countries and 
15 territories attended the Conference. (The 
Canadian delegation was listed on page 601 
of the June issue.) 

Denmark's permanent secretary, Ministry 
of Social Affairs, Erik Dreyer, was elected 
President of the Conference; vice-presidents 
elected were Inocencio V. Ferrer, Govern- 
ment Delegate, Philippines; Cola G. Parker, 
Employer Delegate, United States; and 
Bruno Storti, Worker Delegate, Italy. 

The Convention dealing with the mini- 
mum age for admission of fishermen to 
employment (text on page 820), adopted by 
a vote of 160 to 46 with 29 abstentions, 
provides that children under the age of 15 
years shall not be employed or work on 
fishing vessels. Under certain conditions 
children may participate in the activities 
aboard fishing vessels during school holi- 
days, and national laws and regulations may 
provide for the issuance of employment 
certificates to children not less than 14 
years of age. 






The Convention covering medical ex- 
aminations for fishermen (text on page 
822), adopted by 159 votes to 45 with 33 
abstentions, states that no person shall be 
engaged in any capacity on a fishing vessel 
unless he produces a medical certificate 
attesting to fitness for the work he is apply- 
ing for. Persons under 21 will be ex- 
amined once a year; older persons as the 
appropriate authority decides. 

Adopted by 155 votes to 41 with 37 
abstentions, the Convention on fishermen's 
articles of agreement (text on page 823) 
provides that fishermen shall be covered 
by contracts and employment records sim- 
ilar to those used in the Merchant Marine. 

The Recommendation concerning the 
organization of occupational health services 
in places of employment (text on page 
825), adopted by a vote of 240 to with 
2 abstentions, provides that these services 
should be organized by employers them- 
selves or attached to an outside body either 
as a separate service within a single under- 
taking or as a service common to a num- 
ber of undertakings. 

On the question of the protection of 
workers against ionizing radiations the 
Conference approved proposed conclusions 
for a Convention supplemented by Recom- 
mendation. The conclusions will be sub- 
mitted to the 80 ILO member states for 
their comments and a final decision will be 
taken on the matter by the 1960 Con- 
ference. 

The conclusions of the technical commit- 
tee charged with studying the question of 
collaboration between public authorities 
and employers' and workers' organizations 
at the industrial and national levels, which 
proposed a draft Recommendation concern- 
ing this question, will be transmitted to 
the governments of the 80 member coun- 
tries for their observations, and a final 
decision will be made at the 1960 Con- 
ference. 

Protection against Ionizing Radiations 

On the question of the protection of 
workers against ionizing radiations, the 
Conference approved proposed conclusions 
for an International Labour Convention, 
supplemented by a formal Recommendation. 
The conclusion will be submitted to the 80 
ILO member states for their comments, and 
a final decision will be taken by the 1960 
Conference. 

The two instruments will apply to "all 
occupational activities involving or liable 
to involve the mining and treatment of 
radioactive ore, the production, storage, 
handling, use or transport of any radio- 
active substance, whether sealed or un- 
sealed, or the operation or use of any 



Four persons who had taken part in the 
first International Labour Conference at 
Washington in 1919 were present at a cere- 
mony on June 15 to celebrate the 40th 
anniversary of the ILO. They were: Edward 
J. Phelan, who was first Secretary at that 
Conference and who later became Director 
of the ILO; Carl V Bramsnaes, Danish 
statesman and former Chairman of the ILO 
Governing Body; Petrus J. S. Serrarens, 
former General Secretary of the Inter- 
national Confederation of Christian Trade 
Unions; and Italo Maria Sacco, a member 
of the Italian delegation. 

The Chairman of the ILO Governing 
Body, H. E. Julio Augusto Barboza- 
Carneiro, emphasized that the demands of 
1919 had for the most part been satisfied. 
The living standards of the workers in the 
great industrialized nations had been raised 
and the ennobling of labour was no longer 
the aspiration of a singe class; it was an 
idea today firmly anchored in the minds of 
the employers and those responsible for 
public life. 

The Chairman then told the Conference 
that nothing could better mark the 40th 
anniversary than the establishment, under 
the ILO, of an international institute for 
labour and social studies as proposed by 
the Director-General. 



equipment liable to produce ionizing radia- 
tions, and to all other activities involving 
exposure of persons to ionizing radiations 
in the course of their work." 

Each instrument then deals with methods 
of implementation, maximum permissible 
doses of ionizing radiations and maximum 
permissible concentrations of radioactive 
substances, protection, notification and in- 
spection, monitoring, and medical examina- 
tions. 

The Convention also takes up the ques- 
tion of reduction of exposure, age of 
admission to employment, over-exposure, 
and instruction of personnel. The Recom- 
mendation also deals with health records, 
the appointment of a competent person 
by each undertaking, and alternative 
employment. 

Collaboration with Public Authorities 

The Conference approved by 148 votes 
to 3, with 38 abstentions, the conclusions 
of the technical committee charged with 
studying the question of collaboration be- 
tween public authorities and employers' and 
workers' organizations at the industrial and 
national levels, which proposed a draft 
Recommendation concerning this question. 

It provides for measures appropriate to 
national conditions to be taken to promote 
effective consultation and co-operation at 
the industrial and national levels between 



73835-1—4 



817 



public authorities and employers' and 
workers' organizations, as well as between 
these organizations. 

This consultation and co-operation would 
have the general objective of promoting 
good relations between public authorities 
and employers' and workers' organizations, 
as well as between these organizations, 
whether at the industrial level or at the 
level of the economy as a whole, with a 
view to increasing the prosperity of the 
economy, or individual branches, improv- 
ing conditions of work and raising stand- 
ards of living. 

The Committee unanimously emphasized 
that the second discussion of the proposed 
draft Recommendation next year should be 
limited to the barest minimum. The Com- 
mittee that would be constituted at that 
Session to examine the text finally would 
thus be able to devote the greater part of 
its time to a thorough exchange of views 
on the experience gained in the different 
countries. Such an exchange of views 
would greatly contribute to the promotion 
and the development of consultation and 
co-operation and could be summarized in 
a document, which would permit countries 
to benefit from the experience acquired by 
other countries. 

Problems of Non-Manual Workers 

The Conference approved unanimously a 
report outlining a long-term program for 
the International Labour Organization with 
respect to the problems of non-manual 
workers. 

The report noted the increasing propor- 
tion of the labour force engaged in non- 
manual work, and the rapid rate of change 
in the character of that work and in the 
qualifications required for it. 

Throughout the Committee's discussion 
special emphasis was put on the problem of 
the "educated unemployed" and on the 
help the ILO could render to underde- 
veloped countries, where this problem is 
particularly serious, to channel the man- 
power available towards employment in the 
production field. 

The report recommended: 

— That the ILO should undertake sur- 
veys and studies on the demand for skilled 
labour and on problems of vocational train- 
ing and manpower utilization both in de- 
veloping and in industrialized countries in 
preparation for meetings on these ques- 
tions; 

— That developing countries should re- 
ceive ILO technical assistance to expand 
educational programs and other activities 
designed to meet the demand for technical, 
professional and managerial staff; 



— That such programs should cover the 
acquisition of basic skills by non-manual 
workers and the retraining of older workers, 
with a view to giving them increased oppor- 
tunities of obtaining employment, re-em- 
ployment and promotion; 

— That the ILO accentuate its studies in 
this field in developing countries, and that 
the ILO prepare studies and, possibly, con- 
vene an ad hoc meeting on problems con- 
cerning the employment and re-employment 
of older workers. 

The committee that prepared the report 
recommended that the ILO should continue 
to consider and examine the problems of 
mechanization and automation in offices, 
with particular regard to its effect on sta- 
bility of employment; problems of voca- 
tional training and guidance; problems of 
older workers; and the effects of strain 
and stress in offices where mechanization 
and automation have been introduced. 

The committee recommended also that 
the ILO should: 

— Pursue studies on the form and con- 
tent of the contract of employment for 
non-manual workers; 

— Pursue the examination of the problem 
of social security of non-manual workers 
from the point of view of the transfer of 
pension rights of workers moving from one 
job to another; 

— Undertake an inquiry into the imple- 
mentation of existing international stand- 
ards bearing upon the situation of non- 
manual workers; 

— Help to improve the training of office 
personnel through its Technical Assistance 
Program; 

— Examine the situation of public ser- 
vants, including their right to organize and 
bargain collectively. 

Resolutions 

Four resolutions were adopted by the 
Conference. That concerning the problems 
of young workers urges all ILO member 
states to develop "well-rounded and ade- 
quate youth policies and programs," and 
makes suggestions for various steps that 
might be taken by the ILO itself. 

The resolution concerning ILO activi- 
ties in the field of occupational health and 
safety and participation by the ILO in the 
proposed International Health and Medical 
Research Year expresses its appreciation of 
the initiative of the United Nations in con- 
nection with the Health and Medical Re- 
search Year and calls attention to ILO pro- 
grams in the field of occupational safety 
and health. In the resolution on the ILO's 
operational activities, the Conference called 
on the ILO and its Governing Body to 



818 



expand operational activities, and suggested 
an evaluation of the program at the 1962 
Conference. 

In the resolution concerning the develop- 
ment of the activities of the ILO in respect 
of the problems of the underdeveloped 
countries, the Conference invited the Gov- 
erning Body to review the extent of the 
participation of less developed countries in 
all the organs of the ILO. 

New Procedure on Membership of Committees 

After a full debate in plenary session, 
the Conference decided to modify the pro- 
cedure followed up to now concerning the 
composition of its committees. 

The employers' group has decided in 
recent years not to designate, as members 
of the Conference technical committees, 
the employer delegates from certain Eastern 
European countries. 

Under the new procedure every delegate 
making application to his group for mem- 
bership of a committee shall be placed on 
the list of members of that committee. 
Certain members of the groups (worker, 
employer and government) on each of the 
technical committees shall have the right 
to vote; these members will be known as 
the voting section. 

A delegate who feels aggrieved as a 
result of not being included in the voting 
section of his group shall have the right 
of appeal to the Conference and the Con- 
ference will without debate transmit the 
appeal to a board of three independent 
persons from a panel previously appointed 
by the Conference. 

The board's decision shall be final, and 
shall be put into effect immediately by the 
Conference without debate. In no case 
shall more than two delegates be added 
to the voting section of any one committee. 

The board's first decision was to seat 
employer delegates from 10 Communist 
countries as voting members of technical 
committees (L.G., July, p. 715). 

Director-General's Reply 

The rapidly increasing population of the 
world and the resultant demand for produc- 
tion and productive employment "is a chal- 
lenge to man's ingenuity," ILO Director- 
General David A. Morse, said in his reply- 
to the Conference's debate on his report. 

"In economically underdeveloped re- 
gions," said Mr. Morse," ... it has been 
forecast that in the next 50 years popula- 
tions will triple or even quadruple. There 
will have to be a great and rapid increase 
in production and productive employment 
if this larger population is to sustain itself 
at present low standards, let alone achieve 
that higher welfare which an awakened 



political consciousness now demands and 
which it is the aim of the ILO to promote. 
"It is a challenge to man's ingenuity," 
he said, "to devise new technology and new 
social organization. But unless we prove 
able to respond to this challenge, the con- 
tinuing increase in the number of the 
world's people under present conditions 
spells only disaster. 

"The greatest single issue which faces us 
all during the next quarter century is, I 
believe, whether economic and social devel- 
opment can overtake population growth." 

All countries . . . face certain long-term 
problems of employment and economic develop- 
ment policy. All have a need for technological 
inventiveness and for adjustment to tech- 
nological change. In every country it is neces- 
sary to consider how the proper rate of in- 
vestment may be achieved and what kinds of 
investment are the most economically and 
socially useful. It is necessary also to under- 
stand better the relationship between prices, 
wages and the level of employment, and to 
examine the consequences for production and 
employment of changing patterns of inter- 
national trade. The quality and mobility of 
manpower must be continually improved; and 
new and more efficient organization of pro- 
duction requires the creation of new patterns 
of human organization, new industrial rela- 
tionships. Although they may go about solv- 
ing these problems in different ways ... no 
country or economic system escapes them 
altogether. 

Pointing out that the ILO has a "special 
responsibility" for employment problems, 
Mr. Morse outlined some of the ways in 
which the ILO is acting in this field: in its 
studies of employment problems, its re- 
searches into the relationship between mea- 
sures to promote employment and those to 
combat inflation, its studies of the employ- 
ment problems of developing countries, and 
its programs towards the improvement of 
the quality and mobility of manpower. 

"Rapid industrialization," Mr. Morse 
said, "appears the only way to sustain popu- 
lation increases on the scale taking place 
in many less developed countries. But in- 
dustry cannot be developed at the expense 
of a country's agriculture. There is now 
general recognition of the need for balanced 
agricultural and industrial growth . . . 
Comprehensive programs of rural develop- 
ment may prove to be the most immedi- 
ately effective means to increase employ- 
ment opportunities and conditions of life 
on the land (and) they may awaken in a 
vast segment of the population the disposi- 
tion to change habits and attitudes in ways 
which will facilitate future economic 
growth ..." 



73835-1— 4i 



819 



Perhaps the greatest influence the ILO 
can wield is by helping to bring about 
the new human organization without which 
neither agriculture nor industrial develop- 
ment is possible, he added. 

Mr. Morse cited the ILO's programs in 
labour-management relations, in workers' 
education, in management development, and 
in labour administration as important as- 
pects of the Organization's work in this 
direction. 

"The educational method,' 'he said, "is 
. . . the best way — and the only really 
practical way — to promote the growth" of 
social institutions. 

"The possibilities of human organization 
in the service of economic, social and poli- 
tcal growth have by no means been ex- 
hausted. It would be the gravest mistake, 
I feel, at this stage of history, when a 
great new effort to increase the world's 
productive resources and the possibilities of 
giving greater satisfaction to human needs 
is so urgent, to confine our thinking to 
traditional forms and systems of organiza- 
tion. 

"... The very variety of possible new 
institutional growth and the diversity of 
functions which new organizations may be 
able to fulfill underscores, however, the im- 
portance of responsible leadership . . it is 
of the utmost importance to encourage new 
institutional growth through the education 
of the men and women whose initiative 
must lie at the origin of this growth. Re- 
sponsible leaders schooled in a rational 
understanding of the conditions of their 
society and imbued with respect for the 
values and persons of their fellows will 
build a better system than any which 
could be planned for them by others even 
with the best goodwill." 

Today's youth must bear the burden of 
that economic and social growth which the 
world required to surmount its most serious 
problems during the next quarter-century. 
The education, training, preparation for 
work and life in the community of young 
people today would thus in large measure 
determine its success or failure. "I there- 
fore propose that the ILO devote special 
attention to the problems of youth," Mr. 
Morse said. 



"The ILO's work should respond to 
world social and economic issues. The 
nature of these issues — the expansion of 
industrial employment, rural development, 
the preparation of youth — is gradually re- 
shaping the character of the ILO's work. 
Technical assistance has become a major 
part of the ILO's total activity. It is ex- 
panding, and ... it must continue to ex- 
pand," Mr. Morse declared. 

The Director-General suggested that the 
ILO needs to develop new tools and 
methods. That is why he put to the Con- 
ference last year a suggestion that the ILO 
establish at Geneva an International In- 
stitute for Labour and Social Studies, he 
said. 

The Institute, which would bring trade 
union leaders, government officials and 
others to Geneva for periods of free dis- 
cussion and study "would teach no set sys- 
tem of industrial relations or social organiza- 
tions, nor would it propound any doctrine. 
Its aim would be to promote a better un- 
derstanding of how to go about dealing with 
the questions of social policy." 

Through the Institute, Mr. Morse asserted, 
"the ILO would be assured of remaining 
in the forefront of social thought — of 
thought formed not from books of theory 
but in the struggle with today's difficulties. 

Canadian Participation 

Canadians were appointed to six com- 
mittees at the Conference, as follows: 

Selection Committee — Assistant Deputy 
Minister of Labour Dr. George V. Hay- 
thorne, Chairman; Kalmen Kaplansky. 

Standing Orders Committee — W. A. 
Campbell; W. J. McNally, substitute; Kal- 
men Kaplansky. 

Committee on Application of Conventions 
and Resolutions — W. A. Campbell; J. A. 
Johnstone, substitute. 

Committee on Fishermen — W. A. Camp- 
bell, J. A. Johnstone, F. W. Purdy, Emile 
Hebert. 

Committee on Radiation — W. A. Camp- 
bell, F. W. Purdy, Clifford Priestley. 

Committee on Non-Manual Workers — 
W. A. Campbell, Lloyd Hemsworth, David 
Archer. 

Committee on Collaboration — W. A. 
Campbell, E. F. L. Henry, Lloyd Hems- 
worth, Stanley Knowles. 



Text of Convention Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment as Fishermen 



The General Conference of the International 
Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
third Session on 3 June 1959, and 

Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to the minimum age 



for admission to employment as fishermen, 
which is included in the fifth item on the 
agenda of the session, and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of an international Con- 
vention, 
adopts this nineteenth day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine the 



820 



following Convention, which may be cited 
as the Minimum Age (Fishermen) Convention, 
1959: 

Article 1 

1. For the purpose of this Convention the 
term "fishing vessel" includes all ships and 
boats, of any nature whatsoever, whether pub- 
licly or privately owned, which are engaged 
in maritime fishing in salt waters. 

2. This Convention shall not apply to fishing 
in ports and harbours or in estuaries of rivers, 
or to individuals fishing for sport or recreation. 

Article 2 

1. Children under the age of fifteen years 
shall not be employed or work on fishing 
vessels. 

2. Provided that such children may occa- 
sionally take part in the activities on board 
fishing vessels during school holidays, subject 
to the conditions that the activities in which 
they are engaged — 

(a) are not harmful to their health or normal 
development; 

(b) are not such as to prejudice their attend- 
ance at school; and 

(c) are not intended for commercial profit. 

3. Provided further that national laws or 
regulations may provide for the issue in respect 
of children of not less than fourteen years of 
age of certificates permitting them to be em- 
ployed in cases in which an educational or other 
appropriate authority designated by such laws 
or regulations is satisfied, after having due 
regard to the health and physical condition of 
the child and to the prospective as well as to 
the immediate benefit to the child of the em- 
ployment proposed, that such employment will 
be beneficial to the child. 

Article 3 

Young persons under the age of of eighteen 
years shall not be employed or work on coal- 
burning fishing vessels as trimmers or stokers. 

Article 4 

The provisions of Articles 2 and 3 shall not 
apply to work done by children on schools 
ships or training ships, provided that such 
work is approved and supervised by public 
authority. 

Article 5 

The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director-General 
of the International Labour Office for regis- 
tration. 

Article 6 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International 
Labour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of 
two Members have been registered with the 
Director-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months 
after the date on which its ratification has 
been registered. 

Article 7 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce if after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the 



Convention first comes into force, by an act 
communicated to the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office for registration. 
Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is regis- 
tered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention and which does not, within the 
year following the expiration of the period of 
ten years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 
exercise the right of denunciation provided for 
in this Article, will be bound for another 
period of ten years and, thereafter, may 
denounce this Convention at the expiration of 
each period of ten years under the terms pro- 
vided for in this Article. 

Article 8 

1. The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall notify all Members of the 
International Labour Organization of the 
registration of all ratifications and denuncia- 
tions communicated to him by the Members 
of the Organization. 

2. When notifying the Members of the 
Organization of the registration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Director- 
General shall draw the attention of the Mem- 
bers of the Organization to the date upon 
which the Convention will come into force. 

Article 9 

The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations for regis- 
tration in accordance with Article 102 of the 
Charter of the United Nations full particulars 
of all ratifications and acts of denunciation 
registered by him in accordance with the 
provisions of the preceding Articles. 

Article 10 

At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International Labour 
Office shall present to the General Conference 
a report on the working of this Convention 
and shall examine the desirability of placing 
on the agenda of the Conference the question 
of its revision in whole or in part. 

Article 11 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new Con- 
vention revising this Convention in whole or 
in part, then, unless the new Convention other- 
wise provides, 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure involve 
the immediate denunciation of this Con- 
vention notwithstanding the provisions of 
Article 7 above, if and when the new 
revising Convention shall have come into 
force; 

(b) as from the date when the new revising 
Convention comes into force this Conven- 
tion shall cease to be open to ratification 
by the Members. 

2. This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for those 
Members which have ratified it but have not 
ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 12 
The English and French versions of the text 
of this Convention are equally authoritative. 

821 



Text of Convention Concerning the Medical Examination of Fishermen 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
third Session on 3 June 1959, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to the medical exam- 
ination of fishermen, which is included in 
the fifth item on the agenda of the session, 
and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of an international Conven- 
tion, 
adopts this nineteenth day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine the 
following Convention, which may be cited as 
the Medical Examination (Fishermen) Con- 
vention, 1959: 

Article 1 
1. For the purpose of this Convention the 
term "fishing vessel" includes all ships and 
boats, of any nature whatsoever, whether pub- 
licly or privately owned, which are engaged in 
maritime fishing in salt waters. 

2. The competent authority may, after con- 
sultation with the fishingboat owners' and fisher- 
men's organizations concerned, where such 
exist, grant exemptions from the application of 
the provisions of this Convention in respect 
of vessels which do not normally remain at 
sea for periods of more than three days. 

3. This Convention shall not apply to fishing 
in ports and harbours or in estuaries of rivers, 
or to individuals fishing for sport or recreation. 

Article 2 
No person shall be engaged for employment 
in any capacity on a fishing vessel unless he 
produces a certificate attesting to his fitness 
for the work for which he is to be employed 
at sea signed by a medical practitioner who 
shall be approved by the competent authority. 

Article 3 

1. The competent authority shall, after con- 
sultation with the fishingboat owners' and 
fishermen's organizations concerned, where such 
exist, prescribe the nature of the medical 
examination to be made and the particulars 
to be included in the medical certificate. 

2. When prescribing the nature of the exam- 
ination, due regard shall be had to the age 
of the person to be examined and the nature 
of the duties to be performed. 

3. In particular the medical certificate shall 
attest that the person is not suffering from any 
disease likely to be aggravated by, or to render 
him unfit for, service at sea or likely to 
endanger the health of other persons on board. 

Article 4 

1. In the case of young persons of less than 
twenty-one years of age, the medical certificate 
shall remain in force for a period not exceed- 
ing one year from the date on which it was 
granted. 

2. In the case of persons who have attained 
the age of twenty-one years, the competent 
authority shall determine the period for which 
the medical certificate shall remain in force. 

3. If the period of validity of a certificate 
expires in the course of a voyage the certificate 
shall continue in force until the end of that 
voyage. 

822 



Article 5 

Arrangements shall be made to enable a 
person who, after examination, has been refused 
a certificate to apply for a further examination 
by a medical referee or referees who shall be 
independent of any fishing-boat owner or of 
any organization of fishing-boat owners or 
fishermen. 

Article 6 

The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director-General 
of the International Labour Office for regis- 
tration. 

Article 7 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International 
Labour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of two 
Members have been registered with the Direc- 
tor-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months after 
the date on which its ratification has been 
registered. 

Article 8 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce it after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the 
Convention first comes into force, by an act 
communicated to the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office for registration. 
Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is regis- 
tered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention and which does not, within the year 
following the expiration of the period of ten 
years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 
exercise the right of denunciation provided for 
in this Article, will be bound for another 
period of ten years and, thereafter, may 
denounce this Convention at the expiration of 
each period of ten years under the terms 
provided for in this Article. 

Article 9 

1. The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall notify all Members of the 
International Labour Organization of the regis- 
tration of all ratifications and denunciations 
communicated to him by the Members of the 
Organization. 

2. When notifying the Members of the 
Organization of the geristration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Director- 
General shall draw the attention of the Mem- 
bers of the Organization to the date upon 
which the Convention will come into force. 

Article 10 

The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations for regis- 
tration in accordance with Article 102 of the 
Charter of the United Nations full particulars 
of all ratifications and acts of denunciation 
registered by him in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the preceding Articles. 









Article 11 

At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office shall present to the General Con- 
ference a report on the working of this 
Convention and shall examine the desirability 
of placing on the agenda of the Conference 
the question of its revision in whole or in 
part. 

Article 12 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new Con- 
vention revising this Convention in whole or 
in part, then, unless the new Convention other- 
wise provides, 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure involve 



the immediate denunciation of this Con- 
vention, notwithstanding the provisions of 
Article 8 above, if and when the new 
revising Convention shall have come into 
force; 
(b) as from the date when the new revising 
Convention comes into force this Conven- 
tion shall cease to be open to ratification 
by the Members. 

2. This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for 
those Members which have ratified it but have 
not ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 13 
The English and French versions of the text 
of this Convention are equally authoritative. 



Text of Convention Concerning Fishermen's Articles of Agreement 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
third Session on 3 June 1959, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to fishermen's arti- 
cles of agreement, which is included in 
the fifth item on the agenda of the session, 
and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of an international Con- 
vention, 
adopts this nineteenth day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine the 
following Convention, which may be cited as 
the Fishermen's Articles of Agreement Con- 
vention, 1959: 

Article 1 

1. For the purpose of this Convention, the 
term "fishing vessel" includes all registered or 
documented ships and boats of any nature 
whatsoever, whether publicly or privately 
owned, which are engaged in maritime fishing 
in salt waters. 

2. The competent authority may exempt 
from the application of the provisions of this 
Convention fishing vessels of a type and size 
determined after consultation with the fishing- 
boat owners' and fishermen's organizations con- 
cerned, where such exist. 

3. The competent authority may, if satisfied 
that the matters dealt with in this Convention 
are adequately regulated by collective agree- 
ments between fishing-boat owners or fishing- 
boat owners' organizations, and fishermen's 
organizations, exempt from the provisions of 
the Convention concerning individual agree- 
ments owners and fishermen covered by such 
collective agreements. 

Article 2 
For the purpose of this Convention, the term 
"fisherman" includes every person employed or 
engaged in any capacity on board any fishing 
vessel and entered on the ship's articles. It 
excludes pilots, cadets and duly indentured 
apprentices, naval ratings, and other persons 
in the permanent service of a government. 

Article 3 

1. Articles of agreement shall be signed both 
by the owner of the fishing vessel or his 
authorized representative and by the fisherman. 



Reasonable facilities to examine the articles of 
agreement before they are signed shall be 
given to the fisherman and, as the case may 
be, also to his adviser. 

2. The fisherman shall sign the agreement 
under conditions which shall be prescribed by 
national law in order to ensure adequate super- 
vision by the competent public authority. 

3. The foregoing provisions shall be deemed 
to have been fulfilled if the competent author- 
ity certifies that the provisions of the agree- 
ment have been laid before it in writing and 
have been confirmed both by the owner of 
the fishing vessel or his authorized representa- 
tive and by the fisherman. 

4. National law shall make adequate pro- 
vision to ensure that the fisherman has under- 
stood the agreement. 

5. The agreement shall not contain anything 
which is contrary to the provisions of national 
law. 

6. National law shall prescribe such further 
formalities and safeguards in respect of the 
completion of the agreement as may be con- 
sidered necessary for the protection of the 
interests of the owner of the fishing vessel 
and of the fisherman. 

Article 4 

1. Adequate measures shall be taken in 
accordance with national law for ensuring that 
the agreement shall not contain any stipulation 
by which the parties purport to contract in 
advance to depart from the ordinary rules as 
to jurisdiction over the agreement. 

2. This Article shall not be interpreted as 
excluding a reference to arbitration. 

Article 5 

A record of employment shall be maintained 
for every fisherman by or in a manner pre- 
scribed by the competent authority. At the 
end of each voyage or venture a record of 
service in regard to that voyage or venture shall 
be available to the fisherman concerned or 
entered in his service book. 

Article 6 

1. The agreement may be made either for a 
definite period or for a voyage or, if per- 
mitted by national law, for an indefinite period. 

2. The agreement shall state clearly the 
respective rights and obligations of each of 
the parties. 



823 



3. It shall contain the following particulars, 
except in so far as the inclusion of one or 
more of them is rendered unnecessary by the 
fact that the matter is regulated in another 
manner by national laws or regulations: 

(a) the surname and other names of the fisher- 
man, the date of his birth or his age, and 
his birthplace; 

(b) the place at which and date on which the 
agreement was completed; 

(c) the name of the fishing vessel or vessels 
on board which the fisherman undertakes 
to serve; 

(d) the voyage or voyages to be undertaken, 
if this can be determined at the time of 
making the agreement; 

(e) the capacity in which the fisherman is to 
be employed; 

(/) if possible, the place at which and date on 
which the fisherman is required to report 
on board for service; 
(g) the scale of provisions to be supplied to 
the fisherman, unless some alternative 
system is provided for by national law; 
(h) the amount of his wages, or the amount 
of his share and the method of calculating 
such share if he is to be remunerated on 
a share basis, or the amount of his wage 
and share and the method of calculating 
the latter if he is to be remunerated on 
a combined basis, and any agreed mini- 
mum wage; 
(i) the termination of the agreement and the 
conditions thereof, that is to say — 
(i) if the agreement has been made for a 
definite period, the date fixed for its 
expiry; 
(ii) if the agreement has been made for 
a voyage, the port of destination and 
the time which has to expire after 
arrival before the fisherman shall be 
discharged; 
(iii) if the agreement has been made for 
an indefinite period, the conditions 
which shall entitle either party to 
rescind it, as well as the required 
period of notice for rescission: Pro- 
vided that such period shall not be 
less for the owner of the fishing 
vessel than for the fisherman; 
(;) any other particulars which national law 
may require. 

Article 7 

If national law provides that a list of crew 
shall be carried on board the agreement shall 
either be recorded in or annexed to the list 
of crew. 

Article 8 

In order that the fisherman may satisfy him- 
self as to the nature and extent of his rights 
and obligations the competent authority shall 
lay down the measures to be taken to enable 
clear information to be obtained on board as 
to the conditions of employment. 

Article 9 
An agreement entered into for a voyage, for 
a definite period, or for an indefinite period, 
shall be duly terminated by — 

(a) mutual consent of the parties; 

(b) death of the fisherman; 

(c) loss or total unseaworthiness of the fishing 
vessel; 

(d) any other cause that may be provided for 
in national law. 



Article 10 

National law, collective agreements or indiv- 
idual agreements shall determine the circum- 
stances in which the owner or skipper may 
immediately discharge a fisherman. 

Article 11 

National law, collective agreements or indiv- 
idual agreements shall also determine the 
circumstances in which the fisherman may 
demand his immediate discharge. 

Article 12 

Except as otherwise provided therein, effect 
may be given to the provisions of this Con- 
vention by national law or by collective agree- 
ments. 

Article 13 

The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director-General 
of the International Labour Office for regis- 
tration. 

Article 14 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International 
Labour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of 
two Members have been registered with the 
Director-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months after 
the date on which its ratification has been 
registered. 

Article 15 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce it after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the Con- 
vention first comes into force, by an act 
communicated to the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office for registration. 
Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is regis- 
tered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention and which does not, within the 
year following the expiration of the period of 
ten years mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, exercise the right of denunciation pro- 
vided for in this Article, will be bound for 
another period of ten years and, thereafter, 
may denounce this Convention at the expiration 
of each period of ten years under the terms 
provided for in this Article. 

Article 16 

1. The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall notify all Members of the 
International Labour Organization of the regis- 
tration of all ratifications and denunciations 
communicated to him by the Members of the 
Organization. 

2. When notifying the Members of the 
Organization of the registration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Director- 
General shall draw the attention of the Mem- 
bers of the Organization to the date upon which 
the Convention will come into force. 






824 



Article 17 

The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations for regis- 
tration in accordance with Article 102 of the 
Charter of the United Nations full particulars 
of all ratifications and acts of denunciation 
registered by him in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the preceding Articles. 

Article 18 

At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office shall present to the General Con- 
ference a report on the working of this 
Convention and shall examine the desirability 
of placing on the agenda of the Conference 
the question of its revision in whole or in 
part. 

Article 19 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new Con- 
vention revising this Convention in whole or 



in part, then, unless the new Convention other- 
wise provides, 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure involve 
the immediate denunciation of this Con- 
vention, notwithstanding the provisions of 
Article 15 above, if and when the new 
revising Convention shall have come into 
force; 

(b) as from the date when the new revising 
Convention comes into force this Con- 
vention shall cease to be open to ratifica- 
tion by the Members. 

2. This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for 
those Members which have ratified it but have 
not ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 20 
The English and French versions of the text 
of this Convention are equally authoritative. 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Occupational Health Services in Places of Employment 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
third Session on 3 June 1959, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to the organization 
of occupational health services in places 
of employment, which is the fourth item 
on the agenda of the session, and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of a Recommendation, 
adopts this nineteenth day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine the 
following Recommendation, which may be 
cited as the Occupational Health Services 
Recommendation, 1959: 

/. Definition 

1. For the purpose of this Recommendation 
the expression "occupational health service" 
means a service established in or near a place 
of employment for the purposes of — 

(a) protecting the workers against any health 
hazard which may arise out of their work 
or the conditions in which it is carried on; 

(b) contributing towards the workers' physical 
and mental adjustment, in particular by 
the adaptation of the work to the workers 
and their assignment to jobs for which 
they are suited; and 

(c) contributing to the establishment and main- 
tenance of the highest possible degree of 
physical and mental well-being of the 
workers. 

//. Methods of Implementation 

2. Having regard to the diversity of national 
circumstances and practices, occupational health 
services may be provided, as conditions re- 
quire — 

(a) by virtue of laws or regulations; 

(b) by virtue of collective agreement or as 
otherwise agreed upon by the employers 
and workers concerned; or 

(c) in any other manner approved by the 
competent authority after consultation with 
employers' and workers' organizations. 



///. Organization 

3. Depending on the circumstances and the 
applicable standards, ocupational health serv- 
ices — 

(a) should either be organized by the under- 
takings themselves or be attached to an 
outside body; 

(b) should be organized — 

(i) as a separate service within a single 

undertaking; or 
(ii) as a service common to a number of 

undertakings. 

4. In order to extend occupational health 
facilities to all workers, occupational health 
services should be set up for industrial, non- 
industrial and agricultural undertakings and for 
public services: Provided that where occupa- 
tional health services cannot immediately be 
set up for all undertakings, such services should 
be established in the first instance — 

(a) for undertakings where the health risks 
appear greatest; 

(b) for undertakings where the workers are 
exposed to special health hazards; 

(c) for undertakings which employ more than 
a prescribed minimum number of workers. 

5. Where the organization of an occupa- 
tional health service, as defined in this Recom- 
mendation, is not for the time being practicable 
for geographical or other reasons defined by 
national laws or regulations, the undertaking 
should make arrangements with a physician or 
a local medical service for — 

(a) administering emergency treatment; 

(b) carrying out medical examinations pre- 
scribed by national laws or regulations; 
and 

(c) exercising surveillance over hygiene condi- 
tions in the undertaking. 

IV. Functions 

6. The role of occupational health services 
should be essentially preventive. 

7. Occupational health services should not 
be required to verify the justification of absence 
on grounds of sickness; they should not be 
precluded from ascertaining the conditions 



825 



which may have led to a worker's absence on 
sick leave and obtaining information about the 
progress of the worker's illness, so that they 
will be better able to evaluate their preventive 
program, discover occupational hazards, and 
recommend the suitable placement of workers 
for rehabilitation purposes. 

8. The functions of occupational health 
services should be progressively developed, in 
accordance with the circumstances and having 
regard to the extent to which one or more of 
these functions are adequately discharged in 
accordance with national law or practice by 
other appropriate services, so that they will 
include in particular the following: 

(a) surveillance within the undertakings of all 
factors which may effect the health of the 
workers and advice in this respect to 
management and to workers or their 
representatives in the undertaking; 

(b) job analysis or participation therein in the 
light of hygienic, physiological and psycho- 
logical considerations and advice to man- 
agement and workers on the best possible 
adaptation of the job to the worker having 
regard to these considerations; 

(c) participation, with the other appropriate 
departments and bodies in the undertaking, 
in the prevention of accidents and occupa- 
tional diseases and in the supervision of 
personal protective equipment and of its 
use, and advice to management and work- 
ers in this respect; 

(d) surveillance of the hygiene of sanitary 
installations and all other facilities for the 
welfare of the workers of the undertaking, 
such as kitchens, canteens, day nurseries 
and rest homes and, as necessary, surveil- 
lance of any dietetic arrangements made 
for the workers; 

(e) pre-employment, periodic and special medi- 
cal examinations — including, where neces- 
sary, biological and radiological examina- 
tions — prescribed by national laws or regu- 
lations, or by agreements between the 
parties or organizations concerned, or con- 
sidered advisable for preventive purposes 
by the industrial physician; such examina- 
tions should ensure particular surveillance 
over certain classes of workers, such as 
women, young persons, workers exposed 
to special risks and handicapped persons; 

(/) surveillance of the adaptation of jobs to 
workers, in particular handicapped workers, 
in accordance with their physical abilities, 
participation in the rehabilitation and re- 
training of such workers and advice in this 
respect; 

(g) advice to management and workers on the 
occasion of the placing or reassignment of 
workers; 

(h) advice to individual workers at their 
request regarding any disorders that may 
occur or be aggravated in the course of 
work; 

(/) emergency treatment in case of accident 
or indisposition, and also, in certain cir- 
cumstances and in agreement with those 
concerned (including the worker's own 
physician), ambulatory treatment of work- 
ers who have not been absent from work 
or who have returned after absence; 

(/) initial and regular subsequent training of 
first-aid personnel, and supervision and 
maintenance of first-aid equipment in 
co-operation, where appropriate, with other 
departments and bodies concerned; 



(/c) education of the personnel of the under- 
taking in health and hygiene; 

(/) compilation and periodic review of statis- 
tics concerning health conditions in the 
undertaking; 

(m) research in occupational health or partici- 
pation in such research in association with 
specialized services or institutions. 

9. Where one or more of the functions 
enumerated in the preceding Paragraph are 
carried out, in accordance with national law 
or practice, by appropriate services other than 
occupational health services, these should pro- 
vide the industrial physician with any relevant 
information he may wish to request. 

10. Occupational health services should main- 
tain close contact with the other departments 
and bodies in the undertaking concerned with 
questions of the workers' health, safety or 
welfare, and particularly the welfare depart- 
ment, the safety department, the personnel 
department, the trade union organs in the 
undertaking, safety and health committees and 
any other committee or any person in the 
undertaking dealing with health or welfare 
questions. 

11. Occupational health services should also 
maintain relations with external services and 
bodies dealing with questions of the health, 
safety, retraining, rehabilitation, reassignment 
and welfare of the workers. 

12. (1) Occupational health services should 
begin a confidential personal medical file at 
the time of a worker's pre-employment exam- 
ination or first visit to the service and should 
keep the file up to date at each succeeding 
examination or visit. 

(2) Occupational health services should 
maintain appropriate records, so that they can 
provide any necessary information concerning 
the work of the service and the general state 
of health of the workers, subject to the pro- 
visions of Paragraph 21. 

V. Personnel and Equipment 

13. Every occupational health service should 
be placed under the direction of a physician 
who will be directly responsible for the working 
of the service either to the management or to 
the body to which the service is subordinated. 

14. The physicians in occupational health 
services should not have under their care 
a greater number of workers than they can 
adequately supervise, due account being taken 
of the particular problems that may be asso- 
ciated with the type and nature of the industry 
concerned. 

15. The physicians in occupational health 
services should enjoy full professional and 
moral independence of both the employer and 
the workers. In order to safeguard this 
independence national laws or regulations, or 
agreements between the parties or organizations 
concerned, should lay down the terms and 
conditions of employment of industrial phy- 
sicians and, in particular, the conditions con- 
cerning their appointment and the termination 
of their employment. 

16. The physician in charge of an occupa- 
tional health service should have received, as 
far as possible, special training in occupational 
health, or at least should be familiar with 
industrial hygiene, special emergency treatment 
and occupational pathology, as well as with 
the laws and regulations governing the various 
duties of the service. The physician should be 
given the opportunity to improve his knowledge 
in these fields. 






826 



17. The nursing staff attached to occupa- 
tional health services should possess qualifica- 
tions according to the standards prescribed by 
the competent body. 

18. The first-aid personnel should — 

(a) consist exclusively of suitably qualified 
persons; and 

(b) be readily available during working hours. 

19. The premises and equipment of occupa- 
tional health services should conform to the 
standards prescribed by the competent body. 

VI. Necessary Conditions for Performance of 
Functions 

20. In order that they may efficiently perform 
their functions, occupational health services 
should — 

(a) have free access to all work places and 
to the ancillary installations of the under- 
taking; 

(b) inspect the work places at appropriate 
intervals in co-operation, where necessary, 
with other services of the undertaking; 

(c) have access to information concerning the 
processes, performance standards and sub- 
stances used or the use of which is con- 
templated; 

(d) be authorized to undertake, or to request 
that approved technical bodies undertake — 

(i) surveys and investigations on poten- 
tial occupational health hazards, for 
example by the sampling and analysis 
of the atmosphere of work places, of 
the products and substances used, or 
of any other material suspected of 
being harmful; 



(ii) the assessment of harmful physical 
agents 
(e) be authorized to request the competent 
authorities to ensure compliance with 
occupational health and safety standards. 

21. All persons attached to occupational 
health services should be required to observe 
professional secrecy as regards both medical 
and technical information which may come to 
their knowledge in the exercise of the func- 
tions and activities enumerated above, subject 
to such exceptions as may be provided by 
national laws or regulations. 

VII. General Provisions 

22. All workers and their organizations 
should co-operate fully in attaining the objec- 
tives of occupational health services. 

23. The services provided by ocupational 
health services in pursuance of this Recom- 
mendation should not involve the workers in 
any expense. 

24. Where national laws or regulations do 
not provide otherwise, and in the absence of 
agreement between the parties concerned the 
expense of the organization and operation of 
occupational health services should be borne 
by the employer. 

25. National laws or regulations should 
specify the authority responsible for supervis- 
ing the organization and operation of occupa- 
tional health services. They may, in appropriate 
cases, confer on recognized technical bodies 
the role of advisers in this field. 



Canada Ratifies Convention on Abolition of Forced Labour 



The International Labour Office on July 
15 registered the ratification by Canada of 
the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention 
of 1957 (No. 105). This ratification brings 
to 19 the number of International Labour 
Conventions ratified by Canada. 

Under the terms of the Convention, 
ratifying countries undertake to suppress 
and not to make use of any form of forced 
labour as: 

— a means of political coercion or educa- 
tion or as a punishment for holding or 
expressing political views or views ideo- 
logically opposed to the established political, 
social or economic system; 



— a method of mobilizing and using 
labour for purposes of economic develop- 
ment; 

— a means of labour discipline; 

— a punishment for having participated 
in strikes; 

— a means of racial, social, national or 
religious discrimination. 

This Convention, adopted only two years 
ago by the International Labour Confer- 
ence, has already been ratified by 27 coun- 
tries. The text was published in the August 
1957 Labour Gazette, page 962. 



142nd Session on ILO Governing Body 



Ernst Michanek of Sweden, Secretary of 
State in the Ministry of Social Affairs, 
Labour and Housing in his country, was 
elected chairman of the Governing Body of 
the International Labour Organization at 
the Body's 142nd Session, held after the 
closing of the 43rd International Labour 
Conference. 



Mr. Michanek, who will serve for a 
period of one year, replaces Julio Barboza- 
Carneiro, Ambassador of Brazil. Sir Alfred 
Roberts of Great Britain was re-elected 
chairman of the workers' group, and Pierre 
Waline of France, chairman of the em- 
ployers' group. 

(Continued on page 838) 



827 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Labour-management teamwork at Plant 
31A of the American Can Company of 
Canada in Montreal has triumphed again. 
For the third year in a row, the plant's 600 
employees have added another 1,000,000 
man-hours to an already enviable safety 
record. 

At a recent plant safety rally, held to 
celebrate crossing the 3,000,000-hour mark 
without a disabling injury, representatives 
from the Labour-Management Co-opera- 
tion Service of the Department of Labour 
joined company executives, union officers 
and safety association representatives to 
congratulate management and employees on 
their outstanding achievement. 

The personnel of Plant 31A have estab- 
lished a world record among the 65 
branches of the American Can Company 
scattered throughout Canada, the United 
States and other countries. (Their closest 
competitor, a plant located in Los Angeles, 
California, managed to reach 2,680,000 
man-hours before an accident occurred.) 

By May 21, the Montreal plant had 
pushed its safety record to 3,600,000 hours. 
Asked how he felt about the possibility of 
this record's climbing even higher, Stanley 
Jacob, Supervisor of Personnel, said con- 
fidently: "We will reach 4,000,000 hours 
by the end of the year." 

Receiving awards on behalf of the em- 
ployees were O. H. Richard, President of 
the Can Workers' Union (CLC), and Lionel 
Cormier, chief steward, Amalgamated 
Lithographers of America. 

The impressive drop in the accident fre- 
quency rate at the Winnipeg division of 
Labatt's (Manitoba) Brewery Limited since 
1955 is the result of an intensive safety 
program headed by members of the Labour- 
Management Safety Committee, according 
to W. A. Bridger, Personnel Manager. 

In 1955 the plant's accident frequency 
rate reached a peak of 39.92. By the end 
of 1958 it had declined to 9.36. 

"Our campaign started back in the dark 
days of that 39.92 accident frequency rate," 
said Mr. Bridger. "We got together and 
did a great deal of serious thinking about 
safety. We formed a Safety Committee, 
held our first meeting on May 31, 1955, 
planned our program and put it into action. 
As for its effectiveness, nothing can speak 
louder than the results we obtained." 



The bargaining agent for employees at 
Labatt's, the International Union of United 
Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and 
Distillery Workers of America (CLC), 
fully supports management in the joint 
drive to promote safety throughout the 
plant. * * * 

The lowest accident rate in the nine- 
year history of the B.C. Forest Industries' 
Safety Week campaigns was recorded dur- 
ing this year's May 4th to 9th drive, ac- 
cording to Robert F. Whiskin, Safety Week 
Chairman. 

Sponsors of the campaign, the Joint 
Forest Products Safety Committee of Van- 
couver, report that only 22 accidents 
occurred, compared with a weekly average 
last year of 42. 

Commenting on the example being set 
by the forest industry of British Columbia, 
Joe Morris, President, District 1, Interna- 
tional Woodworkers of America, said: 
"This is an achievement in which we may 
justly take pride, not because we engage in 
competition with others, but because we 
know that by these efforts we have shielded 
many of our homes from grim tragedy." 
* * * 

Organized by the Calgary Parks Depart- 
ment's Labour-Management Production 
Committee, a mammoth jamboree was held 
recently to mark the completion of a safety 
campaign in which the Department's 
roughly 250 employees amassed a total of 
302,818 working hours without a lost-time 
accident. The contest ran from May 1 to 
October 31, 1958, and was so successful 
that only one crew in the whole Depart- 
ment suffered a lost-time injury during the 
period. 

Top award — a trophy and gold certificate 
— went to employees of the Department's 
construction division for their total of 
106,637 hours without a lost-time injury. 
Stanley H. Daines, division head, accepted 
the prize from A. Munro, Parks Super- 
intendent. 

LMPCs are also operating in Calgary's 
transit system and traffic engineering depart- 
ments, and Employee-Management Com- 
mittees in the electric light and garage 
departments — convincing evidence of the 
emphasis placed on joint consultation by 
the city's management and employees. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Committees is encouraged and assisted by 
the Labour-Management Co-operation Serv- 
ice, Industrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field representa- 
tives located in key industrial centres, who 
are available to help both managements and 
trade unions, the Service provides various 
aids in the form of booklets, posters and 
films. 



828 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for two days during June. The Board issued 
six certificates designating bargaining agents, 
ordered two representation votes and rejected 
three applications for certification. During 
the month the Board received seven appli- 
cations for certification and one application 
for provision for the final settlement of 
differences concerning the meaning or viola- 
tion of a collective agreement. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Employees' 
Association, on behalf of a unit of em- 
ployees of the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool 
employed in operating the elevator at its 
Vegetable Oil Division in Saskatoon, Sask. 
(L.G., April, p. 388). 

2. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 512, on 
behalf of a unit of longshoremen employed 
by the Canadian Stevedoring Company Lim- 
ited on or about the Centennial Pier, Van- 
couver (L.G., May, p. 474). 

3. General Drivers Local Union 989 of 
the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, em- 
ployed in its plant laundry at Chalk River 
and in its town hospital laundry at Deep 
River (L.G., July, p. 717). 

4. Canadian Airlines Link Instructors 
Association, on behalf of a unit of link 
trainer instructors employed by Trans- 
Canada Air Lines at Montreal, Toronto, 
Winnipeg and Vancouver (L.G., June, 
p. 611). 

5. International Union, United Automo- 
bile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement 
Workers of America, on behalf of a unit 
of clerical employees of the British Over- 
seas Airways Corporation employed in the 
metropolitan district of Toronto (L.G., 
June, p. 612). 

6. United Steel workers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of office and technical 
employees of Pronto Uranium Mines Lim- 



ited employed at the company's mine 
properties in the District of Algoma, Ont. 
(L.G., July, p. 718). 

Representation Votes Ordered 

1. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, applicant, 
Foundation Maritime Limited, Halifax, 
N.S., respondent, and Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union of North America, Canadian 
District, intervener (L.G., May, p. 474). 
The Board directed that only the name of 
the applicant be on the ballot. The vote 
affected a unit of unlicensed employees 
employed aboard tugs owned and operated 
by the company (Returning Officer: D. T. 
Cochrane) (see also applications rejected, 
below). 

2. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, applicant, 
The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority, re- 
spondent, Dominion Canals Employees' 
Association, intervener, and Seafarers' In- 
ternational Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District, intervener (L.G., June, p. 
611). The Board directed that only the 
name of the applicant be on the ballot. The 
vote affected a system-wide unit of operat- 
ing and maintenance employees of the 
respondent (Returning Officer: B. H. Har- 
die) (see also application rejected, below). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant, Canadian Dyno Mines Limited, Ban- 
croft, Ont., respondent, and Canadian Dyno 
Employees' Association, intervener (L.G., 
May, p. 472). The application was rejected 
for the reason that it was not supported 
by a majority of the employees eligible to 
cast ballots in the representation vote con- 
ducted by the Board. 



This section covers proceedings under the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, involving the administrative serv- 
ices of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department. 



829 



2. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, appli- 
cant, Foundation Maritime Limited, Halifax, 
N.S., respondent, and Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway, Transport and General 
Workers, intervener (unlicensed personnel) 
(L.G., July, p. 719). The application was 
rejected for the reason that it was not 
supported by a majority of the employees 
in the unit of sea-going personnel found 
appropriate by the Board {see also repre- 
sentation votes ordered, above). 

3. Dominion Canals Employees' Associa- 
tion and Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, joint 
applicants, The St. Lawrence Seaway Auth- 
ority, respondent, and Canadian Brotherhood 
of Railway, Transport and General Workers, 
intervener (L.G., July, p. 719). The appli- 
cation was rejected for the reason that 
the applicants did not have a majority of 
members in good standing in the unit deter- 
mined by the Board as appropriate for 



collective bargaining {see also representa- 
tion votes ordered, above). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. United Steelworkers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of production employees 
of Consolidated Denison Mines Limited, 
Spragge, Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. B. 
Whitfield). 

2. United Steelworkers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of longshoremen employed 
by H. J. O'Connell Limited at Port Cartier, 
Que. (Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

3. International Brotherhood of Teams- 
ters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local Union 880, on behalf 
of a unit of truck drivers employed by 
J. Sherman & Sons, Kingsville and Leaming- 
ton, Ont. (Investigating Officer: T. B. 
McRae). 

4. National Association of Marine En- 
gineers of Canada, on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers employed by Shell Cana- 
dian Tankers, Limited, aboard the MV 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for applications for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of four officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the provinces of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; four officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; four 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



830 



Tyee Shell operating on the West Coast 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

5. International Association of Bridge, 
Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, 
Local Union No. 720, on behalf of a unit 
of structural steel erectors and fabricators 
employed by the Dominion Bridge Company 
Limited at Inuvik and other locations in 
the Northwest Territories (Investigating 
Officer: D. A. MacKenzie). 

6. International Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 796, on behalf of a unit 
of hoistmen employed by Consolidated 
Denison Mines Limited, Spragge, Ont. 
(Investigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 



7. Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen, on behalf of a system-wide 
unit of locomotive engineers employed by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, 
including the Quebec Central Railway Com- 
pany (Investigating Officers: B. H. Hardie 
and G. A. Lane). 

Application under Section 19 of Act Received 

Application for a provision for the final 
settlement of differences concerning the 
meaning or violation of the collective'agree- 
ment affecting the Canadian National Rail- 
way Police Association, applicant, and the 
Canadian National Railways, respondent. 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June, the Minister of Labour 
appointed conciliation officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 

1. Radio Station CKVL Limited, Verdun, 
Que., and National Association of Broad- 
cast Employees and Technicians, Region No. 
6 (Conciliation Officer: Remi Duquette). 

2. M. Rawlinson Limited, Toronto, and 
Warehousemen and Miscellaneous Drivers' 
Union, Local 419, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

3. Eldorado Mining and Refining Lim- 
ited, Port Hope, and Local 13173, Region 
77, District 50, United Mine Workers of 
America (Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ains- 
borough). 

4. Commercial Cable Company Limited, 
SS John B. Mackay, and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Canadian 
District (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette). 

5. Trans-Canada Air Lines, Montreal, 
and International Association of Machinists, 
Lodges 714 and 1751 (Conciliation Officer: 
Remi Duquette). 

6. Consolidated Denison Mines Limited, 
Spragge, Ont., and United Steelworkers of 
America, Local 5815 (office and technical 
employees) (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough). 

7. Northspan Uranium Mines Limited, 
Elliot Lake, and United Steelworkers of 
America, Local 5816 (office and technical 
employees) (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough). 



8. Canadian Stevedoring Company Lim- 
ited, Vancouver, and International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 
Local 512 (Conciliation Officer: G. R. 
Currie). 

9. Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation 
Limited (Dominion Shipping Division) and 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (Conciliation 
Officer: Remi Duquette). 

10. The Ogilvie Flour Mills Co. Limited, 
Medicine Hat, and Local 511, United 
Packinghouse Workers of America (Con- 
ciliation Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

11. Maple Leaf Milling Co. Ltd., Medi- 
cine Hat, and Local 511, United Packing- 
house Workers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

12. Sabre Freight Lines Limited (Burnaby, 
B.C., Terminal) and Line Drivers, Ware- 
housemen, Pickup Men and Dockmen's 
Union, Local 605 (Conciliation Officer: 
G. R. Currie). 

13. Radio Station CHRC Limited, Que- 
bec, and National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, Region No. 6 
(Conciliation Officer: Remi Duquette). 

14. The Ogilvie Flour Mills Co. Limited, 
Edmonton, and Local 396, United Packing- 
house Workers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Northern Transportation Company 
Limited, Edmonton, and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District (Conciliation Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe) (L.G., July, p. 720). 



831 



2. J. C. Malone and Company Limited, 
Three Rivers Shipping Company Limited, 
and International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Local 1846 (Conciliation Officer: Remi 
Duquette) (L.G., July, p. 720). 

3. Poole Construction Company Limited, 
Whitehorse, Y.T., and International Union 
of Operating Engineers, Local 115 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., July, 
p. 720). 

4. Eldorado Mining and Refining Lim- 
ited (Metallurgical Research Laboratories) 
Ottawa, and Civil Service Association of 
Canada (Conciliation Officer: T. B. McRae) 
(L.G., July, p. 720). 

5. National Harbours Board, Port Col- 
borne, and Local 1015, International Union 
of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (Con- 
ciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) (L.G., 
June, p. 613). 

6. Canadian National Railways (Port of 
North Sydney) and International Long- 
shoremen's Association, Local 1259 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: H. R. Pettigrove) (L.G., 
June, p. 613). 

7. Boyles Bros. (Drilling) Alta. Limited, 
and Western District Diamond Driller's 
Union, International Union of Mine, Mill 
and Smelter Workers (Conciliation Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., June, p. 613). 

Dispute Lapsed 

Superior Cartage (Lakehead) Limited 
and Local 90, International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America (Conciliation Officer: 
J. S. Gunn) (L.G., Oct. 1958, p. 1141). 

Conciliation Officer's Appointment Terminated 

Lee's Transport Limited, Vancouver, and 
Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup Men 
and Dockmen's Union Local 605 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: G. R. Currie) (L.G., July, 
p. 720). Appointment of conciliation officer 
terminated because the company's opera- 
tions were not within federal jurisdiction. 

Conciliation Board Appointed 

H. W. Bacon Limited, Toronto, and 
Warehousemen and Miscellaneous Drivers' 



Union, Local 419, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America (L.G., May, 
p. 476). 

Conciliation Board Fully Constituted 

The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established in April to deal with a 
dispute between Canadian Pacific Air Lines, 
Limited, Vancouver, and Canadian Air Line 
Navigators' Association (L.G., June, p. 613) 
was fully constituted in June with the 
appointment of W. E. Philpott, Vancouver, 
as Chairman. Mr. Philpott was appointed 
by the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation from the other two mem- 
bers, C. George Robson and John N. Lyon, 
both of Vancouver, who were previously 
appointed on the nomination of the com- 
pany and union respectively. 

Board Report Received during Month 

Can-Met Explorations Limited, Spragge, 
Ont., and Quirke Lake-Can-Met Office 
Workers' Union, Local 1575, Canadian 
Labour Congress (L.G., March, p. 273). 
The text of the report is reproduced below. 

Settlement Reached following Board Procedure 

Can-Met Explorations Limited, Spragge, 
Ont., and Quirke Lake-Can-Met Office 
Workers' Union, Local 1575, Canadian 
Labour Congress (see above). 

Settlement after Strike after Board Report 

Polymer Corporation Limited, Sarnia, 
and Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers 
International Union, Local 16-14 (L.G., 
July, p. 721). Eric G. Taylor, Toronto, 
appointed Special Industrial Inquiry Com- 
mission on May 15. Settlement reached 
June 29. 

Strike Following Conciliation Board Procedure 

Northland Navigation Company Limited, 
Vancouver, and National Association of 
Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. (L.G., 
July, p. 721). Stoppage of work occurred 
June 26. 



832 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Can-Met Explorations Limited, Spragge, Ontario 

and 

Quirke Lake — Can- Met Office Workers' Union, 
Local 1575, Canadian Labour Congress 



Your Board of Conciliation, consisting 
of George Ferguson, QC, company nominee, 
and William Black, union nominee, with 
His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, as chair- 
man, was appointed on or about January 
29, 1959 and met with the parties in Toronto 
on February 19, 1959, and heard their full 
submissions with respect to the issues in 
dispute. The issues in dispute were as 
follows: 

1. "Between" Clause. 

2. Union Security. 

3. Stewards' Lost Time. 

4. Grievance Procedure. 

5. Decision of Arbitration Board. 

6. Discharge Procedure. 

7. Reinstatement. 

8. Leave of Absence with Pay. 

9. Maternity Leave. 

10. Safety and Health. 

11. Bulletin Boards. 

12. Handicapped Employees. 

13. Severance Allowance. 

14. Hours of Work. 

15. Overtime. 

16. Call out pay. 

17. Statutory Holidays. 

18. Vacations. 

19. Sick Pay. 

20. Cost of Living Camp Subsidy. 

21. Salaries. 

22. Duration of Agreement. 

The company was represented before the 
Board by R. D. Lindberg, mine manager; 
Peter Fancy, personnel manager; J. E. 
Houck and D. E. Houck, as consultants. 

The union was represented before the 
Board by Lyle Scott, president, Local 1575; 
Reg. Louthood, vice-president, Local 1575; 
Malcolm Winch, secretary-treasurer, Local 



1575; Fidele Aresenault, member of the 
Negotiating Committee; Don Taylor, inter- 
national representative and Harry Waisglass, 
Research Department, United Steelworkers 
of America. 

After the Board heard the full submis- 
sions of the parties with respect to the issues 
in dispute, there were conferences jointly 
with the parties and separately with the 
parties in an endeavour to conciliate the 
issues. 

After the conclusion of the hearings, the 
chairman made a first draft of a report, but 
since this is a first agreement, it was felt 
that there were many matters that the 
parties should bargain out themselves in 
direct negotiations. And the parties them- 
selves after the hearings of the Board had 
a series of meetings in direct negotiations 
and as a result thereof have arrived at a 
collective agreement settling all matters in 
dispute. 

Dated at Belleville, this 25th day of 
June, 1959. 

(Sgd.) J. C. Anderson, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) George Ferguson, 
Member. 

(Sgd.) Wm. H. Black, 

Member. 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the unanimous report of the Board 
of Conciliation and Investigation established 
to deal with a dispute between Quirke 
Lake-Can-Met Office Workers' Union, Local 
1575, Canadian Labour Congress, and Can- 
Met Explorations Limited, Spragge, Ont. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, Belle- 
ville, who was appointed by the Minister 
on the joint recommendation of the other 
two members, George Ferguson, QC and 
William H. Black, both of Toronto, nom- 
inees of the company and union respectively. 

The text of the report is reproduced here. 



833 



LABOUR LAW 



Legal Decision Affecting Labour 



Lacking jurisdiction, Manitoba County Court dismisses claim for overtime wages 



On June 2, 1959, Judge Molloy of the 
Manitoba County Court dismissed a claim 
for overtime wages because of lack of 
jurisdiction. 

Cyluck, the plaintiff, claimed from Canada 
Dry Limited overtime wages for the period 
from August 6 to November 2, 1957. 

Counsel for both parties agreed that, 
during the period in question, Cyluck had 
worked 238 overtime hours and that the sum 
of $440 was due to him for this overtime 
work, if he was entitled to recover anything. 

The Manitoba Employment Standards 
Act in Section 27 provides for overtime 
rates for a male employee working more 
than eight hours in a day or 48 hours in 
a week. Section 14(1) provides that a 
person contravening the provisions of the 
Act is liable, on summary conviction, to 
a fine or imprisonment or to both. Section 
16 (2) provides that if an employer fails 
to pay wages found to be due, the magis- 
trate may issue a warrant to levy the 
amount of the wages and costs by seizure 
and sale of the goods and chattels of the 
employer. In such situation the Wages 
Recovery Act applies as in the case of a 
warrant of distress issued under that Act. 

The company contended that these sec- 
tions provided an exclusive remedy for 
enforcement of obligations arising under 



Section 27 and therefore the court in ques- 
tion had no jurisdiction to entertain the 
action. 

In deciding the point, Judge Molloy 
applied the rule that when a statute creates 
a new obligation not previously existing 
at common law and a special remedy is 
provided, such obligations, as a general 
rule, can be enforced in no other manner, 
even though this may involve ousting the 
jurisdiction of a court of law. Overtime 
wages is a new obligation created by statute, 
and the statute provides a particular mode 
of enforcing the obligation. That being 
so, the claim could be enforced only by 
the mode set out in Section 16 (2), by 
issuance of a magistrate's warrant after a 
conviction. 

Since summary conviction charges must 
be laid within six months, the plaintiff could 
not recover his overtime wages in the way 
provided in the Act due to the lapse of 
time. The judge noted that an amendment 
in 1958 added Section 24A to the Employ- 
ment Standards Act. This section has the 
effect of preserving the usual civil remedies 
for recovery of wages due to employees 
under the minimum wage part of the Act. 
However, no similar section was enacted 
with reference to recovery of overtime 
wages. Cyluck v. Canada Dry Limited, 
(1959) 28 WWR, Part 10, p. 478. 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Comprehensive safety code for pipeline construction issued in Alberta. Order 
under Sask. Hours of Work Act sets 12-hour day for highway construction workers 



Safety regulations governing the construc- 
tion of pipelines have been issued by the 
Alberta Workmen's Compensation Board. 
These constitute a comprehensive safety 
code for all operations involved in laying 
a pipeline. 

In Saskatchewan, an order was issued 
under the Hours of Work Act setting a 
12-hour daily limit on hours of highway 
construction workers. 

834 



Alberta Workmen's Compensation Act 

New safety regulations governing the 
construction of pipelines, issued under the 
Workmen's Compensation Act, were gazetted 



This section, prepared by the Legislation 
Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial 
legislatures, regulations under these laws, 
and selected court decisions affecting labour. 






as Alberta Regulation 174/59 on May 30, 
1959, and came into effect on July 1, 1959. 
They apply to all employers and workmen 
concerned with pipeline construction, in- 
cluding the moving, operation and main- 
tenance of equipment used on such projects. 
The regulations prescribe specific rules 
to reduce the hazards peculiar to the various 
operations involved in pipeline construc- 
tion. These operations include the trans- 
portation of the workmen, materials and 
equipment; preparation of the right of way; 
"pipe stringing"; digging the trench; laying 
the pipe; cleaning, priming, "doping" and 
wrapping the pipe; lowering it into the ditch, 
and filling in the ditch. Safety rules are 
also prescribed for special operations such 
as boring a passage for the pipe and river 
crossing, and for yard work on pipe, main- 
tenance and repair of equipment, testing and 
other matters. 

Transportation of Workmen, Materials and 
Equipment 

The regulations provide that vehicles for 
transporting men must have adequate seat- 
ing, and that men must not sit on the floor 
with their legs over the side of the vehicle. 

Such vehicles must be equipped with 
adequate tool racks, and must not transport 
dangerous equipment within the body of 
the vehicle, or inflammable material within 
the crew compartment. 

Workmen are forbidden to ride on im- 
proper locations on vehicles, to board or 
leave vehicles in motion, or on a trestle 
or a bridge, and the vehicles must pull to 
the side of the road when men are being 
picked up or unloaded. 

A further provision requires that measures 
must be taken to prevent injury to the 
feet of workmen riding on sleigh bunks. 
When it is necessary to transport men by 
water, suitable boats and life-saving equip- 
ment and fire extinguishing equipment must 
be provided, and the boats must not be 
overloaded. 

The regulations also contain a general 
requirement that powered mobile equipment 
must be in good condition and be provided 
with a suitable warning device, and lights 
if operated at night. 

These provisions are similar to the rules 
governing transportation of workers in the 
General Accident Prevention Regulations 
issued by the British Columbia Workmen's 
Compensation Board. 

The regulations also provide that trucks 
are to be inspected daily by the driver, are 
not to be operated over maximum capacity 
or carry more passengers than allowed by 
provincial regulations, and that loads must 



be secure. No person is allowed on the bed 
of a truck during winching operations. 

Preparation of Right-of-Way 

With respect to clearing, grading and 
grubbing of the right-of-way, the regula- 
tions set out conditions applicable to falling 
of trees and bucking of logs, provide that 
"DANGER— POWER LINES" signs must 
be placed 100 feet on each side of power 
lines before clearing commences, require 
that safety hats must be worn by workmen, 
and specify rules for bulldozer operations. 

Pipe Stringing 

When the pipe is being assembled, loads 
of skids or pipe being hauled must be 
securely fastened. The use of defective 
skids is forbidden. Slings, hooks, cables and 
tail ropes must be inspected daily by the 
operator and repaired or replaced, if defec- 
tive. Safety hats must be worn by men 
handling tag lines. 

Ditching Operations 

The regulations outline requirements with 
respect to the maintenance and repair of 
ditching machines, and provide that machine 
guards must be used. 

They also require that all underground 
cables, conduits, gas lines, oil lines or water 
mains must be accurately located and 
marked before ditching operations are 
started. 

The ditching machine operator must 
always know where his helper is, and must 
not leave the controls of his machine unless 
the main transmission and digging wheel are 
out of gear and the travelling brakes set. 
Climbing about a ditching machine is pro- 
hibited when the machine is in motion, 
and the manual cleaning of buckets is 
forbidden when the digging wheel is in 
operation. 

Requirements are also outlined in con- 
nection with the maintenance and repair of 
dragline and backhoe machines and their 
operation. 

The swamper is required to stand clear 
of the cab and bucket of such machines, 
and the operator must always know where 
the swamper is. Only the operator or other 
authorized person may be in the cab while 
the machine is in operation. The operator 
may not leave the cab unless the bucket 
is lowered to the ground and the cab and 
brakes are locked. The boom must be 
lowered to the ground or to blocks when 
the equipment is not in use. Wire rope 
connections must be of an approved type, 
and the operator must inspect both them 
and the lines daily. 



835 



Also with respect to dragline and backhoe 
operations, no boom or mobile equipment 
may come within 10 feet of any power 
line, except at the direction of a qualified 
lineman, or if the maximum reach of the 
boom does not extend to within six feet of 
the power line. 

The Trench Construction and Repair 
Safety Regulations of the Board apply to 
ditching operations, but it is not necessary 
to shore that portion of a trench in which 
ditching, pipe laying and backfilling are 
done without the entry of workmen into the 
trench at that point. 

Pipe Laying 

Several provisions dealing with pipe lay- 
ing set out safety requirements with respect 
to tractor operations, welding, placing of 
skids, and inspection. 

The regulations provide that no person 
may ride a tractor except in the seats, and 
no workman may hold on to the rigging or 
machine while the machine is in motion. 
When a tractor is stopped and the operator 
must dismount, the unit must be made 
inoperative, and the dozer blades rest on 
blocking or on the ground. 

Pipe must not be picked up or lowered 
while a workman is between the tractor and 
the pipe, and it must not be moved, carried 
or swung over workmen. Workmen must 
stand clear of booms when loads are being 
raised or lowered, and the tractor operator 
must ensure that workmen are in the clear. 

The regulations also require that, when 
winch cables are guided onto drums, bars 
or sticks must be used. Wire rope connec- 
tions must be of an approved type and, 
together with lines, sideboom pins and 
sheave blocks, inspected daily by the 
operator. 

Sidebooms and blades must be lowered 
to the ground or to skids during non-work- 
ing hours. Sidebooms may not move along 
the right-of-way with the load line less 
than seven feet from the ground or with 
the boom more than 30 degrees from the 
vertical position. 

A tractor operator must not leave the 
controls while the machine is holding a pipe 
more than six inches above the ground. 

It is specified that the Board's Welding 
Safety Regulations apply in connection with 
pipe laying. A welder may wear a one- 
piece light weight helmet if he does not 
do his own chipping and cleaning. Flash 
goggles must be supplied to and worn by 
helpers. Likewise, buffing and cleaning 
machine operators must be provided with 
and wear adequate eye protection. 



Lock skids must be used if there is 
danger of a pipe shifting. 

If X-ray or gamma ray equipment is 
used in testing, any safety regulations made 
under any relevant Alberta act will apply. 

Cleaning, Priming, Doping and Wrapping 

The regulations require that workmen 
who charge dope kettles must be supplied 
with and wear suitable eye protection and 
gloves. 

Burners on dope kettles must be cleaned 
and inspected regularly. Foremen are 
required to instruct workmen in the opera- 
tion of dope kettles and warn them about 
"flash backs". Dope kettles must have 
downward flow outlets, and shut-off valves 
must be positive. Dope buckets must be 
kept in good condition. 

If fumes from dope kettles irritate the 
skin unduly, suitable skin protection must 
be provided and used. Workmen who handle 
or work around hot dope or primer are 
required to wear boots with the trouser 
legs on the outside and have sleeves extend- 
ing over the top of their gloves. 

Lowering of Pipe into Ditch 

The person in charge is solely responsible 
for the direction of all phases of the pipe 
lowering operation. Workmen are forbid- 
den to be in specified dangerous locations. 
Provision is made for the securing of belt 
slings, boom lines, travelling blocks and 
clamps, and the position of load lines and 
the boom, when the tractor is in motion. 

Back Filling 

Back filling must not be begun nor may 
a truck approach the ditch or dump the 
load unless workmen are in the clear. The 
operator of a machine used for back filling 
must always keep his swamper in sight. 

Special Operations 

Where boring and punching is under- 
taken, the new provisions specify that under- 
ground cables and pipe lines must be 
located before starting operations; Shoring 
and Trenching Regulations apply; and signs 
must clearly mark the approaches to the 
job. With respect to equipment, chain 
sprockets and V-belt drives have to be 
guarded; no toxic gases from internal com- 
bustion engines are allowed to accumulate 
near a trench unless workmen are provided 
with approved breathing apparatus; and 
equipment must be secured to prevent its 
falling into the excavation. 

In yard operations involving coating and 
wrapping of pipe, revolving shafting, belt 
drives and certain other equipment seven 






836 



feet or less from the ground or working 
platform have to be guarded. Workmen 
employed in the pipe and dope yard must be 
supplied with and wear gloves. Adequate 
pipe racks are required. 

Under the heading "river crossing," the 
regulations outline provisions with respect 
to safety equipment required when work- 
men have to work more than 10 feet above 
ground or water, or from boats, rafts or 
dredges. These include safety belts and 
life-lines complying with certain specifica- 
tions, and buoyancy devices. Specifications 
and safety requirements are also set out 
concerning rigging, rigging hooks, sheaves 
and drums. 

Pigging and Testing 

Safety requirements in connection with 
pigging (cleaning) and testing of pipe lines 
are outlined in the regulation. However, 
where it is necessary to deviate from these 
requirements for a specific operation, an 
employer may do so if one of his respon- 
sible officials issues a "Work Clearance 
Permit" giving reasons for and the extent of 
the departure from standard practice. 
Adequate safety precautions must be taken. 
This permit is to be issued in triplicate, 
with one copy to be sent immediately to 
the Workmen's Compensation Board, one 
copy to the head office of the employer, and 
one copy to be retained on the job site by 
the job supervisor. 

The regulations require that pressure 
must be relieved from each end of the 
pipe line before pig catchers or test fittings 
are removed and that test fittings must be 
rated at least equal to the maximum test 
pressure. 

With respect to the propelling of pigs 
by compressed air, safety requirements are 
set out for sealing the dispatching end of the 
line and for equipping the receiving end of 
the line with a pig catcher or trap. Air 
hoses, fittings and valves must be adequate 
and in good condition. Persons must be 
kept clear of pipe ends during a pig run. 
Pressure must be released through suitable 
valves before fittings of any kind are 
loosened or removed from the pipe line. 

Safety rules are also set out in connec- 
tion with low-pressure testing (100 p.s.i.) 
and high-pressure testing (over 100 p.s.i.) 
of pipe lines. 

Other Safety Provisions 

The regulations also deal with main- 
tenance and repair of machinery and equip- 
ment, pipe bending, riding pipe, explosives, 
storage of pipe, double jointing of pips 
and tie-in and cut-outs. 



It is also specified that the Dominion 
Explosives Act and the Seismograph Safety 
Regulations of the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board relating to the storage, handling, 
transportation and firing of explosives apply 
to pipeline operations. 

Every employer is responsible for ensur- 
ing that his workmen comply with these 
regulations. With respect to personal pro- 
tective equipment, the regulations state that 
"wherever the term shall provide, shall 
supply, shall make available, or some 
similar term is used with reference to per- 
sonal protective equipment, it shall be con- 
sidered as meaning that the employer shall 
have on the job for use by workmen the 
required items subject to such terms of 
security or deposit against breakage or 
damage other than ordinary wear and tear 
as the employer may determine unless the 
context of the regulation expressly directs 
otherwise." 

Authority of Inspectors 

Where an inspector observes the use of 
unsafe equipment, materials or tools, unsafe 
or improper use of tools or equipment, or 
unsafe working conditions not specifically 
covered by these regulations, he may issue 
an order requiring the employer or operator 
to make whatever changes, improvements or 
repairs are necessary to reduce the possibility 
of accidents. 

British Columbia Hours of Work Act 

The British Columbia Board of Industrial 
Relations has issued its annual exemption 
order permitting employees in the fresh 
fruit and vegetable industry to work beyond 
the eight-hours daily and 44-hour weekly 
limits prescribed by the Hours of Work Act 
for the period June 1 to November 30, 1959. 

The order was gazetted on June 11 as 
B.C. Reg. 198/59. 

Newfoundland Workmen's Compensation Act 

Workmen employed by a railway com- 
pany other than the CNR operating between 
Newfoundland and another province who 
reside in another province and are entitled 
to workmen's compensation under its laws 
are no longer covered by the collective 
liability section of the Newfoundland Work- 
men's Compensation Act in respect of acci- 
dents occurring in Newfoundland. In par- 
ticular this means workmen who normally 
reside in one province, whose contracts of 
service were drawn up there but who spend 
the greater part of their working homrs in 
Newfoundland. 



837 



The new regulation (16a), which was 
gazetted on June 23 to go into force on 
July 1, guards against any overlapping in 
coverage. 

Saskatchewan Holidays with Pay Act 

In Saskatchwean, employees of rural 
municipalities and persons employed by 
larger school units under the Larger School 
Units Act who work less than 10 days at 
any one time are no longer entitled to an 
allowance in lieu of a vacation on termina- 
tion of employment, following an order 
under the Annual Holidays Act which 
went into force June 1. 

These are the first casual employees to 
be exempted from this provision since the 
Act was amended in 1958 to delete the 30- 
day service requirement previously in 
effect. 

Under the New Brunswick and British 
Columbia vacation acts, vacation credits are 
payable to employees regardless of the 
length of service. Manitoba, however, 
exempts all casual employees but construc- 
tion workers but, elsewhere, except for 
construction workers in Nova Scotia, Que- 
bec, Ontario and Alberta, employees have 
to meet certain service requirements be- 
fore qualifying for benefits. The qualify- 



ing period is 30 days under the federal 
act and three months in Nova Scotia. The 
Quebec order exempts persons who work 
less than three hours a day and the Alberta 
order, employees who are temporarily em- 
ployed for eight hours a week or less, or 
for less than 30 days. In Ontario, workers 
who quit voluntarily are not entitled to 
vacation credits unless they have worked at 
least three months. 

Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act 

On order under the Saskatchewan Hours 
of Work Act prohibiting employers en- 
gaged in highway construction and main- 
tenance from requiring or permitting em- 
ployees to work more than 12 hours in any 
day except with a written authorization from 
the Minister of Labour was gazetted on 
June 26 to take effect July 6. Permits to 
work beyond the 12-hour limit will be issued 
only when normal operations have been 
seriously interrupted due to circumstances 
beyond the employer's control. 

The new order, the first of its kind in 
Saskatchewan, was issued under authority 
of a 1958 amendment permitting the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in Council to limit daily 
hours of work. Up to this time, the only 
limitation on hours was the requirement 
to pay an overtime rate. 



IAPES Convention 

(Continued from page 807) 

Edwin F. Fultz, Little Rock, Ark., was 
elected Second Vice-President; Miss 
Kathryn Queen, Raleigh, N.C., was elected 
Secretary, succeeding Mrs. Ola M. Reeves, 
Juneau, Alaska; and William C. Kelley, 
Indianapolis, Ind., was re-elected Treasurer. 
George E. Charron, London, Ont.; J. R. 
Deslauriers, Montreal; and Leslie Fraser, 



Winnipeg, were elected to the Association's 
16-member executive board. Miss Mabel 
McCrea, Winnipeg, served as credentials 
chairman for the election. All four 
Canadians are employees of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Commission. 

Washington, D.C., was picked as the site 
for the 1961 convention; the 1960 meeting 
will be held in Colorado Springs. 



ILO Governing Body 



(Continued from page 827) 

In other business, the Governing Body 
accepted proposals presented by David A. 
Morse, Director-General of the ILO, for 
the establishment of an International Occu- 
pational Safety and Health Information 
Centre to be established by the ILO in co- 
operation with the International Social 
Security Association. 

The Centre, to be located at ILO head- 
quarters in Geneva, will co-operate with 
existing facilities in a wider and more com- 



prehensive distribution and collecton of 
information concerning occupational health 
and safety. 

Among other matters, the Governing 
Body adopted reports which had been sub- 
mitted to it by the Asian Advisory Com- 
mittee, the Committee on Forced Labour, 
the Committee on Freedom of Association, 
and of the Technical Meeting of Problems 
of Improving Productivity in Certain 
Countries. 



838 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Claimants for unemployment Insurance benefit at end of May, number of initial 
and renewal claims during month, estimate of beneficiaries, total payments and 
average weekly payment all lower than in April and in May 1958, statistics* show 



Claimants'!" for unemployment insurance 
benefit numbered 279,400 on May 29; as 
the seasonal benefit period ended May 16, 
they were all claimants for regular benefit. 
On April 30 claimants totalled 610,800, 
comprising 382,400 on regular and 228,400 
on seasonal benefit. At the end of May 
1958, there were 551,100 claimants, 368,000 
of whom were classed as regular and 183,- 
100 seasonal. 

The number of initial and renewal 
claims! for benefit in May was 134,400, 
compared with 206,900 in April and 165,- 
100 in May 1958. Initial claims numbered 
87,000, which number was 40 per cent 
lower than in April and 19 per cent lower 
than in May 1958. The sharp decline dur- 
ing May this year reflects the ending of 
the seasonal benefit period at the middle of 
the month. 

(During the seasonal benefit period, an 
initial claim would be taken immediately 
on termination of a regular benefit period 
provided the claimant status was main- 
tained. When seasonal benefits are not in 
effect, however, a claim would not be likely 
to be filed if it were clear from available 
records that the contribution requirements 
could not be fulfilled.) 

*See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of this issue. 

tA claimant's unemployment register is placed in 
the "live file" at the local office as soon as the 
claim is forwarded for computation. As a result, 
the count of claimants at any given time inevit- 
ably includes some whose claims are in process. 

♦All initial claims are computed first for regular 
benefit. Those which are found to be ineligible are 
then considered under seasonal benefit provisions. 
Consequently, the total of initial claims includes both 
those which are finally classed as regular and those 
which are classed as seasonal. The renewal claims 
total also includes both types of claims. Claimants 
who exhaust their regular benefit during the sea- 
sonal benefit period are not cut off from benefit. If 
they wish to be considered for further benefit, they 
must file a claim in the usual manner. When there 
are insufficient contribution weeks to establish 
another regular benefit period, seasonal benefit will 
be granted, but not more than once during the sea- 
sonal benefit period. 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal industries, 
increase in area population, influence of 
weather conditions, and the general employ- 
ment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted either 
as "total number of beneficiaries" or "total 
job applicants". 



Renewal claims in May numbered 47,400, 
a decline of 24 per cent from April and 
19 per cent from May 1958. 

Initial claims considered under the sea- 
sonal benefit provisions constituted 40 per 
cent of initial claims processed during May, 
compared with 54 per cent in April and 
49 per cent in May 1958. 

The average weekly estimate of bene- 
ficiaries was 485,800 for May, 640,200 for 
April and 582,800 for May 1958. Benefit 
payments amounted to $40.4 million during 
May, $60.0 million during April and $51.7 
million during May 1958. 

The average weekly benefit payments 
was $20.81 in May, $21.29 in April and 
$21.10 in May 1958. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
for May show that insurance books or con- 
tribution cards have been isued to 3,205,417 
employees who had made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund since 
April 1, 1959. 

At May 31 employers registered num- 
bered 317,854, an increase of 56 since 
April 30, 1959. 

Enforcement Statistics 

During May 1959 investigations con- 
ducted by enforcement officers across 
Canada numbered 6,479. Of these, 4,206 
were spot checks of postal and counter 
claims to verify the fulfilment of statutory 



839 



conditions, and 147 were miscellaneous 
investigations. The remaining 2,126 were 
investigations in connection with claimants 
suspected of making false statements to 
obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were begun in 164 cases, 27 
against employers and 137 against claim- 
ants.* Punitive disqualifications as a result 
of claimants' making false statements or 
misrepresentations numbered 1,270.* 



Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue in May totalled $18,831,693.7 
compared with $14,581,844.02 in April and 
$20,579,908.18 in May 1958. Benefits paid 
in May totalled $40,446,281.55 compared 
with $59,930,502.62 in April and $51,626,- 
650.72 in May 1958. The balance in the 
fund on May 31 was $432,847,911.14; on 
April 30 it was $454,462,498.91 and on 
May 31, 1958, $662,056,156.77. 



. 



Decision of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB-1 630, May 8, 1959 

Summary of the Main Facts: — The claim- 
ants interested in the present appeal lost 
their employment on September 23, 1958 in 
the following circumstances: 

The collective agreement between the 
Toronto Builders Exchange, General Con- 
tractors' Section, and the Operative Plaster- 
ers and Cement Mason's International 
Union, Local 598, expired on May 1, 1958, 
as did also the contracts with the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America (carpenters and millwrights), Dis- 
trict 27, the International Association of 
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron 
Workers (Rodmen), Local 721, and the 
International Union of Hoisting Engineers, 
Local 793. Efforts to reach joint negotia- 
tions failed; individual negotiations con- 
tinued but without success. 

Intermittent stoppages of work during 
working hours were created by the cement 
masons' union on some projects several 
days prior to September 11, 1958, but other 
tradesmen on these projects continued to 
work. 

On September 11, 1958, at 8:00 a.m., 
450 cement masons went on strike. They 
placed pickets on eight major construction 
jobs on September 11 and 12, 1958, and 
all the tradesmen of various other classifica- 
tions, such as bricklayers, stone masons, 
carpenters, etc., refused to cross the picket 
lines. The work stoppage was complete at 
the eight projects. 

On September 15, 1958, at 8:00 a.m., the 
cement masons placed picket lines on five 
additional construction projects, and again 
they were honoured by all the tradesmen. 

On September 19, 1958, the cement 
masons' union placed pickets on the Hum- 
ber Sewage Disposal Plant at Mimico. This 

•These do not necessarily relate to the investiga- 
tions conducted during this period. 



picket line was honoured by the other 
tradesmen. Sporadic picketing developed 
on other and smaller projects between Sep- 
tember 11 and 19, 1958. 

The Toronto Builders Exchange, Gen- 
eral Contractors' Section, then decided to 
shut down all projects under their jurisdic- 
tion in the Toronto zone, the shutdown to 
take effect at 8:00 a.m. on September 23, 
1958. As confirmed in a letter written 
by the chairman of the labour relations com- 
mittee of the Toronto Builders Exchange on 
October 1, 1958, the action in shutting down 
the remainder of the projects was taken as 
a result of the foregoing incidents. This 
letter reads : "In view of the collective action 
of unions conducting unlawful strikes it 
became necessary, as of September 22, 
1958, to effect a shutdown of construction 
projects of General Contractor members of 
the Toronto Builders Exchange." 

Commenting on this situation in answer 
to an enquiry as to whether instruction was 
given that tradesmen should not cross the 
cement masons' picket lines, the president 
of the Building and Construction Trades 
Council of Toronto and vicinity wrote on 
October 1, 1958, as follows: 

A legal strike is in effect by Local 598, 
Cement Masons' Union. Picket lines have been 
set up in some instances where work is being 
done of a nature that comes within the juris- 
diction of the above mentioned local and these 
picket lines were honoured by members of the 
Building Trades Union, as it is a principle of 
long standing to honour such picket lines and 
no individual instruction is required. 

On Monday, September 22, 1958, the Toronto 
Builders Exchange introduced a lockout of their 
jobs. This is in direct violation of agreements 
in force and of this date, they are enforcing 
this lockout. The writer was present at the 
Royal York Hotel job this morning at 10:00 
a.m. when all trades were ordered off by the 
General Contractor. 

As a result of the shutdown practically 
all major construction within the area was 
brought to a standstill. 



840 



It was at this time that the Toronto 
Builders Exchange announced that they 
would reopen their projects only when the 
four unions representing cement masons, 
carpenters (millwrights), rodmen and hoist- 
ing engineers, all of whose contracts had 
expired on May 1, 1958, and were in the 
process of negotiation, signed agreements. 
This was confirmed in a letter written by 
the chairman of the labour relations com- 
mittee of the Toronto Builders Exchange 
to the business representative of the cement 
masons' union, Local 598, under date of 
September 29, 1958, which reads: 

On Friday last, we met with a Conciliation 
Officer of the Department of Labour at the 
request of the Minister of Labour. Our posi- 
tion with respect to the current shutdown of 
construction was placed before the Conciliation 
Officer. Now we directly advise your union of 
this position. 

1. The collective action of unions has forced 
us to decide that no work will commence until 
all the present disputes with the general trades 
union are settled. 

2. We accept the unanimous report of the 
Conciliation Board, which dealt with our dispute 
with the Cement Masons' Union and we are 
prepared to incorporate the terms of this report 
in a new agreement only at such times when the 
remaining disputes with other unions are settled 
by memorandum of agreement. 

3. To these ends we will bargain in good faith 
to conclude negotiations without delay. We 
first propose our meeting jointly with the Car- 
penters, Operating Engineers, Rodmen and 
Cement Masons Unions to conduct joint or 
simultaneous negotiations. 

We trust you will act to enable an early 
settlement of all issues now in dispute with 
your union. 

The insurance officer found that a labour 
dispute existed between the Toronto Build- 
ers Exchange and the employees represented 
by the cement masons', carpenters', rod- 
men's and hoisting engineers' unions since 
their respective bargaining agreements ex- 
pired on May 1, 1958, that such dispute 
was the direct cause of an appreciable stop- 
page of work and that the claimants had 
lost their employment by reason of that 
stoppage. Accordingly, the insurance officer 
disqualified all the claimants under section 
63 of the Act, as follows: 

(1) As from the beginning of the stoppage, 
the cement masons as being directly interested 
in the labour dispute since their wages and 
working conditions were a point at issue in the 
dispute; 

(2) As from the date of occurrence, all the 
tradesmen who, before September 23, had 
refused to cross the cement masons' peaceful 
picket lines, as having become participants in 
the dispute; 

(3) As from September 23, the carpenters 
(millwrights), rodmen and hoisting engineers 
who were working on jobs shut down by the 
employer, as being directly interested in the 
extended labour dispute; 

(4) As from September 23, all the other 
tradesmen working on jobs shut down by the 
employer, i.e., the claimants concerned in the 



present appeal, as belonging to a grade or class 
of workers that, immediately before the com- 
mencement of the stoppage, included members 
(those in (2) above) who were employed at 
the premises at which the stoppage was taking 
place and were participating in, financing or 
directly interested in the dispute. 

The insurance officer was of the opinion 
that the claimants in (4) above, who were 
hourly rated employees of various trades 
ail performing the same type of work as 
those who had respected the cement masons' 
picket lines and had agreements with the 
Toronto Builders Exchange which did not 
expire for a more or less considerable 
period of time, could not be said to be 
directly interested in the outcome of the 
dispute. 

The claimants appealed to a board of 
referees which heard their case in Toronto 
on November 18, 1958. The claimant 
whose appeal was accepted as representa- 
tive of all the others stated, in part, as 
follows: "I am not personally taking part 
in a labour dispute, nor directly interested 
in the dispute or its outcome; nor am I a 
member of a grade or class of workers 
taking part in( financing, or directly inter- 
ested in the dispute or its outcome. I have 
nothing to gain or lose by the outcome 
of this dispute except the loss of my earn- 
ings, ..." The board, by majority decision, 
confirmed the disqualification. 

On December 17, 1958, the Bricklayers, 
Masons and Plasterers Union of America 
appealed to the Umpire. The appeal was 
heard in Toronto on March 13, 1959. The 
claimants were represented by Mr. A. 
Andras, Director of Legislation, Canadian 
Labour Congress; the Toronto Builders Ex- 
change by Messrs. L. Howes, Assistant 
Manager and Secretary, and D. J. McKillop, 
Solicitor; and the insurance officer by Mr. 
G. Kieffer of the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission. 

In acordance with the request of the 
Umpire at the hearing, the Toronto Builders 
Exchange supplied information to the effect 
that it is a corporation "carried on without 
the purpose of gain for its members", that 
one of its objects is "To represent the mem- 
bers of the Exchange in any matters pertain- 
ing to the building and construction in- 
dustry in the City of Toronto, and when 
necessary, to negotiate on their behalf and 
to enter into such trade or other agreements 
affecting wages and all other matters as may 
appear to be in the best interests of the 
Construction Industry," and that "All mem- 
bers of the Exchange shall be subject to 
and abide by such rules and regulations as 
may from time to time be established, either 
by the Exchange or the group or the section 
to which they may belong, and shall also 



73835-1—5 



841 



be bound by the terms of any trade agree- 
ment of their group which may from time 
to time be entered into by the Exchange." 
(Sections 3(b) and 13 of the Toronto Build- 
ers Exchange Constitution). 

Considerations and Conclusions: The in- 
formation supplied by the Toronto Builders 
Exchange shows that the Exchange was not 
the employer of the employees directly or 
indirectly involved in the present appeal, 
but simply the agent of their respective 
autonomous employers. Accordingly, the 
premises at which such employees were em- 
ployed were in fact and in law each one of 
the physically separated and functionally 
distinct construction projects at which they 
were respectively employed by such 
employers. 

Now, according to subsection ( 1 ) of sec- 
tion 63, a labour dispute must be at the 
particular premises at which was employed 
an insured person who has lost his employ- 
ment by reason of a stoppage of work due 
to such dispute. In the present case, the 
labour dispute which, originally, was con- 
cerned with the conditions of employment 
of the cement masons only, existed solely 
at the premises struck and picketed by such 
cement masons. As from the date of the 
shutdown carried out by other employers, 
however, it became a labour dispute directly 
concerned also with the conditions of em- 
ployment of the employees covered by the 
carpenters', rodmen's and hoisting en- 
gineers' unions and extended geographically 
to the premises of such other employers. 
Accordingly, the labour dispute which 
caused the complete stoppage of work at 
these employers' distinct premises was in 
fact, even though through extension, at the 
premises at which the claimants interested 
in the present appeal were employed. A 
disqualification must then be imposed on 
the claimants under section 63(1) of the 
Act, unless they can show they have dis- 
charged the onus of proving their entitle- 
ment to relief from disqualification in vir- 
tue of subsection (2). 

In this connection, the record shows that 
both the insurance officer and the board of 
referees found, and it is not contested, that 
the claimants fulfilled the requirements of 
the relieving provisions of paragraph (a) of 
subsection (2), in that they were not par- 
ticipating in, or financing or directly in- 
terested in the labour dispute which caused 
the stoppage of work at the particular 
premises at which they were respectively 
employed. The only question which I am 
now called upon to decide, therefore, is 
whether they also fulfilled the conditions 
laid down in paragraph (b) of the said 
subsection, which reads: 



(2) An insured person is not disqualified 
under this section if he proves that . . . 

(b) He does not belong to a grade or class 
of workers that, immediately before the 
commencement of the stoppage, included 
members who were employed at the pre- 
mises at which the stoppage is taking 
place and are participating in, financing 
or directly interested in the dispute. 

The claimants obviously did not belong 
to the same grade or class as the cement 
masons, carpenters, rodmen or hoisting en- 
gineers wherever these may have been em- 
ployed. It has been contended, however, 
and the board of referees has held that the 
claimants belonged to the same grades or 
classes of workers as the employees of the 
same trades and unions, employed else- 
where, who had become participants in 
the labour dispute by reason of their refusal 
to cross the picket lines there. This, if up- 
held, would mean that the "premises" re- 
ferred to in paragraph (b) could be, for 
the purpose of determining the grades anc 
classes of workers, different from th< 
"premises" designated in subsection (1) 
being those at which the claimants were 
employed. 

In one of the decisions quoted by the 
board of referees, namely CUB-1419, 
stated "... I believe it is not only reason- 
able but safe to assume that, generally, 
when a claimant has been working on the 
same kind of work, under the same con- 
ditions, methods and rates of remunera- 
tion, and at the same premises as the 
other workmen who are directly involvec 
in a dispute, he is a member of a grade 
or class participating in the dispute" (Em- 
phasis added). 

In seeking to apply the foregoing gen- 
eral observation, the board of referees, 
while mentioning that the claimants in the 
present case "were hourly-rated employees 
of various trades or performing the same 
type of work as those who respected the 
picket lines," did not give due weight to 
the words "at the same premises". In my 
opinion, apart from finding that a claim- 
ant has been working on the same kind 
of work and under the same conditions, 
methods and rates of remuneration as the 
other workmen who are directly involved 
in a labour dispute, it must also be found 
that such claimant was employed at the 
same premises as such other workmen. Con- 
sequently, as the employees who, in the 
present case, allegedly became participants 
for refusing to cross the cement masons' 
picket lines were not employed at the 
same premises (construction projects) as 
the claimants interested in this appeal and 
since the insurance officer and the board 
of referees were justified in finding that 

(Continued on page 850) 



842 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 252 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 248 contracts in these categories 
was awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to 
trade unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 



Contracts tor the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in June for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were 
as follows: 

Department 
Defence Production 
Post Office 
R.C.M.P. 



No. of Contracts 


Aggregate Amount 


98 


$320,494.00 


13 


235,628.39 


10 


198,354.06 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour 
legislation of the federal Government has 
the purpose of insuring that all Government 
contracts for works of construction and for 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment 
contain provisions to secure the payment of 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- 
able in each trade or classification employed 
in the district where the work is being per- 
formed. 

The practice of Government departments 
and those Crown corporations to which the 
legislation applies, before entering into con- 
tracts for any work of construction, re- 
modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain 
wage schedules from the Department of 
Labour showing the applicable wage rate 
for each classification of workmen deemed 
to be required in the execution of the work. 



These wage schedules are thereupon in- 
cluded with other relevant labour condi- 
tions as terms of such contracts to be 
observed by the contractors. 

Wage schedules are not included in con- 
tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment because it is not possible to 
determine in advance the classifications to 
be employed in the execution of a contract. 
A statement of the labour conditions which 
must be observed in every such contract 
is however, included therein and is of the 
same nature and effect as those which apply 
in works of construction. 

Copies of the federal Government's Fair 
Wages and Hours of Labour legislation 
may be had upon request to the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. 



843 



73835-1— 5i 



(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during June 

During June the sum of $1,427.03 was collected from six contractors for wage 
arrears due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their sub- 
contractors, to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the 
schedule of labour conditions forming part of their contract. This amount has been 
or will be distributed to the 68 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Belmont Marsh N S: McCully & Soy, construction of dyke and/ or drainage work 
(N S 105). Noel Shore Marsh N S: Chas W Thompson, construction of dyke and/ or 
drainage work (N S 24). Neepawa Man: Pat Mor Construction & Michael May, con- 
struction of Neepawa storage project. Near Outlook Sask: Bird Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of superstructure of the construction bridge for South Saskatchewan River 
Project. Swift Current Sask: Waterman-Water bury (Swift Current) Ltd, replacement of 
gas fired cast iron heating boiler & controls, Experimental Farm. Lacombe Alt a: Border 
Paving Ltd, paving of road, Experimental Farm. Vauxhall Aha: T A Klemke & Son 
Construction Ltd, construction of distributary "Y" on Bow River Project. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Greenwood N S: Charles W Thompson, site improvement & planting for stage I 
school (DND 8/58). Newport Corners N S: Eastern Landscape Co Ltd, site improve- 
ment & planting for 6 housing units (DND 1/58). Gagetown N B: Atlas Construction 
Co Ltd, remainder of paving — (Job 57/54); Conniston Construction Co Ltd, site im- 
provement & planting for 350 housing units (Job 58/54). Montreal Que: L A Lapenna, 
*site improvement & planting, Benny Farm. Valcartier Que: Service Paysagiste National 
Ltd, site improvement & planting for 200 housing units (DND 8/56); Lasalle Asphalt Ltd, 
paving of roads & parking areas, driveways & walks (DND 8/58). Brantford & Paris 
Ont: Rutgers & Vanderdrift, *exterior painting, (8/48), (4/45), (7/47) & (1/48). Delhi 
Ont: Alf Erickson, construction of 12 housing units (FP 1/58). Geraldton Ont: 
J H Turcotte, *exterior painting of rental houses. Gloucester Ont: M & S Martin Reg'd, 
*site improvement & planting. Goderich Ont: G Barker Construction Ltd, construction of 
14 housing units (FP 4/58). Hamilton Ont: Brant Construction Co, *exterior painting, 
(14/48). Niagara-on-the-Lake Ont: Brant Construction Co * exterior painting, (1/48). 
Ottawa Ont: O'Leary's (1956) Ltd, ::: paving work. Petawawa Ont: Bedard-Girard Ltd, 
construction of electrical distribution system for 200 housing units (DND 13/58, phase 
1); Val d'Or Construction Co Ltd, construction of sewer outfall (DND 13/58). Stratford 
Ont: Rutgers & Vanderdrift, *exterior painting, (4/49). Waterloo Ont: Brant Construc- 
tion Co, * exterior painting, (1/48). Fort Qu'Appelle Sask: Shelley & Young Construc- 
tion Co, flood control & landscaping at Indian Hospital. Saskatoon, Sask: Jack Warkentin 
Construction Ltd, *concrete repairs, (6/49). Vancouver B C: V B Johnson, site improve- 
ment & planting for 169 housing units (FP 2/57). 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Restigouche Indian Agency Que: A H English Co Ltd, replacement of heating system, 
Restigouche Indian day school. Sioux Lookout Indian Agency Ont: Durall Ltd, construc- 
tion of water supply system & associated work, Mcintosh IRS. Portage Le Prairie Indian 

844 



Agency Man: Story Bros, road construction, Lizard Point Indian Reserve. Lesser Slave 
Lake Indian Agency Aha: Telford Construction Ltd, alterations to water supply & 
sewage disposal systems, Wabasca IRS. Saddle Lake Indian Agency Alta: Car-Ouells 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of water reservoir & supply & installation of equip- 
ment, Blue Quills IRS. Kootenay Indian Agency B C: Hal H Paradis Ltd, installation of 
floor coverings, Kootenay IRS. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Summerside P E I: Louis Donolo Inc, construction & completion of central heating 
plant, RCAF Station. Dartmouth N S: Mark A Leonard Ltd, installation of oil burners 
in PMQs, RCN Air Station, Shearwater; Steen Mechanical Contractors Ltd, installation 
of mechanical services to carrier jetty. Greenwood N S: Bernard Gagne Co Ltd, con- 
struction of bulk petroleum storage, electrical work, security fencing, etc, RCAF Station. 
Halifax N S: Francis J Brown, * demolition of chiefs & petty officers' block, HMCS 
Stadacona. Newport Corner N S: Ralph & Arthur Parsons Ltd, construction of timber 
retaining wall. St. Hubert Que: Desourdy Construction Ltd, construction of new station 
roads, RCAF Station; Bernard Gagne Co Ltd, installation of bulk fuel facilities, RCAF 
Station. London Ont: Ellis Don Ltd, installation of coal handling system, Wolseley 
Barracks. North Bay Ont: Standard Paving Ltd, construction of concrete aprons & 
storm drainage, RCAF Station. Ottawa Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, recon- 
struction of Bowesville Road. Petawawa Ont: Valentine Enterprises, extension of water 
supply to serve south PMQ area. Trenton Ont: Carter Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of cantilever hangar, RCAF Station. Portage la Prairie Man: Nelson River Construction 
Ltd, replacement of portions of tarmac area with concrete, RCAF Station. Shilo Man: 
Peter Leitch Construction Ltd, construction of sidewalks, curbs, gutters & drains. Calgary 
Alta: Borger Bros Ltd, construction of field minature range bldg, Camp Sarcee. Wain- 
right Alta: New West Construction Co Ltd, construction of loading ramps & paving. 
Victoria B C: J T Devlin & Co Ltd, repainting exterior of Bldg No 24, Royal Roads. 

Building and Maintenance 

Camp Borden Ont: Walker Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 24 
bldgs, RCAF Station. Centralia Ont: Lavis Contracting Co Ltd, asphalt paving, RCAF 
Station. Clinton Ont: Cardinal Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 
PMQs, RCAF Station. Trenton Ont: Berton Fitzgibbon, asphalt resurfacing of walks, 
RCAF Station. Rivers Man: Maple Leaf Construction Ltd, repair & resurfacing of roads, 
RCAF Station. Cold Lake Alta: Park & Derochie Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting 
of PMQ units, RCAF Station. Sea Island B C: Dawson Wade & Co Ltd, resurfacing of 
roads, RCAF Station. 

Department of Defence Production 

Summerside P E I: Curan & Briggs Ltd, resurfacing of asphalt pavement, PMQ 
area, RCAF Station. Cornwallis N S: Scotia Sprinklers Ltd, installation of automatic 
sprinkler system in two bldgs, HMCS "Cornwallis". Greenwood N S: F Miles Chipman, 
•^application of lime & fertilizer, RCAF Station; Charles W Thompson, replacement of 
water service lines to various barrack blocks, RCAF Station. Halifax N S: Standard 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of concrete foundation for pneumatic hammer, Bldg 
D56, HMC Dockyard; Insul-Mastic Maritime Ltd, waterproofing of six PMQ's, RCAF 
Station, Gorsebrook; Foundation Martime Ltd, construction of concrete foundation for 
pneumatic hammer, Bldg D56, HMC Dockyard. Sydney N S: C F Cox Ltd, *reroofing 
of Bldg No 6-3, Point Edward Naval Base. Bathurst N B: Northern Machine Works Ltd, 
fabrication & installation of fire escapes, old Post Office Bldg. Fredericton N B: 
Standish Bros Reg'd, *application of chemicals for weed & brush control, McGivney & 
Maryland Hill. St Hubert Que: Desjardins Asphalte Ltee, *patching of roads & run- 
ways, RCAF Station. Quebec Que: Pomerleau & Therien Reg'd, resurfacing of drill hall 
floor, Grande-Allee Armoury; J B. Marcoux Inc, rebuilding of plaster walls, La Citadelle; 
Le Salle Asphalte Ltee, resurfacing of roads, shoulders & parking area, La Citadelle. 
Barriefield Ont: McGinnis & O'Connor Ltd, construction of parking area at rear of 
No 207 Workshop. Clinton Ont: Williamson Roofing & Sheet Metal, reroofing of bldgs, 
RCAF Station; Dundas Plumbing & Heating Contractors Ltd, replacement of roof exhaust 
fans & installation of vertical industrial heater, RCAF Station. Downsview Ont: Beavis 
Bros Ltd, reroofing of Bldg No 107, RCAF Station. Dunnville Ont: W A Moffatt Co, 
repairs to built-up roofs on hangars, No 6 Repair Depot Detachment, RCAF Station. 
Kingston Ont: Cardinal Painting & Decorating Co Lid, repainting interior of "B" & 
"L" Blocks, Canadian Army Staff College; Kingsport Plumbing & Heating Ltd, repairing 

845 



& overhauling stokers & furnaces, DND area. Millbrook Ont: J G Tompkins & Co, 
repairs & alterations to exterior masonry at Armoury. Ottawa Ont: L Laurin, various 
repairs, Drill Hall, Bldg 206. Pembroke Ont: Louis Markus & Son Ltd, exterior repair 
of Armoury, Bldg 215. Picton Ont: Quinte Roofing Ltd, reroofing & replacing flash- 
ings of six bldgs, Old Camp area; Cardinal Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, renovation 
of bldgs, Old Camp area. Rockliffe Ont: Edge Ltd, supply & installation of air con- 
ditioner, Bldg No 90, RCAF Station; Rideau Aluminum & Steels Ltd, installation of 
equipment for Sergeants Mess, Bldg No 72, RCAF Station. Gimli Man: Dorwin Indus- 
tries Ltd, supply & installation of storm & screen windows, RCAF Station. Rivers Man: 
De Bruyn & Verhoef (Woodwork) Ltd, refinishing of hardwood floors in PMQ's, CATC. 
Shilo Man: Crane Bros, interior repainting of PMQ's, Military Camp. Winnipeg Man: 
Tallman Paving, *routine repair of roads, RCAF Station & satellite units. Regina Sask: 
Bird Construction Co Ltd, replacement of concrete slabs in area around DND bldgs. 
Calgary Alta: Canadian General Electric Co Ltd, ^installation of radar & associated 
equipment, HMCS Tecumseh. Cold Lake Alta: Poole Construction Co Ltd, erection of 
fence around new PMQ development, RCAF Station; Poole Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of fire escapes in three barrack blocks, RCAF Station. Edmonton Alta: Taylor 
Tile Ltd, installation of mastic flooring topping, "A" Bay, Warehouse Bldg, Griesbach Bar- 
racks; Nadon Paving Ltd, application of asphalt coating on damaged areas, Griesbach 
Barracks. Namao Alta: Harrod Floor Sanding, *refinishing fifty PMQ floors, RCAF Station, 
Lancaster Park. Penhold Alta: Thorne Bros Painting & Decorating, exterior painting 
of PMQs, RCAF Station. Colwood B C: Parfitt Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
concrete base & walls, & installation of plumbing & drainage for fire fighting mock-up 
at Training Centre; Coast Steel Fabricators Ltd, fabrication & erection of steel super- 
structure for fire fighting mock-up at Training Centre. Comox B C: Cochrane Fuel & 
Trucking Ltd, construction of road, RCAF Station. Kamloops B C: Barr & Anderson 
(Interior) Ltd, application of built-up roofing on various roofs. Vancouver B C: Peterson 
Electrical Construction Co Ltd, replacement of power line poles & crossarms, DND area, 
Vedder Crossing B C: Columbia Bitulithic Ltd, surface treatment of roads & parking 
areas, Camp Chilliwack. Victoria B C: Dominion Paint Co, painting interior of bldgs, 
Work Point Barracks. 

National Harbours Board 

Halifax N S: Foundation Maritime Ltd, deepening berth No 34 & adjacent area, 
Pier A-l. Montreal Que: McNamara (Quebec) Ltd, the Key Construction Inc & Des- 
champe & Belanger Ltee, construction of sections 5 & 7A of Champlain Bridge; McNamara 
(Quebec) Ltd, extension of St Pierre collector outlet; Covertite Ltd, renewal of roof, 
sheds 3 & 8, Montreal Harbour; R M Clark Construction Co, construction of offices 
& stairway at upstream end of shed No 11, Section 17. Vancouver B C: Northern 
Construction Co & J W Stewart Ltd, levelling of cope wall, Centennial Pier; Metro 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of checker's office, Ballantyne Pier. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Terra Nova National Park Nfld: H C Simms Ltd, construction of central service 
garage, Headquarters area. Cape Breton Highlands National Park N S: Leo C Boudreau, 
construction of park warden's residence at Cheticamp; Lynk Electric Ltd, installation of 
electrical distribtuion system. Fundy National Park N B: Calendonia Construction Ltd, 
construction of administration bldg for cabin development. Fort Lennox National Historic 
Park Que: Jean-Paul Trahan Ltee, *supplying & driving timber piles, South Entrance. 
Fort Maiden National Historic Park Que: Leonard K Wride, Reconstruction of patio, 
Hough House. Fort Wellington National Historic Park Ont: Allan Steward & Basil Broad 
Construction Co Ltd, * reconstruction of section of wall of Caponniere. Fort St. 
Joseph National Historic Site Ont: Raymond Gibbs, *supplying, hauling & placing 3,500 
cubic yards of gravel. Georgian Bay Islands National Park Ont: Wilson & Bell, plumbing 
& electrical work in two comfort stations & one residence, & heating system in residence. 
Point Pelee National Park Ont: William Pimiskern Ltd, construction of refreshment stand, 
two comfort stations & completion of partially constructed comfort station. St. Lawrence 
Islands National Park Ont: Griffin Bros (Gananoque) Ltd, *supplying & hauling of stone 
& gravel for boat house, Mallorytown Landing. Riding Mountain National Park Man: 
F A France Construction Co Ltd, construction of central service garage near Wasagam- 
ing; F W Bumstead Ltd, plumbing & heating installations in staff residence. Prince 
Albert National Park Sask: Arthur A Voice Construction Co Ltd, construction of sanitary 
sewerage system for Townsite of Waskesiu; Barzelle & Burkosky Ltd, hauling & spraying 
asphalt on certain sections of streets & roads. Jasper National Park Alta: Koebel Co Ltd, 

846 



installation of plumbing & heating systems in house; McCook Plastering Co Ltd, * gypsum 
lath & plaster work in house, NP 36. V/aterton Lakes National Park Alta: Oland Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of central service garage near Townsite; Mallett Contracting 
Co Ltd, crushing & stockpiling of aggregate. Kootenay National Park B C: Don Young, 
installation of plumbing & heating systems in Warden's Residence, Kootenay Crossing. 
Mackenzie Highway N W T: B G Linton Construction Ltd, maintenance of highway. 

Department of Public Works 

Bonavista Nfld: Cape Horn Construction Co Ltd, repairs to deep water wharf. 
Grand Bank Nfld: T C Gorman (Nova Scotia) Ltd, construction of breakwater. St. 
John's Nfld: William Roche, demolition of bldgs & wharves. Wood Islands P E I: Morri- 
son & McRae Ltd, harbour improvements. Halifax N S: Fundy Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of division garage for RCMP; Canadian Laboratory Supplies Ltd, installa- 
tion of furniture, etc, Food & Drug Laboratory, Ralston Bldg. Louisbourg N S: Maritime 
Builders Ltd, construction of office bldg for Dept of Fisheries. Meteghan N S: T C Gor- 
man (Nova Scotia) Ltd, breakwater improvements. Grand Anse N B: Allardville Con- 
struction Co Ltd, breakwater repairs. Green Point N B: P F C Northern Construction 
Co Ltd, breakwater repairs. Little Cape N B: Harold N Price, wharf extension. Petit 
Rocher N B: La Construction Baie Cheleur Ltee, improvements (stone talus). Point 
du Chene N B: Rayner Construction Ltd, paving of roadway approach; J W & J 
Anderson Ltd, repairs to ballast wharf. Richibucto Beaches N B: Leo LeBlanc, repairs 
to breakwaters. Shippegan N B: North Shore Construction Ltd, paving approaches to 
wharves. Welchpool N B: J W McMulkin & Son Ltd, harbour improvements. Cap de la 
Madeleine Que: Telco Materials Ltd, construction of retaining wall. Fort George Que: 
Ron Construction Co Ltd, construction of four classroom school, power house, residence 
& teacherage bldg, James Bay Agency. Gaspe (Sandy Beach) Que: McCallum & LeBlanc, 
wharf improvements. Kamouraska Que: Construction St Patrice Ltee, wharf repairs. 
Les Eboulements Que: Eugene Tremblay, construction of protection wall. Les Escoumains 
Que: Laverendrye Construction Ltee, wharf reconstruction. Montreal Que: J B Bail- 
largeon Express Ltd, moving furniture to new National Revenue Bldg; B K Johl Inc. instal- 
lation of film storage racks, National Film Board Bldg; Edouard Petrin & Marcel Petrin, 
removal of garbage & ashes from federal bldgs. Peribonka Que: Lucien Bergeron, wharf 
reconstruction. Point e au Pere Que: McNamara (Quebec) Ltd, harbour improvements. 
Pointe-au-Pic Que: Theriault & Beland Enrg, wharf enlargement. St Augustin (Les Bas) 
Que: Laureat Jobin, construction of protection wall. St Jean I O Que: Les Entreprises 
Cap-Diamant Ltee, wharf extension. St Laurent Que: Les Travaux de Saint-Laurent 
Enrg, construction of protection wall. Fenelon Falls Ont: Ruliff Grass Construction Co 
Ltd, wharf construction. Hamilton Ont: Canadian Dredge & Dock Co Ltd, harbour im- 
provements, Strathearne Ave. Magnetewan Ont: C A Boyes, wharf repair & shed recon- 
struction. Morrisburg Ont: John Entwistle Construction Ltd, construction of federal 
bldg. Oshawa Ont: Higrade Welding Co Ltd, renewal of waling. Ottawa Ont: Louis G 
Fortin Construction, general alterations, Medical Inspection Room, "B" Bldg, Cartier 
Square; Alvin Stewart Co Ltd, addition to CEF Magnetometer Laboratory; Edgar Dage- 
nais, replacement of window safety anchors in Jackson Bldg & Annex; Doran Construction 
Co Ltd, alterations & painting, fourth floor, Motor Bldg; A Lanctot Construction Co Ltd, 
alterations, phases "B" & "C", RCMP Headquarters Bldg, Tremblay Road; Canada Decorat- 
ing & Painting Co Ltd, general redecoration, No 8 Temporary Bldg; Gendron Plumbing 
& Heating Ltd, supply & installation of new interior fire standpipe system & new domestic 
cold water piping, Militia Stores Bldg, Carter Square; L Beaudoin Construction Ltd, 
general repairs & painting exterior of Militia Stores Bldg, Cartier Square; J E Copeland 
Co Ltd, erection of Artillery Memorial, Major's Hill Park; W Sparks & Son Ltd, moving 
furniture & equipment from various locations to new Geological Surveys Bldg, Booth St. 
Port Burwell Ont: Sir Lindsay Parkinson (Canada) Ltd, harbour repairs & improvements. 
Port Dover Ont: Intrusion-Prepakt Ltd, reconstruction of pier. Port Stanley Ont: George L 
Dillon Construction Ltd, groyne repairs, Orchard Beach. Rondeau (Erieau) Ont: 
Bermingham Construction Ltd, construction of boat harbour. Silver Islet Ont: Croydon 
Construction Ltd, breakwater repairs. Toronto Ont: Canadian Dredge & Dock Co Ltd, 
runway extension. Bella Bella B C: Vancouver Pile Driving & Contracting Co Ltd, 
harbour improvements. Esquimalt B C: Pacific Pile Driving Co Ltd, reconstruction of Jetty 
"C". Oak Bay B C: Wakeman & Trimble Contractors Ltd, construction of Turkey Head 
breakwater. Sardis B C: The Bay Company (BC) Ltd, replacement of boiler, Phase 111, 
Coqualeetza Indian Hospital. Sointula (Rough Bay) B C: Quadra Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of boat harbour (approach, wharf & floats). Car cross Y T: William Vander- 
male & Leo Vugt, construction of duplex, Yukon Agency. 

847 



Contracts Containing the General Fair Wages Clause 

Gander Nfld: J C Pratt & Co, supply & installation of chain link fence, federal 
bldg. Skinner's Pond P E I: Norman N MacLean, dredging. Pictou N S: Ferguson Indus- 
tries Ltd, construction of two steel hopper scows. Yarmouth N S: Gateway Construction 
Ltd, paving of courtyard, federal bldg. Saint John N B: Vincent Construction Co, general 
alterations, Customs Bldg. Port Burwell Ont: Holden Sand & Gravel Ltd, dredging. 
Port Stanley Ont: Maritime Dredging Ltd, dredging. Prescott Ont: Jim Long, redecora- 
tion of UIC office space, Post Office Bldg. Ottawa Ont: A P Green Co Ltd, installation 
of new boilers, Jackson Bldg; L A Legault & Son Ltd, installation of electrical panels 
& outlets, Jackson Bldg; Universal Painters & Decorators, repainting stairwells & lobbies, 
RCMP Headquarters Bldg; H G Francis & Sons Ltd, supply & installation of new sink 
& related works, No 6 Temporary Bldg; Oak Construction Co Ltd, general alterations, 
No 8 Temporary Bldg; G R Hemming, supply & installation of floodlighting in various 
bldgs, Tunney's Pasture; L Beaudoin Construction Co, alterations to existing partitions, 
Trade & Commerce Bldg; T P Crawford, roof repairs, main bldg, National Research 
Council, Sussex Drive; Rene Cleroux, installation of new system of exhaust piping, 
National Research Council, Sussex Drive; Wilfred St Cyr, metallating steam flow meters, 
National Research Council, Sussex Drive; Louis G Fortin Construction Co. general 
alterations, DVA Memorial Bldg; Gendron Plumbing & Heating Co, washroom repairs, 
Centre Block, Parliament Bldgs; Duford Ltd, restoration of woodwork & cleaning of 
stone, Centre Block, Parliament Bldgs; Burchell Supply Ltd, installation of lightning 
protection system, Centre Block, Parliament Bldgs; Archie McWade, repairs to heating 
system, Central Heating Plant, Cliff St; R A Bingham & Son, general alterations, 
Canadian Bank Note Bldg, Wellington St. Campbell River B C: British Columbia Bridge 
& Dredging Company Limited, dredging. 

Department ot Transport 

Fox Point Nfld: J J Hussey, construction of single dwelling & storage shed & demoli- 
tion of existing dwelling. Ramea Island Nfld: Cameron Contracting Ltd, construction of 
non-directional radio beacon bldg, power house & related work. St John's Nfld: Horton 
Steel Works Ltd, installation of water storage tank, etc, at Airport. Green Island N S: 
R G McDougall Ltd, construction of single dwelling. Fredericton N B: Maritime Engineer- 
ing Ltd, construction of standby power house, omni range bldg & related work. Grindstone 
Island N B: Judson E Kelly, construction of two single dwellings & fog alarm bldg. 
Miscou Island N B: Atlantic Construction Ltd, construction of two single dwellings & 
demolition of existing dwelling. Saint John N B: Bedard-Girard Ltd, installation of air- 
port lighting facilities. Cap de Rabast Que: Oswald Richard, construction of single dwel- 
ling. Green Island Que: Aurele Tremblay & Rodrique Bherer, construction of two 
single dwellings & demolition of existing bldgs. Natashquan Point Que: Landry Con- 
struction Inc, construction of two single dwellings & demolition of existing dwelling. 
Table Head Que: Les Entreprises Gaspe Inc, construction of two single dwellings & demoli- 
tion of existing dwelling. Flower Pot Island Ont: Percy Spears, construction of single 
dwelling & pumphouse. Fort William Ont: Y W Nelson & Sons, construction of access 
road & VOR site, Lakehead Airport. London Ont: Con-Eng Contractors Ltd, construc- 
tion of ILS outer marker 14 & related work, Airport. Ottawa Ont: Conniston Construction 
Co Ltd, grading, topsoiling, fertilizing, seeding & sodding, etc, new Air Terminal area at 
Airport; Perini Ltd, construction of hangar for Dept of Transport, Uplands Airport. 
Peterborough Ont: Gray & Banks Ltd, erection of office bldg at Lift Lock No 21. 
Langruth Man: Ramstad & Tomasson, construction of VOR bldg & related work. 
Winnipeg Man: Benjamin Bros Ltd, additional development of Airport. Edmonton Alta: 
Wirtanen Electric Co Ltd, construction of lighting facilties, International Airport. Ballenas 
Island B C: Quinney & Fuller Construction Ltd, construction of single dwelling. Patricia 
Bay B C: J E Chilcott, installation of underground duct system & related work, Airport. 
Smith River B C: McCormick Electric Ltd, construction of lighting system on runway 
15-33 & taxiway. Vancouver B C: LeeBilt Construction Co, construction of VHF trans- 
mitter bldg at Airport; J H McRae Co Ltd, revisions to power system, Air Services 
Bldg, Airport. Cambridge Bay N W T: Yukon Construction Co Ltd, prefabrication, erec- 
tion & construction of various types of bldgs & related works (1959). Wrigley N W T: 
Poole Construction Co Ltd, drilling of water well & related services. Yellowknife N W T: 
Stevenson & Tredway Ltd, replacement of power poles & rebuilding of transmission & 
control lines to airport & radio range. 

848 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, July 1959 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
was unchanged at 125.9 between June and 
July 1959 and stood 1 per cent above the 
July 1958 level of 124.7.* A drop in the 
other commodities and services index 
balanced increases in the food, shelter, 
clothing, and household operation indexes. 

Further sharp declines in gasoline prices 
combined with seasonally lower prices for 
new passenger cars resulted in a 0.4-per-cent 
decrease in the other commodities and 
services index, 135.4 to 134.9. Higher 
prices for prepaid health care occurred in 
the Maritime Provinces. 

The food index was up 0.1 per cent 
from 119.1 to 119.2 as both increases and 
decreases, mostly fractional in nature, 
occurred on a wide range of items. Signi- 
ficant price changes were limited to potatoes 
and grapefruit. Beef and pork prices were 
quite steady. 

Small increases in both the rent and 
home-ownership components moved the 
shelter index up 0.1 per cent from 141.5 
to 141.7. An increase of 0.5 per cent in 
the clothing index, from 109.2 to 109.7, 
reflected prices up from previous sale price 
levels for a number of items, including 
men's suits and coats and children's shoes. 

The household operation index rose 0.2 
per cent from 122.5 to 122.7 as a result of 
minor price increases on a variety of items, 
including household utensils and equipment, 
supplies, household help, domestic gas, and 
electricity. Household appliances showed 
mixed results, with gas stoves and electric 
refrigerators up and electric stoves, washing 
machines, and vacuum cleaners at lower 
price levels. 

Group indexes one year earlier (July 
1958) were: food 121.4, shelter 138.4, 
clothing 109.9, household operation 120.6, 
and other commodities and services 130.4. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, June 1959 

Consumer price indexes (1949=100) 
increased in nine of the ten regional cities 
between May and June 1959; the Saint 
John index remained unchanged.! The 
increases ranged from 0.2 per cent in six 
cities to 0.4 per cent in St. John's and 
Saskatoon-Regina. 

♦See Table F-l at back of book, 
t See Table F-2 at back of book. 



Food indexes rose in all regional cities 
except Montreal on the strength of sharp 
seasonal increases in potato prices. Some 
other fresh vegetables and fruits, pork and 
lamb were generally higher. Egg prices 
were lower in most cities while sugar and 
coffee prices continued to decline. 

Shelter indexes were up in six of the 
ten regional cities, reflecting, to some 
extent, rent changes associated with the 
traditional May first moving date. Clothing 
indexes were down in all ten cities, with 
declines ranging up to 1.1 per cent in 
Saint John. Household operation indexes 
increased in five cities, decreased in three, 
and were unchanged in the other two 
regional cities. The other commodities and 
services indexes rose in all ten regional 
cities as pharmaceuticals, film, train fares, 
and personal care items were generally 
higher. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between May and June were as 
follows: St. John's +0.5 to 114.7*, Saska- 
toon-Regina + 0.5 to 122.6; Toronto +0.4 
to 128.5; Winnipeg +0.3 to 123.1; Van- 
couver + 0.3 to 127.1; Halifax +0.2 to 
125.6; Montreal +0.2 to 126.1; Ottawa 
+ 0.2 to 126.2; Edmonton-Calgary +0.2 to 
122.2. Saint John remained unchanged at 
126.9. 

Wholesale Price Index, June 1959 

The general wholesale price index (1935- 
39=100) eased slightly between May and 
June from 231.2 to 230.7, with four of the 
major group indexes declining, one increas- 
ing, and three remaining unchanged. 

The vegetable products group index 
declined between May and June from 201.2 
to 200.0, resulting mainly from lower prices 
for livestock and poultry feeds, raw sugar, 
raw rubber, and vegetable oils. The group 
index for animal products decreased from 
253.8 to 252.6, the non-ferrous metals group 
index from 175.7 to 174.8, and the non- 
metallic minerals group index from 185.9 
to 185.3. 

The textile products group index rose 
in June for the third consecutive month, 
from 228.8 to 229.9. 

Indexes for wood products, iron products 
and chemical products remained at May 
levels, 304.6, 255.8 and 187.3 respectively. 



On base June 1951=100. 



73835-1—6 



849 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 




1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 



Yearly Average 

The index of Canadian farm products 

prices (1935-39=100) increased from 218.8 
to 221.9 between May and June. The field 
products index rose from 166.5 to 173.1 
but the animal products index declined from 
271.0 to 270.6. 

The residential building materials price 
index (1949 = 100) declined 0.2 per cent 
between May and June, from 130.7 to 
130.5. The non-residential building materials 
price index remained the same at 131.9. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, June 1959 

A seasonal increase in food prices was 
responsible for a rise of 0.4 per cent in the 
United States consumer price index (1947- 
49=100) between mid-May and mid-June, 



Monthly Indexes 

to a record high of 124.5. The mid-May 
index was 124.0 and that for June 1958 
was 123.6. 

The month's increase was the largest 
since March 1958 and the only significant 
rise in the intervening period. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, May 1959 

For the second month in succession, the 
United Kingdom index of retail prices (Jan. 
17, 1956=100) has declined. Between mid- 
April and mid-May it fell from 109.5 to 
109.1, a level one tenth of a point lower 
than the 109.2 registered in mid-May 1958. 
At the beginning of this year, the index 
stood at 110.4 and has declined or remained 
stationary every month since. 



Decision of Umpire 

(Continued from page 842) 

none of the workers of the claimants' own 
grades or classes who were employed at 
the same respective premises, was par- 
ticipating in, financing or directly interested 
in the dispute, I consider that such claim- 
ants have also discharged the onus of prov- 
ing entitlement to relief from disqualifica- 
tion in virtue of subsection (2)(b). 

It will be observed that this finding is 
based on the interpretation which I believe 
must be given to the word "premises" in 
view of the particular circumstances of the 
present case. While it might appear that 
the present decision is in conflict with 



previous ones dealing with similar circum- 
stances, I have no knowledge of the pro- 
visions of the constitutions of the employers' 
associations involved in such previous de- 
cisions, but I have before me the constitution 
of the Toronto Builders Exchange. As such 
constitution shows clearly that the relation- 
ship of the Exchange to its members is that 
of a bargaining agent and similar to the 
relationship between a union and its mem- 
bers, I consider that the premises of each 
employer who is a member of the Exchange 
must be regarded as a separate entity. 

My decision, therefore, is to allow the 
Union's appeal. 



850 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should com- 
municate with the publishers. Publications 
listed may be borrowed by making applica- 
tion to the Librarian, Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the 
number (numeral) of the publication desired 
and the month in which it was listed in the 
Labour Gazette. List No. 130. 

Annual Reports 

1. Alberta. .Bureau of Statistics. An- 
nual Review of Business Conditions, Alberta, 
1958. Edmonton, 1959. Pp. 19. 

2. American Labor Education Service, 
Inc., New York. Annual Report for the 
Year 1958. [New York, 1959?] Pp. 14. 

3. Australia. Public Service Board. 
Thirty-Fourth Report on the Public Service 
of the Commonwealth. [Canberra, Com- 
monwealth Government Printer, 1959?] Pp. 
49. 

4. Malta. Department of Emigration, 
Labor and Social Welfare. Report for 
the Year, 1957. Valletta, 1958. 1 volume 
(unpaged). 

5. Organization for European Econ- 
omic Co-operation. Policies for Sound 
Growth. 10th Annual Economic Review. 
Paris, 1959. Pp. 133. 

Congresses and Conventions 

6. Canadian Teachers' Federation. 
Minutes, Thirty -Seventh Conference . . . 
Niagara Falls, Ontario, August 11-16, 1958. 
Ottawa, 1958. 1 volume (unpaged). 

7. Farmer-Labour-Teacher Institute. 
How can Education meet the Challenge of 
our Age? Report of the Twelfth Annual 
Institute, June 28,-July 2, 1958, Fort Qu'ap- 
pelle, Sask. [Regina? 1958] Pp. 21. 

8. Indian National Trade Union Con- 
gress. A Brief Review, Ninth Annual Ses- 
sion, January, 1958. New Delhi, 1958. 
Pp. 108. 

Economic Conditions 

The following seven reports were issued 
by the Organization for European Econ- 
omic Co-operation in Paris in 1958. 

9. Economic Conditions in Austria, Swit- 
zerland, 1958. Pp. 33. 

10. Economic Conditions in France, 1958. 
Pp. 30. 

11. Economic Conditions in Italy, 1958. 
Pp. 27. 



12. Economic Conditions in Member and 
Associated Countries of the OEEC: Bene- 
lux, 1958. Pp. 46. 

Covers conditions in Belgium, Luxem- 
burg and The Netherlands. 

13. Economic Conditions in Member and 
Associated Countries of the OEEC: Den- 
mark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, 1958. Pp. 
58. 

14. Economic Conditions in the Federal 
Republic of Germany, 1958. Pp. 25. 

15. Economic Conditions in the United 
Kingdom, 1958. Pp. 26. 

Education, Vocational 

16. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Outline of Technical Training in the United 
Kingdom. Ottawa, 1958. Pp. 57. 

17. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Vocational Training Program in Canada. 
A. Technical and Trade Training Publicly- 
Operated. Ottawa, 1958. Pp. 122. 

Improper Activities in the Labour or 
Management Field 

18. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. The McClellan Committee 
Hearings, 1957. Prepared by the Publisher's 
Editorial Staff. Washington, 1958. Pp. 508. 

"Based in part on the on-the-spot report of 
the hearings in BNA's Daily labor report." 

The McClellan Committee investigated the 
following subjects in 1957: "1. Labor-manage- 
ment collusion; 2. Undemocratic processes in 
unions; 3. Misuse of union funds and of 
welfare and pension funds from any source; 
4. Racketeering control of unions; 5. Secondary 
boycotts; 6. Bribery and extortion; 7. Organi- 
zational picketing; 8. Violence; 9. Paper locals; 
10. Political activities of unions; 11. Improper 
activities by management to prevent organiza- 
tion." 

19. U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Com- 
mittee on Improper Activities in the 
Labor or Management Field. Investigation 
of Improper Activities in the Labor or 
Managment Field. Hearings before the 
Select Committee on Improper Activities in 
the Labor or Management Field, Eighty- 
fifth Congress, First Session- pursuant 
to Senate Resolution 74, 85th Congress . . . 
Washington, G.P.O., 1957- 47 parts 
(in Labour Library's holdings). 

Hearings held February 26, 1957 to date. 

The Select Committee is authorized and 
directed "to conduct an investigation and study 
of the extent to which criminal or other im- 
proper practices or activities are, or have been, 
engaged in the field of labor-management 
relations or in groups or organizations of 
employees or employers to the detriment of 
the interests of the public, employers or em- 
ployees, and to determine whether any changes 



73835-1— 6i 



851 



are required in the laws ... in order to protect 
such interests against the occurrence of such 
practices or activities." 

Industrial Relations 

20. Davey, Harold William, Ed. New 
Dimensions in Collective Bargaining. Edi- 
tors: Harold W. Davey, Howard S. Kalten- 
born and Stanley H. Ruttenberg. 1st ed. 
New York, Harper, 1959. Pp. 203. 

Deals with collective bargaining as it touches 
on rival unions, automation, supplemental un- 
employment benefit plans, and health and wel- 
fare plans. Includes chapter on the impact of 
the Taft-Hartley Act on collective bargaining 
relationships. 

21. Hare, Anthony Edward Christian. 
The First Principles of Industrial Relations. 
London, Macmillan, 1958 [i.e. 1959] Pp. 
145. 

Discusses some of the reasons for industrial 
unrest and suggests some solutions to the 
problem. 

22. Karsh, Bernard. Diary of a Strike. 
Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1958. 
Pp. 108. 

This is the account of an actual strike which 
occurred in a small city on the upper Great 
Lakes when a union attempted to organize 
the workers in a plant. Describes how a union 
is organized, how a strike is conducted, how 
differences are finally settled, and the role of 
the professional union organizer in these pro- 
ceedings. 

Industry 

23. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Re- 
vised Index of Industrial Production, 1935- 
1957 (1949=100). Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 
1959. Pp. 122. 

24. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Technological Changes and Skilled Man- 
power: the Household Appliance Industry. 
Ottawa, 1958. Pp. 27. 

25. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Foreign Licensing Agreements. II. 
Contract Negotiations and Administration. 
New York, cl959. Pp. 96. 

Based on information supplied by 131 com- 
panies. Contents: Choosing the Licensee. Ne- 
gotiating the Agreement. The Licensing Con- 
tract. Definitions and Scope of Agreement. 
Tenure and Termination Provisions. Major 
Commitments of the Licensor. Major Commit- 
ments of the Licensee. Royalties and Other 
Remuneration. General Provisions. Implement- 
ing and administering the Agreement. Holding 
the Licensee. Sample Contract Provisions. 

26. Rosen, George. Industrial Change 
in India; Industrial Growth, Capital Require- 
ments, and Technological Change, 1937- 
1955. Glencoe, 111., Free Press, 1958. Pp. 
243. 

Examines five industries: cement, cotton tex- 
tiles, iron and steel, paper and sugar. 

27. United Nations. Department of 
Economic and Social Affairs. The Devel- 
opment of Manufacturing Industry in Egypt, 
Israel and Turkey. New York, 1958. Pp. 
131. 

852 



Covers the period from the nineteen twen- 
ties to the end of 1956. Primarily concerned 
with the growth of medium-scale and large- 
scale manufacturing establishments. 

Industry— Location 

The following two publications were 
issued by the Alberta Industrial Develop- 
ment Branch in Edmonton in 1958 (?). 

28. Survey of Barrhead. Rev. October 

1957. Pp. 12. 

29. Survey of McLennan. Rev. Novem- 
ber 1958. Pp. 16. 

Labour Laws and Legislation 

30. European Coal and Steel Com- 
munity. High Authority. La stabilite de 
Vemploi dans le droit des pays membres de 
la C.E.C.A., par G. Boldt [and others]. 
Luxembourg, 1958. Pp. 311. 

Contents: Rapport de synthese, par Paul 
Durand. La stabilite de l'emploi en droit alle- 
mand, par G. Boldt. La stabilite de l'emploi en 
droit beige, par Paul Horion. La stabilite de 
l'emploi en droit francais, par Paul Durand. 
La stabilite de l'emploi en droit italien, par 
Luigi Mengoni. La stabilite de l'emploi en 
droit luxembourgeois, par Armand Kayser. La 
stabilite de l'emploi en droit neerlandais, par 
A. N. Molenaar. 

31. International Labour Office. Con- 
flicts of Laws in Labour Matters, Inter- 
national Standards and General Principles; 
National Report. Geneva, 1957. 6 parts. 

Reports in English or French. 

Contents: Australia, by Ian G. Sharp. France, 
by Charles Freyrie. Germany, by C. Beitzke. 
Italy, by A. Malintoppi. United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, by Otto 
Kahn-Freund. United States of America, by 
Stuart Rothman. 

32. Vester, Horatio. Trade Union Law 
and Practice, by Horatio Vester and Anthony 
H. Gardner. London, Sweet & Maxwell, 

1958. Pp. 300. 

Deals with laws concerning trade unions in 
Great Britain. 

Labour Organization 

33. Dayton, Eldorous. Walter Reuther; 
the Autocrat of the Bargaining Table. New 
York, Devin-Adair Co., 1958. Pp. 280. 

An unsympathetic biography of the president 
of the United Automobile Workers and vice- 
president of the AFL-CIO. 

34. Flanders, Allan. Trade Unions. 
Tillicoultry, Scotland, N.C.L.C. Publishing 
Society Ltd., 1957. Pp. 176. 

Contents: Historical Introduction. Diversity 
of Organization. Internal Democracy. Trades 
Union Congress. Collective Bargaining. Indus- 
trial Democracy. Political Action. Relations 
with the State. 

35. Fox, Alan. A History of the 
National Union of Boot and Shoe Opera- 
tives, 1874-1957. Oxford, B. Blackwell, 
1958. Pp. 684. 

During its history this union has enjoyed a 
good working relationship with employers. In 
1957 there were about 82,000 members. 






36. Goldberg, Joseph Philip. The Mari- 
time Story; a Study in Labor-Management 
Relations. Cambridge, Harvard University 
Pres, 1958. Pp. 361. 

An account of seamen's unions from 1900 
to 1956. 

37. International Union, United Auto- 
mobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Im- 
plement Workers of America. Public 
Review Board. First Annual Report to the 
Membership of the UAW, 1957-1958. 
Detroit, 1958. Pp. 36. 

The Public Review Board of the U.A.W., 
consisting of seven independent citizens, was 
set up to examine the moral and ethical con- 
duct of the union's internal operations. During 
the 18 months covered by the report the 
Board reviewed twenty-four cases of which it 
decided on sixteen, dismissed five cases for 
jurisdictional reasons or abandonment by the 
appellants, and is still considering the remaining 
three cases. 

38. Karson, Marc. American Labor 
Unions and Politics, 1900-1918. Foreword 
by Selig Perlman. Carbondale, Southern 
Illinois University Press, 1958. Pp. 358. 

This is the first of a projected two-volume 
work. This book deals with the political activi- 
ties of the American Federation of Labor, the 
Industrial Workers of the World, and the role 
of the Roman Catholic Church in the American 
labour movement. 

39. Tannenbaum, Arnold Sherwood. 
Participation in Union Locals, by Arnold S. 
Tannenbaum and Robert L. Kami. Evans- 
ton, 111., Row Peterson, 1958. Pp. 275. 

A study of four union locals was made to 
find out what the active union member is like 
and how he differs from the inactive member 
and what the active union is like and how it 
differs from the inactive union. 

Labouring Classes 

40. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Work- 
ing Conditions in Canada, 1958. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1958. Pp. 59. 

41. Cheit, Earl Frank. Benefit Levels in 
Workmen's Compensation. Berkeley, Uni- 
versity of California, Institute of Industrial 
Relations, 1958. Pp. 723-730. 

The year 1958, marked the 50th anniversary 
of workmen's compensation in the United 
States. 

42. Cole, George Douglas Howard. A 
Short History of the British Working-Class 
Movement, 1789-1947. New ed., completely 
rev. and continued to 1947. London, 
G. Allen & Unwin, 1948. Pp. 500. 

43. Hewitt, Margaret. Wives and 
Mothers in Victorian Industry. London, 
Rockliff, 1958. Pp. 245. 

Describes the effect on the organization and 
structure of the working-class home when the 
mother was working. 

Management 

44. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Charting the Company Organization 



Structure, by Louis A. Allen. New York, 
1959. Pp. 60. 

The organization chart is used to analyze 
and assess the existing structure of companies 
to identify weaknesses and to plan improve- 
ments in the company. Contents: Uses of 
Organization Charts. Preparing the Organiza- 
tion Chart. Charting the Organization Struc- 
ture. Mechanics of Charting. 

45. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Corporate Directorship Practices, 
by Solomon Ethe and Roger M. Pegman in 
cooperation with the American Society of 
Corporate Secretaries. New York, 1959. 
Pp. 92. 

Describes current practices with regard to 
all phases of the corporate directorship that 
might interest either directors or management. 
Based on information supplied by 976 com- 
panies. 

Public Welfare 

46. U.S. Division of Public Health 
Methods. Homemaker Services in the 
United States, 1958; a Nationwide Study, by 
William H. Stewart, Maryland Y. Pennell 
and Lucille M. Smith. Washington, 1959. 
Pp. 92. 

47. U.S. Division of Public Health 
Methods. Homemaker Services in the 
United States, 1958; Twelve Statements 
describing Different Types of Homemaker 
Services. Washington, 1958. Pp. 99. 

Wages and Hours 

48. International Labour Office. Ma- 
chinery for Wage Fixing and Wages Pro- 
tection. Third item on the agenda. Geneva, 
1957. Pp. 93. 

At head of title: Report 3. International 
Labour Organization. Tripartite Technical 
Meeting for Mines Other Than Coal Mines. 
Geneva, 1957. 

Discusses methods of wage determination, 
three systems of wage payment (by time, by 
contract or piecework, and by bonus systems) 
and, the protection of wages. 

49. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Clerical Salaries in 18 Cities, Octo- 
ber, 1958, by Mitchell Meyer and Harland 
Fox. New York, 1958. Pp. 27. 

Provides information about the number of 
firms reporting, the number of employees 
covered, and the weekly salaries paid. 

50. Ocheltree, Keith. How to prepare 
a Sound Pay Plan. Chicago, Public Per- 
sonnel Association, 1957. Pp. 41. 

Miscellaneous 

51. Committee for Research in Social 
Economics. Quantity and Cost Budgets for 
Two Income Levels; Prices for the San 
Francisco Bay Area, September 1958. Family 
of a Salaried Junior Professional and Execu- 
tive Worker; Family of Wage Earner . . . 
Berkeley, cl959. Pp. 86. 



853 



52. Canning, Richard G. Installing Elec- 
tronic Data Processing Systems. New York, 
Wiley, 1957. Pp. 193. 

53. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. The Problem of National Security, 
Some Economic and Administrative Aspects; 
a Statement on National Policy by the 
Research and Policy Committee of the Com- 
mittee for Economic Development. New 
York, 1958. Pp. 58. 

A discussion of the American defence pro- 
gram. 

54. Parkinson, Cyril Northcote. Par- 
kinson's Law, and Other Studies in Adminis- 
tration. Illustrated by Robert C. Osborn. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1957. Pp. 112. 

Consists of ten facetious essays. 

Contents: Parkinson's Law, or the Rising 
Pyramid. The Will of the People, or Annual 
General Meeting. High Finance, or the Point 
of Vanishing Interest. Directors and Councils, 
or Coemciency of Inefficiency. The Short List, 



or Principles of Selection. Plans and Plants, 
or the Administration Block. Personality Screen, 
or the Cocktail Formula. Injelititis, or Palsied 
Paralysis. Palm Thatch to Packard, or a For- 
mula for Success. Pension Point, or the Age 
of Retirement. 

55. Roeder, Bernard. Katorga; an As- 
pect of Modern Slavery. Translated by 
L. Kochen. London, Heinemann 1958. 
Pp. 271. 

"Katorga" means "forced labour." An account 
of the author's experience in Russian forced 
labour camps from the beginning of 1950 to 
the end of 1955. 

56. Townsend, Peter Brereton. The 
Family Life of Old People; an Inquiry in 
East London. London, Routledge & Kegan 
Paul, 1957. Pp. 284. 

"This book is in two parts. The first describes 
the family life of people of pensionable age 
in a working-class borough of East London; 
the second discusses the chief social problems 
of old age against the background of family 
organization and relationships." 



McGill's Industrial Relations Conference in September 



The 11th annual conference of the McGill 
Industrial Relations Centre will be held in 
the Physical Sciences Centre, McGill Uni- 
versity, on September 10 and 11. The 
theme of the conference will be "Unions and 
the Future". 

The five speakers at the conference and 
their subjects will be as follows: Dr. Richard 
A. Lester, Professor of Economics in the 
Industrial Relations Section at Princeton 
University — "Unions in the Next Decade"; 
Dr. Sylvia Ostry, Assistant Professor in the 
Department of Economics and Political 
Science, McGill University — "Some Aspects 
of the Canadian Wage Structure — Implica- 
tions for Union Policy"; Oakley Dagleish, 
Editor and Publisher of the Toronto Globe 



and Mail (dinner speaker) — "Reflections 
From Experience"; Archibald B. Cox, Pro- 
fessor of Law at Harvard University — 
"Legislating the Internal Behaviour of 
Unions"; and Dr. F. R. Scott, Macdonald 
Professor of Law at McGill — "Federal Juris- 
diction Over Labour Relations — A New 
Look". 

A panel discussion on the theme of the 
conference will conclude the session. The 
panel members will be: K. G. K. Baker, 
Executive Assistant to the President, Howard 
Smith Paper Mills Ltd.; Gerard Picard, 
President, National Metal Trades Federa- 
tion (CCCL); P. G. Pyle, member of the 
Central Ontario Industrial Relations Insti- 
tute; and Leo Roback, a partner in the firm 
of Research Associates. 



U.S. Surveys Extent of Pay For Time Not Worked 



The United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics has undertaken for the first time 
to find out how many of the hours em- 
ployers pay for are actually worked and 
how many represent time off with pay. 
This is being done at the request of the 
President's Council of Economic Advisers, 
the members of which want better criteria 
for estimating productivity. 

The survey will cover production and 
related workers in manufacturing plants in 
1958, and the findings should be read later 
this year. The Bureau plans to survey some 
of the non-manufacturing industries for 
1959 and others for I960. 



The study will deal with the proportion 
of hours paid for which are not worked 
because of six kinds of paid time off: 
vacations; holidays; sick leave; military 
leave; time off for jury duty, voting, and 
testifying in court; and personal leave on 
account of death in the family or for 
other reasons. Time paid for but not 
worked that is difficult to measure or is 
comparatively unimportant, such as coffee 
breaks and rest periods, will not be con- 
sidered. Nor will the cost of fringe benefits 
not connected with working hours, such 
as pensions and health and life insurance, 
be covered. 



854 



LABOUR STATISTICS 



Table A-l and A-2— Labour Force 


Page 
855 


Table B-l — Labour Income 


856 


Table G-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Table D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 


857 

861 


Table E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 


867 


Table F-l and F-2— Prices 


869 


Table G-l to G-4 — Strikes and Lockouts 


870 





A — Labour Force 

Note — Small adjustments have been made in the labour force figures to bring them into line with popula- 
tion estimates based on the 1956 Census: consequently, the figures in Tables A-l and A-2 are not strictly- 
comparable with those for months prior to August 1958. Detailed figures on the revised basis for those 
earlier months are given in The Labour Force, a Dominion Bureau of Statistics publication (catalogue 
No. 71502). 

TABLE A-l.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED MAY 16, 1959 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 


6,186 

732 

5,454 

4,659 

685 

3,974 

1,527 

47 

1,480 

6,186 
547 

786 
2,880 
1,747 

226 

5,852 
4,361 
1,491 

724 
5,128 

4,695 
3,345 
1,350 

334 

5,345 
1,093 
4,252 


116 

113 

96 

* 

93 

20 

* 

20 

116 
14 
20 
53 

28 
* 

91 

72 
19 

• 
88 

76 
58 
18 

25(0 

152 

45 
107 


441 
63 

378 

342 

60 

282 

99 

* 

96 

441 
45 
58 
187 
131 
20 

407 

311 

96 

62 
345 

316 
230 

86 

34 

454 

98 

356 


1,732 

176 

1,556 

1,310 

172 

1,138 

422 

418 

1,732 
192 
253 
797 
439 
51 

1,594 

1,186 

408 

173 
1,421 

1,295 
921 
374 

138 

1,523 

297 

1,226 


2,264 

172 

2,092 

1,668 

162 

1,506 

596 

10 

586 

2,264 
166 
262 

1,080 
664 
92 

2,182 

1,596 

586 

170 

2,012 

1,855 

1,313 

542 

82 

1,794 
337 

1,457 


1,072 
292 
780 

814 
264 
550 

258 

28 

230 

1,072 

94 

129 

491 

315 

43 

1,044 
790 
254 

291 
753 

696 
483 
213 

28 

905 
195 
710 


561 




26 




535 




429 




24 




405 




132 




* 




130 




561 




36 


20—24 years 


64 




272 




170 




19 


Persons with Jobs 


534 


Males 


406 




128 


Agricultural 


25 




509 


Paid Workers 


457 


Males 


340 




117 


Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 
Both Sexes 


27 


Persons not in the Labour Force 
Both Sexes 


517 


Males 


121 




396 







* Less than 10,000. 

0) The change between September and October 1958 in the level of estimates of "Persons without jobs and seeking 
work" in Newfoundland appeared to be mainly a manifestation of sampling error. This factor should be recognized in 
any comparison of estimates for September 1958 or earlier with estimates for October 1958 or later. 

855 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
May 16, 1959 


Week Ended 
April 18, 1959 


Week Ended 
May 24, 1958 




Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 

Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 




364 

334 
61 

102 
99 
50 
10 
12 

30 

* 

21 


349 
321 

28 

* 

20 


478 

445 
70 
135 
156 
59 
12 
13 

33 
11 

22 


455 
425 

30 
10 
20 


402 

370 
74 
100 
124 

* 59 

32 
10 

22 


388 




359 













__ 







13—18 months . 


__ 









29 








20 







(0 To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



B — Labour Income 

Note: The estimates of labour income in this table have been revised in accordance with recent revisions to the 
National Accounts. Note particularly the use of annual totals instead of monthly averages, and the introduction of 
quarterly instead of monthly totals for some industries. Monthly and quarterly figures may not add to annual totals 
because of rounding. 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

(* Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Totals 


Quarterly Totals 1 




Year and 

Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage, 
and 
Communi- 
cation 2 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 

Utilities 


Trade 


Finance, 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 3 


1954— Total. . . . 
1955— Total.... 
1 950— Total. . . . 
1957— Total.... 
1958— Total.... 

1958— April.... 


402 
432 
498 
535 
526 

43.1 
44.1 
44.7 
44.1 
44.7 
43.9 
42.5 
42.3 
42.0 

44.8 
45.1 
44.7 
44.9 
45.1 


3,903 
4,148 
4,586 
4,805 
4,745 

391.2 
400.1 
403.7 
401.0 
398.6 
403.5 
398.8 
400.9 
393.2 

400.9 
402.0 
405.3 
409.2 
420.2 


1,317 
1,396 
1,560 
1,658 
1,664 

133.9 

140.3 
142.4 
145.0 
145. 1 
142.9 
142.3 
141.7 
139.0 

146.1 

136.9 
137.0 
140.2 
147.0 


310 
329 
371 

336 
271 


869 

915 

1,210 

1,316 

1,336 


204 
204 
239 
263 

285 


1,764 
1,870 
2,069 
2,263 
2,356 


3,010 
3,211 
3,546 
3,954 
4,334 


494 
538 
617 
673 

717 


12,452 
13,223 
14,890 
15,996 
16,434 

1,321.6 


May 


61.3 


337.5 


71.5 


583.7 


1,079.8 


178.1 


1,375.9 
1,407.1 


July 














1,405.4 


August.. . 
Sept 


68.4 


396.2 


73.7 


590. 5 


1,095.2 


182.2 


1,411.6 
1,434.9 


Oct 














1,417.7 


Nov 

Dec 


82.8 


337.7 


72.3 


616.8 


1,132.7 


184.4 


1,413.0 
1,383.2 


1959— Jan 














1,385.5 


Feb 


62.9 


292.3 


71.3 


603.0 


1,159.9 


185.7 


1,386.0 
1,398.5 
















1,427.3 
















1,421.5 



















1 Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals. 

2 Includes post office wages and salaries. 

3 Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining colum 
of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. (See also headnote.) 

* Revised. 



856 



: 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers haying 15 or more employees— at April, r 1959,~em- 
ployers in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,636,188. Tables C-l 
(every second month) and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of Arms than Tables C-4 
to C-3. They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables 
C-l to C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners in the reporting firms. 

TABLE C-l— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 





Index N 


industrial Composite 1 




Manufacturing 


Year and Month 


imbers (1949 = 100) 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers (1949 = 100) 


Average 
Weekly 

Wages and 
Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Averages 
1954 . 


109.9 
112.9 
120.7 
122.6 
117.9 

114.6 

118.7 
121.3 
122.0 
121.8 
121.9 
120.1 
119.2 
115.8 

113.7 
113.0 
113.7 
115.6 


151.6 

161.2 
182.0 
194.7 
194.1 

188.3 
196.3 
200.3 
201.6 
201.1 
201.8 
199.5 
199.4 
186.5 

192.2 
193.1 
193.0 
197.9 


137.4 
142.1 
150.0 
158.1 
163.9 

163.8 
164.7 
164.6 
164.7 
164.5 
164.9 
165.6 
166.7 
160.4 

168.4 
170.2 
169.0 
171.5 


59.04 
61.05 
64.44 
67.93 
70.43 

70.35 
70.76 
70.70 
70.76 
70.67 
70.85 
71.13 
71.60 
68.91 

72.34 
73.11 
72.60 
73.26 


107.3 
109.8 
115.8 
115.8 
109.8 

108.8 
110.4 
112.0 
111.8 
111.5 
112.4 
110.1 
109.6 
106.8 

107.5 
107.5 
108.4 
109.4 


150.0 
159.5 
176.8 
185.3 
182.7 

181.6 

185.6 
187.4 
186.0 
184.9 
187.2 
185.0 
186.0 
173.4 

185.1 
186.2 
186.8 
189.8 


139.1 
144.4 
151.7 
159.1 
165.3 

165.8 
167.0 
166.2 
165.2 
164.7 
165.4 
166.8 
168.5 
161.3 

170.9 
171.9 
172.0 
172.1 


61.15 


1955 


63.48 


1956 


66.71 


1957 .. 


69.94 


1958 . . 


72.67 


1958 


72.92 




73.42 




73.06 


July 


72.62 




72.40 


September 


72.73 
73.36 




74.11 




70.91 


1959 


75.16 




75.59 




75.22 


April 


75.69 







1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 

Technical Note— A change has been made in the method of dating the statistics published in Tables C-l to C-6 to 
conform with the usual practice of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In the past, statistics for the last pay period in a 
month were labelled "pay period preceding" the first day of the following month. From now on, statistics for the last 
pay period in a month will be labelled for that month. Another change is that average hourly earnings, formerly ex- 
pressed in cents carried to one decimal place, are now published in dollars and cents. 



857 



TABLE C-2.-AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Area 


Employment Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 


Apr. 
1959 


Mar. 
1959 


Apr. 
1958 


Apr. 
1959 


Mar. 
1959 


Apr. 
1958 


Provinces 


106.7 
108.5 
92.2 
91.1 
113.6 
118.5 
107.6 
123.9 
146.5 
114.1 

115.6 

116.3 
86.5 
115.0 
95.4 
92.3 
105.2 
109.1 
99.9 
94.3 
112.3 
76.1 
122.6 
121.1 
109.5 
100.1 
179.5 
129.0 
110.5 
110.9 
97.1 
92.1 
123.7 
109.9 
117.7 
136.6 
91.7 
121.8 
107.3 
80.3 
138.0 
109.9 
107.9 
129.9 
130.0 
180.2 
163.3 
115.8 
115.4 


106.4 
104.4 
87.9 
96.3 
110.9 
116.9 
105.9 
119.5 
145.9 
112.2 

113.7 

118.9 

68.8 
118.8 

91.6 
110.2 
100.5 
106.7 

99.1 

94.3 
108.2 

76.8 
119.2 
118.8 
107.6 

99.3 
179.1 
127.7 
107.3 
109.4 

93.7 

92.1 
123.2 
109.4 
115.9 
133.4 

91.4 
120.7 
102.2 

79.1 
133.7 
104.7 
106.8 
127.0 
125.2 
174.8 
159.7 
114.3 
114.7 


1949 

111.3 

102.7 
91.3 
87.9 
112.8 
118.5 
105.4 
119.5 
141.1 
111.2 

114.6 

119.9 
88.8 

111.8 
90.8 
87.3 


$ 

65.17 
56.45 
60.28 
60.08 
70.54 
75.99 
69.38 
69.23 
74.95 
79.85 

73.36 

55.45 
73.42 
59.83 
56.94 
56.65 
87.05 
61.82 
59.41 
79.04 
67.50 
60.67 
71.62 
67.54 
69.70 
81.35 
83.62 
76.49 
81.15 
83.39 
77.18 
70.47 
67.93 
65.69 
68.69 
87.09 
66.81 
69.24 
94.99 
83.16 
90.13 
71.51 
66.50 
66.40 
66.16 
70.41 
70.10 
78.66 
72.40 


$ 

64.65 
54.88 
59.75 
61.14 
69.50 
75.39 
68.92 
69.04 
75.27 
78.70 

72.60 

53.22 
73.36 
59.32 
57.90 
56.51 
86.99 
60.30 
57.81 
77.81 
65.86 
60.48 
70.48 
66.56 
69.65 
80.84 
83.52 
75.69 
80.45 
82.51 
78.62 
69.72 
67.57 
65.79 
68.52 
91.41 
66.59 
68.45 
93.29 
82.35 
90.49 
72.31 
65.99 
66.08 
65.15 
70.72 
69.98 
77.71 
70.55 


$ 
63.29 




52.72 




58.38 




57.25 




67.98 




72.94 




65.70 




66.75 




71.45 




76.45 




70.35 


Urban Areas 


51.19 




71.55 




57.09 




55.47 




53.87 








107.2 
96.6 
90.5 
110.8 
72.4 
120.9 
117.6 
113.7 
99.5 
169.3 
129.9 
108.8 
109.9 
107.3 
86.7 
114.0 
109.3 
109.7 
138.8 
85.3 
118.3 
135.7 
80.3 
134.3 
114.4 
105.0 
118.5 
126.6 
172.2 
149.5 
112.8 
113.4 


59.12 




57.82 




76.48 




62.67 




58.87 




68.94 




63.76 




67.31 




77.26 




80.67 




73.70 




76.59 




80.63 




76.40 




67.12 




65.69 




61.97 




64.59 




86.83 




63.57 




66.30 




91.65 




78.22 


Sault Ste. Marie 


85.26 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


70.42 




62.97 




63.81 




62.59 




66.89 




66.96 




74.95 




68.89 







TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

This table is published every second month. 



858 



TABLE C-3.— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 

WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Industry 


Employment Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 


Apr. 
1959 


Mar. 
1959 


Apr. 
1958 


Apr. 
1959 


Mar. 
1959 


Apr. 
1958 


Mining 


120.6 

139.2 
72.6 

201.3 
90.9 
48.5 

257.6 

125.1 

109.4 

114.9 
104.8 
105.9 
134.5 
72.5 
103.7 
107.2 
101.0 
99.7 
103.5 
88.4 
95.6 
79.4 
76.2 
57.4 
81.5 
92.4 
93.7 
98.7 
78.9 
102.3 
102.9 
110.5 
84.2 
120.6 
121.3 
118.6 
120.2 
107.7 
80.8 
160.4 
97.5 
102.0 
97.5 
114.3 
115.1 
108.8 
117.9 
116.5 
262.0 
111.9 
114.9 
69.5 
137.7 
124.1 
133.9 
111.1 
138.5 
132.8 
110.9 
203.6 
140.0 
101.9 
144.4 
139.4 
126.6 
118.7 
140.7 
125.5 

118.7 

119.6 
117.4 
126.4 

134.4 

123.1 
112.9 

115.6 


118.4 

138.4 
72.0 

200.4 
87.6 
37.9 

283.2 

119.1 

108.4 

113.3 
104.2 
102.8 
129.5 
69.8 
102.2 
107.9 
99.3 
111.9 
103.5 
89.0 
96.3 
79.2 
76.8 
56.4 
81.4 
94.4 
95.0 
103.4 
79.4 
101.8 
102.9 
109.6 
81.7 
118.6 
118.8 
118.1 
119.9 
106.3 
79.3 
158.3 
96.3 
101.1 
98.0 
111.8 
112.7 
105.5 
116.9 
114.7 
259.7 
112.4 
113.7 
66.2 
135.4 
122.3 
129.3 
111.2 
135.6 
132.1 
110.0 
204.2 
133.7 
99.6 
140.7 
138.5 
125.2 
119.3 
140.8 
123.8 

107.1 

107.9 
106.0 
125.3 

132.6 

121.1 
112.7 

113.7 


121.9 

136.5 
74.4 

194.5 
97.8 
55.8 

262.4 

127.7 

108.8 
115.5 
103.0 
104.0 
123.4 
74.1 
103.8 
106.9 
102.9 
109.2 
97.1 
84.3 
89.9 
76.7 
75.3 
58.1 
78.6 
90.0 
92.8 
95.8 
75.8 
96.9 
94.8 
107.6 
86.6 
118.5 
118.7 
118.0 
118.6 
104.1 
69.7 
152.8 
90.8 
96.2 
97.4 
114.7 
109.3 
101.0 
111.1 
129.6 
368.1 
106.6 
102.4 
80.3 
154.2 
125.4 
124.9 
101.7 
152.5 
135.0 
123.9 
205.7 
129.1 
98.4 
133.2 
138.9 
131.8 
120.2 
150.2 
118.4 

115.9 

119.1 
110.8 
122.6 

130.6 

119.6 
117.4 

114.6 


90.75 

93.44 
74.18 
99.91 
89.92 
68.96 
105.45 
78.95 

75.69 

81.33 
70.40 
68.99 
78.27 
64.92 
70.85 
66.27 
87.89 
69.85 
79.11 
50.00 
47.33 
60.29 
55.65 
57.82 
66.65 
47.07 
45.99 
49.30 
46.22 
64.83 
66.87 
62.53 
58.84 
86.83 
92.90 
71.20 
81.80 
85.77 
88.70 
87.78 
77.40 
73.44 
81.95 
82.69 
97.71 
83.59 
86.71 
85.59 
88.40 
93.98 
84.62 
78.15 
81.36 
85.74 
82.20 
79.62 
94.38 
81.41 
87.56 
79.18 
78.32 
72.66 
75.69 
111.23 
85.52 
75.32 
97.78 
67.16 

75.60 

82.76 
63.84 
76.31 

50.35 

39.96 
45.73 

73.26 


91.65 

93.43 
73.95 
99.96 
92.18 
63.06 
107.50 
81.14 

75.22 

80.73 
70.11 
68.87 
79.53 
63.78 
70.82 
65.70 
88.24 
64.23 
78.80 
50.32 
47.41 
59.94 
56.21 
57.20 
65.87 
47.31 
46.93 
49.28 
45.65 
63.96 
66.10 
61.47 
57.61 
86.68 
93.05 
70.53 
81.64 
85.03 
87.88 
85.70 
76.81 
72.13 
80.42 
81.21 
98.72 
83.03 
86.49 
84.73 
89.59 
91.56 
83.15 
78.62 
78.35 
87.05 
82.85 
79.26 
97.17 
80.27 
87.40 
77.63 
78.54 
71.52 
77.57 
112.50 
85.85 
75.69 
99.33 
66.15 

73.11 

78.34 
64.53 
76.62 

50.01 

39.78 
44.41 

72.60 


86 19 




88.99 


Gold 


73.51 




94.51 


Fuels 


83.64 


Coal 


66.80 




97.65 




78.47 




72.92 




78.28 




67.77 




65.63 




73.56 


Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 


62.34 
71.44 




62.58 




83.32 




63.81 




73.06 




48.70 




46.08 




57.59 




52.62 




54.50 




64.05 




46.05 




44.98 




48.26 




44.89 




62.65 




64.90 




60.34 




56.51 




84.35 




90.10 




70.08 




78.59 




81.02 




81.54 




82.50 




73.59 




71.08 




76.72 




78.97 




92.34 




78.69 




80.76 




82.45 




88.75 




89.20 




81.02 




73.32 




76.67 




84.53 




80.63 




75.61 




92.33 




78.20 




84.18 




75.47 




75.45 




70.59 




71.70 




102.86 




83.05 


Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations 


73.76 
93.81 




64.22 


Construction 


74.19 




81.41 




61.76 




73.12 




48.86 




38.90 




44.45 




70.35 







859 



TABLE C-5— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Weekly 
Hours 



Apr. Mar. Apr. 
1959 1959 1958 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



Apr. 
1959 



Mar. 
1959 



Apr. 

1958 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



Apr. Mar. Apr. 
1959 1959 1958 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods , 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur ) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

*Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

*Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, Industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

*Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment. 

Telecommunication equipment 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appli- 
ances 

Wire and cable 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

* Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 



Construction 

Building and general engineering. . 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation . 



Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants . 



no. 

41.4 

42.0 

42.9 

41.6 

39.2 

38.9 

39.7 

41.9 

40.7 

41.0 

40.3 

40.9 

40.9 

39.4 

41.1 

42.8 

40.3 

39.0 

39.6 

41.3 

39.6 

39.4 

42.0 

40.1 

43.4 

43.3 

38.1 

37.5 

37.6 

40.0 

41.2 

40.4 

42.5 

42.7 

40.7 

40.6 

40.9 

39.6 

41.0 

41.8 

41.7 

41.6 

40.6 

41.3 

41.4 

40.2 

40.7 

41.0 

40.7 

41.1 

41.1 

39.9 

42.1 

40.4 

41.4 

40.2 

40.3 

40.4 

39.7 

40.2 

41.4 
42.0 
40.4 
42.7 
41.6 
42.4 
41.2 
40.8 
40.3 
41.0 
41.4 

39.5 
40.0 
38.6 
43.7 

39.7 

39.4 
41.4 



41.7 
42.3 
43.1 
42.1 
38.9 
35.4 
43.1 
42.3 
40.3 
40.5 
40.1 
40.7 
41.7 
38.4 
40.9 
43.1 
39.3 
39.6 
37.2 
41.3 
39.6 



39.2 
41.7 
40.7 
43.2 
42.3 
38.1 
38.2 
37.3 
39.4 
40.4 
39.7 
41.7 
41.6 
40.6 
40.6 
40.4 
39.6 
40.5 
41.5 
40.6 
41.3 
39.4 
40.3 
40.5 
40.2 



40.4 
40.4 
40.2 
40.8 
40.2 
40.1 
40.0 
39.9 
39.6 

40.2 
40.6 
40.0 
42.6 
41.0 
43.3 
41.6 
40.8 
40.2 
41.6 
40.5 

37.7 

37.4 
38.4 
44.2 

39.3 
39.0 
40.9 



42.4 
43.4 
42.0 
38.2 
37.8 
39.2 
43.1 
40.4 
40.7 
40.1 
40.8 
40.5 
39.3 
42.5 
42.6 
40.4 
39.5 
38.6 
39.8 
38.9 
38.4 
41.0 
38.8 
41.9 
42.9 
37.8 
37.2 
37.3 
39.0 
40.7 
40.0 
42.1 
41.4 
40.8 
40.6 
41.2 
39.4 
40.3 
40.5 
40.1 
40.8 
40.7 
39.8 
41.0 
39.6 
40.1 
41.1 
42.6 
40.7 
40.3 
39.7 
41.8 
40.3 
40.7 
39.3 
40.5 
40.0 
39.6 
39.9 

40.7 
41.0 
39.7 
42.7 
42.2 
41.6 
40.8 
41.1 
40.8 
41.4 
41.2 

40.3 
41.0 
39.1 
43.8 

39.7 
39.4 
40.6 



$ 
2.04 
2.13 
1.61 
2.32 
1.90 
1.72 
2.22 
1.81 
1.72 
1.86 
1.58 
1.56 
1.83 
1.40 
1.62 
1.41 
1.87 
2.12 
1.62 
1.79 
1.16 
1.12 
1.29 
1.27 
1.21 
1.37 
1.10 
1.12 
1.16 
1.04 
1.50 
1.60 
1.37 
1.27 
1.99 
2.14 
1.57 
2.07 
1.99 
2.03 
1.94 
1.73 
1.71 
1.90 
1.87 
2.34 
1.94 
1.97 
1.95 
2.15 
1.95 
1.91 
1.90 
1.98 
1.73 
1.86 
2.20 
1.78 
1.98 
1.61 

1.74 
1.96 
1.69 
1.73 
1.61 
1.71 
2.43 
1.84 
1.43 
2.17 
1.42 

1.84 
1.99 
1.55 
1.73 

1.00 

0.98 
0.97 



$ 
2.05 
2.11 
1.60 
2.30 
1.96 
1.70 
2.20 
1.84 
1.72 
1.86 
1.58 
1.56 
1.82 
1.41 
1.62 
1.41 
1.88 
2.12 
1.56 
1.78 
1.16 
1.12 
1.29 
1.27 
1.20 
1.38 
1.11 
1.13 
1.17 
1.04 
1.50 
1.61 
1.36 
1.26 
1.98 
2.13 
1.56 
2.07 
1.99 
2.02 
1.92 
1.71 
1.70 
1.90 
1.85 
2.36 
1.93 
1.96 
1.96 
2.13 
1.94 
1.90 
1.90 
2.04 
1.73 
1.86 
2.30 
1.76 
1.97 
1.59 

1.77 
1.91 
1.66 
1.74 
1.61 
1.73 
2.46 
1.86 
1.43 
2.20 
1.41 

1.83 
1.97 
1.56 
1.73 

1.00 
0.98 
0.96 



% 

1.95 
2.02 
1.59 
2.19 
1.83 
1.70 
2.10 
1.76 
1.66 
1.80 
1.53 
1.47 
1.71 
1.35 
1.58 
1.32 
1.77 
1.99 
1.52 
1.68 
1.14 
1.10 
1.24 
1.22 
1.17 
1.32 
1.08 
1.08 
1.14 
1.03 
1.46 
1.57 
1.33 
1.25 
1.93 
2.07 
1.53 
1.99 
1.90 
1.91 
1.86 
1.66 
1.64 
1.83 
1.80 
2.22 
1.84 
1.88 
1.93 
2.03 
1.90 
1.80 
1.81 
1.95 
1.67 
1.77 
2.13 
1.72 
1.92 
1.54 

1.72 
1.88 
1.64 
1.66 
1.55 
1.63 
2.27 
1.80 
1.41 
2.07 
1.38 

1.78 
1.93 
1.47 
1.66 

0.97 
0.96 
0.96 



$ 
84.72 
89.48 
69.13 
96.83 
74.42 
66.84 
88.13 
75.76 
70.02 
76.38 
63.65 
63.84 
74.65 
55.41 
66.72 
60.20 
75.46 
83.01 
64.03 
73.87 
46.12 
44.03 
54.08 
50.84 
52.63 
59.39 
42.00 
41.96 
43.57 
41.67 
61.83 
64.76 
58.13 
54.35 
80.99 
86.74 
64.38 
81.84 
81.67 
84.73 
81.06 
71.94 
69.26 
78.49 
77.30 
93.94 
78.84 
80.67 
79.35 
88.26 
80.18 
76.31 
80.11 
80.25 
71.74 
74.77 
88.79 
71.83 
78.52 
64.85 

72.14 

82.40 
68.26 
73.78 
66.99 
72.33 
100.12 
75.03 
57.48 
88.94 
58.58 

72.81 
79.55 
59.87 
75.71 

39.63 
38.68 
40.12 



$ 

85.61 
89.47 
69.02 
96.85 
76.28 
60.06 
94.91 
78.00 
69.40 
75.65 
63.25 
63.54 
76.10 
54.12 
66.11 
60.85 
74.06 
84.11 
58.09 
73.62 
46.14 
43.73 
53.70 
51.76 
52.03 
58.50 
42.34 
43.16 
43.54 
41.11 
60.78 
63.88 
56.91 
52.70 
80.45 
86.51 
63.24 
81.90 
80.74 
84.05 
77.98 
70.89 
67.06 
76.58 
74.89 
95.16 
78.13 
79.42 
80.75 
84.82 
78.56 
76.78 
76.73 
81.88 
70.60 
74.80 
92.29 
70.42 
78.72 
63.02 

71.27 
77.61 
66.24 
74.27 
65.98 
74.98 
102.53 
75.67 
57.46 
91.57 
57.31 

69.01 
73.75 
60.09 
76.43 

39.13 
38.24 
39.42 



* Durable manufactured goods industries. 

860 



TABLE C-6.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, D.B.S. 



Period 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Index Numbers (Av. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



Average 

RealWeekly 

Earnings 



Monthly Average 1954 
Monthly Average 1955 
Monthly Average 1956 
Monthly Average 1957 
Monthly Average 1958 

Last Pay Period in: 

1958 April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . . 

October 

November. . . 
December. . . 

1959 January 

February 

March 

April (i) 



40.7 
41.0 
41.0 
40.4 
40.2 



40.4 
40.7 
40.5 
40.3 
40.6 
40.7 
40.8 
40.9 
40.7* 

40.6 
40.9 
40.3 
40.7 



1.41 
1.45 
1.52 
1.61 
1.66 



1.66 
1.67 
1.67 
1.66 
1.64 
1.64 
1.66 
1.67 
1.71 

1.70 
1.71 
1.72 
1.72 



$ 

57.43 
59.45 
62.40 
64.96 
66.77 



67.23 
68.05 
67.47 
66.86 
66.58 
66.91 
67.52 
68.43 
69.60* 

69.28 
69.81 
69.40 
70.02 



137.6 
142.4 
149.5 
155.6 
160.0 



161.1 
163.0 
161.6 
160.2 
159.5 
160.3 
161.8 
163.9 
166.7 

166.0 

167.2 
166.3 
167.8 



116.2 
116.4 
118.1 
121.9 
125.1 



125.2 
125.1 
125.1 
124.7 
125.2 
125.6 
126.0 
126.3 
126.2 

126.1 

125.7 
125.5 
125.4 



118.4 
122.3 
126.6 
127.6 
127.9 



128.7 
130.3 
129.2 
128.5 
127.4 
127.6 
128.4 
129.8 
132.1 

131.6 
133.0 
132.5 
133.8 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earningsjindex. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for December 1958 are 37.3 and $63.71. 
C 1 ) Latest figures subject to revision. 

D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical. 

TARLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 





Period 


Un 


illed Vacancies* 


Registrations for Employment^ 2 ) 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 
July 


1, 1953 


21,229 
13,251 
18,741 
40,016 
21,843 

11,011 

11,505 
10,012 
9,385 
7,319 
11,579 

8,643 
9,425 
9,007 
11,740 
16,883 
19,758 
14,579 


20,088 
14,417 
17,392 
22,292 
17,643 

13,040 

11,858 
13,446 
11,430 
9,552 
9,752 

8,549 
9,295 
10,816 
13,399 
16,280 
18,044 
16,464 


41,317 
27,668 
36,133 
62,308 
39,486 

24,051 

23,363 
23,458 
20,815 
16,871 
21,331 

17,192 
18,720 
19,823 
25,139 
33,163 
37,802 
31,043 


124,396 
201,931 
152,711 
116,849 
180,521 

348,074 

252,853 
237,319 
228,426 
255,451 
293,050 

562,257 
615,788 
623,338 
611,941 
498,897 
342,605 
193,774 


55,918 
81,112 
77,865 
72,618 
85,981 

155,231 

119,157 
106,423 
107,123 
115,711 
126,341 

158,163 
175,574 
174,787 
169,625 
161,742 
140,615 
114,377 


180,314 


July 


1, 1954 


283,043 


July 


1, 1955 


230,576 


July 


1, 1956 


189,467 


July 


1, 1957 


266,502 


July 


1, 1958 


503,305 


August 


1, 1958 


372,010 


September 


1, 1958 


343,742 


October 


1, 1958 


335,549 


November 


1, 1958 


371,162 


December 


1, 1958 


455,391 


January 


1, 1959 


720,420 


February 


1, 1959 


791,362 


March 


1, 1959 


798,125 


April 
May 


1, 1959 


781,566 


1, 1959 


660,639 


June 


1, 1959(0 


483,220 


July 


1, 19590) 


308,151 









* Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 

0) Latest figures subject to revision. 

( 2 ) From December 1, 1958 registration figures during the seasonal benefit period do not include claimants for 
fishing benefits. As figures for December 1, 1957 to July 1,1958 did include claimants for fishing benefits, they have 
been adjusted. 



861 



TABLE D-2.-UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 29, 

19590) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry- 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Change from 



April 
30, 1959 



May 
30, 1958 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining . 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Perrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage. 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



1,893 
1,218 

1,125 

714 

231 

115 

23 

42 

4,713 

792 
17 
32 
56 
113 
125 
625 
201 
208 
702 
537 
255 
307 
208 
139 
274 
122 

2,023 

1,407 
616 

1,449 

1,100 

39 

310 

106 

2,554 

827 
1,727 

728 

5,035 

767 
2,325 
213 
930 
800 



304 
13 



274 

11 

42 

148 

164 

854 

85 

64 

143 

144 

65 

54 

112 

40 

16 

78 

105 

133 

88 
45 

404 

196 
23 

185 

43 

2,679 

618 
2,061 

899 

11,346 

2,279 
601 
129 
527 

7,810 



2,196 
1,231 

1,177 

726 
253 
118 
26 
54 

7,102 

1,056 
28 
74 
204 
277 
979 
710 
265 
351 
846 
602 
309 
419 
248 
155 
352 
227 

2,156 

1,495 
661 

1,853 

1,296 

62 

495 

149 

5,233 

1,445 
3,788 

1,627 

16,381 

3,046 
2,926 
342 
1,457 
8,610 



+ 916 

268 

15 



31 

70 

12 

2 

969 

279 



67 
31 

155 
14 

109 
84 
65 
79 
16 
23 



+ 378 

+ 249 

+ 129 

+ 440 

+ 191 

21 

+ 270 



+ 431 

+ 87 

-4- 344 

+ 105 

+ 3,108 

+ 416 

+ 841 

+ 113 

+ 544 

+ 1,194 



+ 23 

+ 493 

+ 65 

+ 396 
311 

- 10 
+ 23 

- 33 

2,060 

462 
9 

39 
61 

102 
93 

275 

125 



38 
148 
212 
97 
28 
66 



755 

879 
124 

30 

106 

18 
58 

103 

1,230 

433 
797 

425 

2,326 

430 

313 

28 

348 

1,207 



20,843 



18,262 



39,105 



+ 6,067 



+ 5,734 



0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



862 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 28, 19590) 





(Source: 


Form U.I.C. 757) 








Occupational Group 


Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Registrations for Employment 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Professional and Managerial Workers 


3,708 

1,418 

1,436 

1,376 

2 

2,394 

6,622 

89 

131 

1,283 

62 

51 

31 

664 

154 

8 

284 

1,072 

856 

29 

246 

1,463 

74 

125 

2,802 
141 
395 
150 

1,141 
975 


1,755 
4,266 
1,230 
8,496 


5,463 

5,684 

2,666 

9,872 

2 

2,511 

8,083 

105 

1,140 

1,286 

80 

143 

33 

680 

168 

8 

284 

1,072 

872 

29 

464 

1,503 

84 

132 

3,521 

245 

406 

164 

1,141 

1,565 


9,136 
16,453 

6,591 
34,210 

1,661 

3,109 

162,811 

1,321 
4,253 

26,970 

1,228 

1,180 

467 

16,200 
3,353 
1,146 
3,419 

36,521 

30,400 

990 

4,693 

21,606 
3,602 
5,462 

108,634 
4,080 
14,915 
5,570 
52,088 
31,981 


2,195 

49,256 

16,879 

22,189 

3 

562 

24,559 

898 

15,382 

171 

598 

1,201 

61 

1,048 

1,217 

39 


11,331 
65,709 
23,470 




Personal and Domestic Service Workers. 


56,399 
1,664 


Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry (Ex. log.). 


117 

1,461 

16 
1,009 

3 
18 
92 

2 
16 
14 


3,671 
187,370 


Food and kindred producs (incl. 


2,219 




19,635 


Lumber and lumber products 


27,141 
1,826 


Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 


2,381 

528 

17,248 




4,570 




1,185 






3,419 






7 

164 

1 

2,182 

1,213 

362 

15 

24,972 

6,378 

436 

713 

1 

17,444 


36,528 




i(> 


30,564 
991 




218 
40 
10 

7 

719 

104 

11 

14 


6,875 


Other skilled and semiskilled 


22,819 
3,964 




5,477 




133,606 




10,458 


Lumber and lumber products 


15,351 

6,283 




52,089 




590 


49,425 






GRAND TOTAL 


19,758 


18,044 


37,802 


342,605 


140,615 


483,220 







(») Preliminary— subject to revision. 

(2) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



863 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT MAY 28, 1959 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies( 2 ) 




Registrations 




Office 


May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 


0) 

May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 


Newfoundland 


578 

21 

3 

554 

139 

97 
42 

961 

8 
35 
619 


636 

18 


246 

5 

13 

228 

126 

93 
33 

773 

16 
16 

497 


18,608 

4,186 

1,504 

12,918 

2,597 

1,477 
1,120 

21,606 

676 

757 
5,312 

600 
2,433 

524 
2,188 
1,197 
4,841 
1,356 
1,722 

21,668 

1,634 
2,600 
1,620 
2,188 

688 
3,838 
2,712 
2,565 
1,768 

545 
1,510 

167,137 

2,529 

757 
1,068 
1,257 
2,524 
1,537 
2,129 
2,207 
1,970 

858 
2,170 
1,775 
1,209 
1,983 
3,167 
2,654 

721 
1,654 

830 
3,789 
1,014 

384 

773 
1,856 
1,297 

879 

1,996 

59,133 

1,454 

982 
12,132 
3,497 
3,505 
1,763 
4,291 

822 

816 
1,541 
1,172 
1,693 

880 
1,737 
5,135 
4,413 
2,406 
2,097 
4,157 
1,635 


24,531 

5,826 
2,821 

15,884 

4,676 

2,789 
1,887 

31,080 

1,257 
1,872 
6,041 
1,243 
3,352 
773 
4,075 
1,610 
6,104 
2,027 
2,726 

36,286 

5,340 
3,297 
3,001 
2,835 

983 
8,168 
3,541 
3,717 
2,091 

835 
2,478 

227,452 

3,298 
934 
1,281 
1,990 
3,803 
2,355 
3,249 
3,120 
2,448 
1,228 
3,418 
2,440 
2,631 
3,928 
4,596 
3,519 
1,068 
2,951 
1,342 
5,091 
1,712 
795 
1,664 
4,521 
1,826 
1,659 
2,860 

66,233 
2,456 
1,462 

15,772 
5,256 
7,031 
2,354 
5,516 
1,714 
1,054 
2,015 
2,117 
2,334 
1,855 
2,163 
6,879 
5,965 
3,000 
2,787 
5,841 
3,431 


21,469 




5,641 


Grand Falls..., 


2,080 




618 

217 

109 
108 

866 

13 

38 
514 


13,748 


Prince Edward Island 


2,759 




1,529 




1,230 


Nova Scotia 


26,014 

1,058 






1,369 


Halifax . 


5,993 




860 




116 
8 
37 
6 
31 
30 
71 

804 

2 

44 
17 

148 
21 

320 

191 
16 
31 
13 

8,973 

38 

28 

35 

75 

14 

13 

99 

18 

27 

168 

386 

16 

59 

121 

117 

91 

30 

60 

179 

102 

15 


76 
9 
50 


61 
15 

47 


3,106 




635 




3,051 




1,032 




59 
46 
61 

729 

3 

45 

2 

122 

19 

307 

7 

174 

16 

20 

14 

7,475 

21 

8 

20 

26 

386 


50 

5 

66 

761 

8 

38 

6 

124 

27 

325 

6 

185 

8 

32 
2 

6,008 

98 
13 
38 
57 
1 
6 

123 
15 
23 
70 
21 
20 
78 
62 

140 
66 
41 
18 

313 

122 

44 

1 

16 

12 

10 

3 

13 

2,184 

1 

7 

697 
76 

142 
17 
70 
79 
81 
55 

329 
55 
41 
62 
22 

136 
45 
97 

169 
9 


5,026 


Truro . 


1 539 




2,345 


New Brunswick 


30 004 




4,074 




2,705 




2,504 




2,459 




1,016 




6,134 




3,180 




3,575 


St. Stephen 


2,076 




536 




1,745 


Quebec 


197,030 




2,096 




1,160 




1,136 




1,144 




3,095 




1,527 




96 
7 

40 

27 

801 

5 

43 
102 

81 
100 

35 

31 
199 
208 

26 
2 

16 
16 
8 
18 
3.029 
11 
4 

726 
95 
18 
86 
14 
15 
67 
35 

106 
89 
73 
85 
14 

169 
73 
69 

256 
22 


2,033 




1,986 




2,192 




1,047 




2,564 




1,446 




1,821 


HuU 


3,317 




3,655 




2,551 




800 




1,871 




1,001 




3,839 




1,342 




950 




21 

12 

3 

6 

28 

4,625 

8 

12 

773 

137 

66 

30 

19 

39 

79 

25 

70 

65 

112 

212 

29 

209 

83 

67 

243 

25 


1,486 




3,781 




1,530 




1,342 




2,255 




68,200 




1,934 


Port Alfred 


1,102 


Quebec 


13,002 


Rimouski 


4,128 
5,089 




1,821 




5,254 




781 




977 


Ste. Therese 


1,509 




2,184 




2,037 


St. Jerdme 


1,545 




1,877 




5,540 




5,816 


Sorel 


2,178 


Thetford Mines 


1,892 




4,997 


Vald'Or 


3,311 



864 



TABLE D-4. 



UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT MAY 28, 1959 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Registrations 


Office 


C 1 ) 

May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 


0) 

May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 


Quebec— Cont'd. 


35 

33 

216 

12,146 

105 
49 
91 

263 
82 

125 
33 
18 

547 
15 
24 

168 

244 
24 
45 
79 

112 
18 
40 
51 

786 
21 

119 
27 
34 

101 
83 

142 
34 
17 
25 

704 

284 
54 
5 
80 
73 
41 

113 
35 

170 

1,302 

28 

1 

123 
25 

202 
17 

266 
12 
29 
10 

185 
86 
48 

296 
94 
5 
43 
62 
12 

253 

121 

3,166 

58 

51 

8 

17 

226 

241 
78 

3,165 

276 
17 
35 
71 
64 
2,702 


31 
15 
50 

10,980 

65 
17 
49 

210 
56 
73 
34 
12 
73 
22 
11 

185 

269 
11 
55 

102 

127 
20 
55 
61 

799 
16 
57 
27 
71 

145 
33 

179 
37 
11 
43 

620 

251 
36 
9 
74 
62 
31 

104 
32 

204 

1,155 

22 

2 

187 
25 
86 
10 

331 
9 
13 
9 

161 
45 
46 

243 

56 

5 

32 

55 

6 

237 
74 
3,196 
44 
45 
3 
28 

234 

202 
71 

2,989 

324 
25 
43 
106 
108 
2,383 


23 
54 
133 

10,069 

59 
119 
27 
159 
36 
64 
23 
15 
220 
12 
50 
86 


2,101 
1,709 
3,079 

147,292 

227 

1,086 

1,523 

800 

2,002 

1,639 

353 

250 

2,028 

586 

569 

2,989 

643 

505 

432 

1,952 

1,179 

184 

247 

1,463 

11,480 

741 

657 

1,231 

463 

1,699 

986 

1,617 

1,001 

648 

242 

3,773 

2,836 

413 

465 

1,129 

2,055 

1,513 

653 

547 

2,221 

4,719 

1,054 

386 

1,385 

463 

2,472 

266 

3,312 

800 

643 

441 

2,659 

924 

2,156 

2,223 

680 

315 

313 

836 

1,103 

4,285 

2,505 

41,505 

704 

436 

427 

1,749 

4,007 

6,867 

630 

17,713 

1,350 
950 
226 
780 
405 
14,002 


2,873 
2,348 
5,269 

196,934 

385 

1,447 

2,182 

1,677 

2,816 

2,069 

677 

433 

2,319 

747 

951 

4,034 

675 

607 

812 

2,931 

1,343 

312 

445 

1,848 

13,287 

1,281 

621 

2,041 

1,107 

2,209 

2,017 

2,226 

1,027 

888 

439 

4,530 

4,129 

1,051 

655 

1,485 

2,648 

2,598 

829 

1,144 

3,768 

6,064 

1,795 

719 

2,168 

751 

3,637 

434 

5,527 

1,137 

1,043 

879 

4,464 

944 

2,585 

3,117 

1,018 

395 

532 

990 

1,406 

5,866 

3,563 

49,487 

887 

765 

643 

2,219 

5,225 

9,264 

720 

25,042 

2,187 
1,688 

331 
1,106 

556 
19,174 


2,224 




2,535 




4,130 




185,473 




282 




991 


Belleville 


2,073 




868 




995 




2,991 




469 




313 




2,918 




763 




530 




3,658 


Elliott Lake 






18 
39 

381 
53 
12 
29 
34 

494 
24 
61 
31 
52 

109 
51 

171 
46 
14 
56 

540 

148 
30 
11 
48 

124 

266 
73 
21 

113 

1,191 

11 

1 

186 
42 

169 
19 

639 

19 

25 

1 

184 
54 
89 

257 
42 
10 
17 
34 
10 

197 

263 

2,234 

63 

48 

3 

38 

134 

143 
27 

2,185 

181 
21 
69 
70 
43 
1,801 


640 




574 




2,003 


Gait 


1,735 




321 




450 




1,797 




15,630 




917 




752 




1,423 




655 




1,803 




1,431 




2,870 




1,199 




554 




362 




4,758 




3,638 




531 




668 




1,089 




2,611 




2,365 




688 




1,016 




3,716 




5,518 




1,789 




245 




2,085 




572 




3,901 




371 




4,135 




1,077 




801 




802 




4,522 


St. Thomas 


1,252 




2,402 




2,670 




1,013 




192 


Smiths Falls 


424 




1,031 




1,209 




5,643 




2,648 




46,757 




837 




430 




527 


Welland 


2,904 




2,451 




13,100 




1,118 


Manitoba 


22,090 




1,662 




1,105 




242 




991 




350 


Winnipeg 


17,740 



865 



TABLE D-4. 



UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT MAY 28, 1959 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 


Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 




Registrations 




0) 

May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 


C 1 ) 

May 28, 
1959 


Previous 

Month 

April 30, 

1959 


Previous 
Year 

May 29, 
1958 




1,376 

52 

14 

178 

40 

84 

523 

297 

83 

29 

76 

5,829 

5 
1,575 

28 

2,547 

34 

1,290 

245 

105 

3,831 

59 
49 
19 
14 
31 
39 
29 
4 
32 
41 
38 

260 
41 
14 

125 
36 
11 
60 
2,552 
75 

261 
41 

37,802 

19,758 
18,044 


1,382 

80 


1,222 

76 


10,806 

322 
235 

707 

582 

1,747 

2,234 

2,396 

378 

236 

1,969 

21,531 

683 
5,049 

587 
11,977 

515 
1,145 

566 
1,009 

54,262 

1,005 

762 

842 

1,505 

522 

1,093 

1,048 

248 

829 

915 

803 

6,805 

1,292 

745 

3,075 

1,135 

313 

987 

24,213 

1,510 

4,117 

498 

483,220 

342,605 
140,615 


18,223 

412 


13,192 




375 








213 
66 
97 
299 
351 
129 
30 
117 

5,097 

5 

1,687 

25 

2,740 

22 

304 

209 

105 

2,792 

64 

19 

15 

23 

24 

38 

27 

7 

26 

29 

19 

263 

36 

25 

83 

15 

8 

47 

1,519 

50 

270 

185 

33,163 

16,883 
16,280 


206 
62 
99 
317 
278 
49 
50 
85 

5,365 

16 
1,150 

12 
2,675 

18 

1,084 

325 

85 

3,094 

283 
11 
24 
38 
13 
24 
20 
14 
39 
20 
29 

206 
14 
26 
86 
26 
4 
24 
1,855 
40 

259 
39 

29,849 

15,172 
14,677 


1,200 
1,549 
2,613 
4,275 
3,985 
781 
404 
3,004 

32,227 

756 
7,816 

827 
17,244 

883 
2,200 

933 
1,568 

64,188 

1,295 

852 
1,239 
2,249 

659 
2,021 
1,337 

295 

949 
1,040 
1,147 
7,946 
1,493 

881 
4,093 
1,781 

488 

1,257 

26,144 

2,036 

4,276 

710 

660,639 

498,897 
161,742 


934 


North Battleford 


1,103 




1,983 




3,218 




2,756 




470 




256 




2,097 


Alberta 


28,620 




923 




6,733 




612 




15,831 




758 




1,750 




814 




1,199 


British Columbia 


74,517 




1,706 




1,441 




1,250 




1,845 




1,415 




2,326 




1,240 




453 




1,205 




2,106 




1,267 




8,238 




1,385 




1,264 




3,580 




1,490 




363 


Trail 


1,184 




33,449 




1,746 




5,083 




481 


Canada 


601,168 




444,584 




156,584 







C 1 ) Preliminary subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Soukce: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1954—1959 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1954 


861,588 
953,576 
1,046,979 
877,704 
840,129 
292,479 
347,614 


545,452 
642,726 
748,464 
586,780 
548,663 
192,871 
238,230 


316,136 
310,850 
298,515 
290,924 
291,466 
99,608 
109,384 


67,893 
67,619 
68,522 
59,412 
56,385 
20,609 
24,434 


209,394 
222,370 
252,783 
215,335 
198,386 
74,521 
89,634 


277,417 
343,456 
379,085 
309,077 
287,112 
105,584 
122,938 


175,199 
178,015 
210,189 
185,962 
181,772 
64,505 
78,475 


131,685 


1955 


142,116 


1956 


136,400 


1957 


107,918 


1958 

1958 (5 months) 


116,474 
27,260 


1959 (5 months) 


32,133 







866 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-l.— BENEFICIARIES AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE, MAY 1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Total, Canada, May 1959. 
Total, Canada, April 1959 
Total, Canada, May 1958. 



Estimated 
Average 

Number of 
Beneficiaries 

Per Week 
(in thousands) 



21.2 

3.5 

29.1 

30.5 

167.1 

140.9 

18.0 

11.9 

20.8 

42.8 



485.8 
640.2 
582.8 



Weeks 
Paid 



84,847 

13,909 

116,471 

121,758 

668,344 

563,708 

72,008 

47,479 

83,334 

171,349 



1,943,207 
2,817,049 
2,447,879 



Amount 

of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 



1,825,946 

266,844 

2,348,537 

2,492,689 

14,235,561 

11,441,206 

1,408,325 

959,935 

1,760,936 

3,706,302 



40,446,281 
59,964,585 
51,652,555 



TABLE E-2.— CLAIMANTS HAVING AN UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER IN THE "LIVE 
FILE" ON THE LAST WORKING DAY OF THE MONTH, BY DURATION, AND SHOW- 
ING THE PERCENTAGE POSTAL, BY SEX AND PROVINCE, MAY 29, 1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Total 
claimants 






Duration on the Register 


(weeks) 




Percent- 
age 
Postal 


May 
31, 1958 

Total 
claimants 


Province and Sex 


2 or 
Less 


3-4 


5-8 


9-12 


13-16 


17-20 


Over 
20 




279,431 
190,483 
88,948 


Not Available 


37.4 
42.0 
27.6 


551,103 


Male 


409,051 




142,052 






Excluding T 


249,105 
170,040 
79,065 


57,241 
39,152 

18,089 


23,196 
15,881 
7,315 


38,696 
27,154 
11,542 


32,270 

23,303 

8,967 


27,523 
19,424 
8,099 


22,014 
14,258 
7,786 


48,135 
30,868 
17,267 


37.0 
41.3 
27.8 


495,201 




368,084 




127,117 








9,122 
8,118 
1,004 

1,032 
753 

279 

13,782 
11,190 
2,592 

12,715 
10,150 
2,565 

93,431 
66,197 
27,234 

91,193 
55,516 
35,677 

9,586 
5,861 
3,725 

5,883 
3,756 
2,127 

14,857 
10,826 
4,031 

27,830 
18,116 
9,714 


1,822 

1,667 

155 

134 

87 

47 

3,125 

2,661 

464 

2,185 

1,690 

495 

19,736 
12,986 
6,750 

22,807 
14,644 
8,163 

7,432 
5,417 
2,015 


740 

678 

62 

73 
52 
21 

1,186 
978 
208 

1,232 

1,042 

190 

8,901 
6,077 
2,824 

8,190 
5,001 
3,189 

2,874 

2,053 

821 


1,422 

1,293 

129 

141 
102 
39 

2,060 

1,754 

306 

2,515 

2,153 

362 

15,082 
10,923 
4,159 

12,840 
7,603 
5,237 

Noi 

4,636 
3,326 
1,310 


938 
828 
110 

90 

74 
16 

1,435 

1,132 

303 

1,894 

1,636 

258 

13,344 
10,472 
2,872 

11,553 
7,323 
4,230 

p Avail ai 

3,016 
1,838 
1,178 


1,156 

1,014 

142 

129 
92 
37 

1,382 

1,100 

282 

1,373 
1,096 

277 

10,826 
8,272 
2,554 

10,281 
6,477 
3,804 

LE 

2,376 
1,373 
1,003 


1,131 
992 
139 

145 
110 
35 

1,348 

1,022 

326 

1,184 
939 
345 

8,422 
6,054 
2,368 

7,567 
4,105 
3,462 

2,247 
1,136 
1,111 


1,913 

1,646 

267 

320 
236 

84 

3,246 

2,543 

703 

2,332 

1,694 

638 

17,120 
11,413 
5,707 

17,955 
10,363 
7,592 

5,249 
2,973 
2,276 


77.6 

81.7 
44.4 

66.8 
73.0 
49.8 

42.2 
42.7 
40.2 

58.8 
63.0 
41.9 

38.4 
44.1 

24.4 

28.8 
29.7 
27.5 

28.0 
33.9 

18.7 

50.6 
58.1 
37.4 

44.1 
51.0 
25.5 

32.6 
34.5 
29.1 


21,890 




20,497 




1,393 


Prince Edward Island 


2,515 
1,972 




543 




27,760 




23,377 




4,383 




28,292 


Male 


23,894 
4,398 




183,739 


Male 


139,623 




44,116 




167,169 


Male 


110,894 




56,275 




20,373 


Male 


13,937 




6,436 




11,062 


Male 


7,982 


Female 


3,080 




24,467 




19,048 




5,419 


British Columbia 

Male 


63,836 

47,827 




16,009 







Note: Figures for May 29, 1959 pertain to regular claimants only; those for May 31, 1958 to include seasonal benefit 
claimants. The period during which seasonal benefit is payable ended May 16 this year but was extended to June 28 
in 1958. 

867 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, 

MAY, 1959 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims 
at End of Month 


Pending 


Total* 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 
Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




4,433 
363 

10,818 
5,069 

41,040 

45,277 
4,366 
2,442 
6,269 

14,312 


3,714 

280 

3,747 

3,989 

28,823 

28,014 

3,125 

1,841 

4,395 

9,069 


719 

83 

7,071 

1,080 

12,217 

17,263 

1,241 

601 

1,874 

5,243 


4,505 
457 

11,529 
5,833 

45,903 

47,116 
4,764 
2,802 
7,536 

15,269 


3,692 
387 

10,314 
4,873 

38,063 

37,419 
3,707 
2,045 
6,167 

11,930 


813 

70 

1,215 

960 
7,840 
9,697 
1,057 

757 
1,369 
3,339 


1,756 




35 




979 




993 




7,531 




9,238 




575 




481 




1,461 




3,037 






Total, Canada, May 1959. . . 


134,389 
206,947 
165,075 


86,997 
144,232 
106,847 


47,392 
62,715 

58,228 


145,714 
229,999 
172,006 


118,597 
199,733 
150,893 


27,117 
30,266 
21,113 


26,086 


Total, Canada, April 1959 


37,411 


Total, Canada, May 1958 


41,891 







* In addition, revised claims received numbered 30,887. 

t In addition, 30,578 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 2,361 were special requests not granted and 1,142 
were appeals by claimants. There were 5,277 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4. 



ESTLMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 



Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



End of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants 


1959— April 


4,131,500 
4,239,000 
4,248,000 
4,169,000 

4,177,000 
3,972,000 
3,901,000 
3,907,000 
3,919,000 
3,931,000 
4,055,000 
4,059,000 
4,107,000 


3,520,700 
3,472,100 
3,452,000 
3,383,900 

3,462,000 
3,552,800 
3,577,500 
3,624,400 
3,624,400 
3,630,200 
3,609,500 
3,507,900 
3,384,700 


610,800 




766,900 




796,000 




785,100 


1958— December 


715,000 




419,200 




323,500 




282,600 




294,600 




300,800 




445,500 




551,100 




722,300 







868 



F— Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

(1949 = 100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Shelter 



Clothing 



Household 
operation 



Other 
Commodi- 
ties and 
Services 



1954— Year 

1955— Year 

1956— Year 

1957— Year 

1958— Year 

1958— July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

1959 — January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



116.2 

116.4 

118.1 

121.9 

125.1 

124.7 
125.2 
125.6 
126.0 
126.3 
126.2 

126.1 
125.7 
125.5 
125.4 
125.6 
125.9 
125.9 



112.2 

112.1 

113.4 

118.6 

122.1 

121.4 
122.9 
122.0 
123.4 
123.2 
122.2 

122.3 
121.2 
120.0 
119.3 
118.5 
119.1 
119.2 



126.5 
129.4 
132.5 

134.9 

138.4 

138.4 
139.1 
139.4 
139.6 
139.8 
139.9 

140.2 
140.2 
140.3 
140.5 
141.0 
141.5 
141.7 



109.4 
108.0 



108.5 

1C9.7 

109.9 
109.6 
109.5 
109.9 



110. 

110. 



109.2 
108.8 
109.4 
109.6 
109.7 
109.2 
109.7 



117.4 

116.4 

117.1 

119.6 

121.0 

120.6 
120.5 
120.8 
113.2 
121.5 
122.0 

121.8 
122.0 
122.3 
122.6 
122.5 
122.5 
122.7 



118.1 

120.9 

126.1 

130.9 

130.4 
130.6 
131.5 
131.8 
133.1 
133.4 



133. 
133. 
133. 
133. 
134. 
135. 
130. 



TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA 
AT THE BEGINNING OF JUNE 1959 

(1949 = 100) 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


House- 
hold 
Operation 


Other 
Commo- 
dities 
and 
Services 




June 

1958 


May 
1959 


June 
1959 


0) St. John's, Nfld 


112.3 
122.4 
124.9 
125.2 
125.4 
128.8 
123.3 
122.2 
121.9 
125.1 


114.2 
125.4 
126.9 
125.9 
126.0 
128.1 
122.8 
122.1 
122.0 
126.8 


114.7 
125.6 
126.9 
126.1 
126.2 
128.5 
123.1 
122.6 
122.2 
127.1 


112.8 
115.2 
118.0 
122.5 
117.3 
117.4 
117.9 
117.9 
116.1 
120.6 


114.8 
133.4 
136.2 
144.5 
146.8 
153.9 
131.9 
122.5 
125.2 
137.9 


103.4 
118.5 
116.6 
105.0 
112.5 
112.2 
115.1 
119.7 
117.6 
114.6 


109.6 
129.1 
123.5 
119.6 
121.4 
123.4 
118.8 
124.1 
121.7 
129.9 


127.0 


Halifax 


138.2 


Saint John 


142.3 




136.4 




136.3 




137.8 




131.8 


Saskatoon — Regina 


128.2 




131.6 




135.2 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

0) St. John's index on the base June 1951 = 100. 



869 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

Statistical information on work stoppages in Canada is compiled by the Economics 
and Research Branch of the Department of Labour on the basis of reports from the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission. The first three tables in this section cover strikes 
and lockouts involving six or more workers and lasting at least one working day, and 
strikes and lockouts lasting less than one day or involving fewer than six workers but 
exceeding a total of nine man-days. The number of workers involved includes all 
workers reported on strike or locked out, whether or not they all belonged to the 
unions directly involved in the disputes leading to work stoppages. Workers indirectly 
affected, such as those laid off as a result of a work stoppage, are not included. For 
further notes on this series see page 542, May issue. 

TABLE G-l— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 1954-1959 



Month or Year 



1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

*1958 

*1958: June 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 

*1959: January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Strikes and 

Lockouts 

Beginning 

During Month 

or Year 



156 
149 
221 
242 
251 



Strikes and Lockouts in Existence During Month or Year 



Strikes and 
Lockouts 



174 
159 
229 
249 
260 

40 
46 
54 
56 
48 
49 
31 

38 
29 
31 
22 

32 
43 



Workers 
Involved 



62,250 
60,090 
88,680 
91,409 
107,497 

7,845 
6,078 
18,495 
48,444 
41,537 
26,898 
18,129 

13,739 
7,068 

20,973 
8,747 
5,359 
8,432 



Duration in Man-Days 



Man-Days 



1,475,200 
1,875,400 
1,246,000 
1,634,881 
2,879,120 

106,435 
84,330 
255,360 
491,280 
857,390 
281,525 
243,105 

158,730 
123,175 
95,430 
72,340 
60,825 
57,320 



Per Cent of 

Estimated 

Working Time 



0.15 
0.18 
0.11 
0.14 
0.24 

0.11 
0.08 
0.25 
0.49 
0.85 



0.07 
0.06 
0.06 



Preliminary. 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
JUNE 1959, BY INDUSTRY 



TABLE G-3.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
JUNE 1959, BY JURISDICTION 



(Preliminary) 



(Preliminary) 



Industry 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man -Days 




2 


36 


765 








1 
22 
11 

2 


500 

5,550 

1,939 

55 


500 


Manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation, etc 


49,480 

5,160 

190 


Trade 


2 
3 


182 
170 


735 




490 






All industries 


43 


8,432 


57,320 



Jurisdiction 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man-Days 


Newfoundland 
















Nova Scotia 


2 


563 


655 




10 

22 

1 

1 


3,350 

2,577 

90 

6 


13,455 


Ontario 


12,825 
810 




130 


Alberta 




British Columbia 


5 
2 


214 
1,632 


2,055 
27,390 






All jurisdictions 


43 


8,432 


57,320 






870 






TABLE G-4— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS INVOLVING 100 OB MOBE WORKERS, June 1959 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 
Employer 
Location 


Union 


Workers 
Involved 


Duration in 
Man-Days 


Starting 
Date 

Termi- 
nation 
Date 


Major Issues 


June 


Accumu- 
lated 


Result 


Mining — 

Old Sydney Collieries, 

Sydney Mines, N.S. 


Mine Wkrs. Loc. 4535 (Ind.) 


500 


500 


500 


June 12 
June 15 


Refusal to work on a 
prescribed holiday~ 
Return of workers. 


Manufacturing— 
Food Products — 
Catelli Food Products, 
Laprairie and Montreal, 

Canada Bread, 
Toronto, Ont. 


Bakery Wkrs. Loc. 333 
(CLC) 


455 


5,005 


5,005 


June 18 


Seniority, union shop~ 


Teamsters Loc. 647 (CLC) 


133 


130 


130 


June 25 
June 26 


Alleged delay in con- 
ciliation proceedings ~ 
Return of workers 
pending conciliation 
proceedings. 


Rubber Products — 
Dunlop of Canada, 
Toronto, Ont. 


Rubber Wkrs. Loc. 132 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 


163 


815 


1,140 


May 27 
June 8 


Disciplinary action 
against one worker ~ 
Return of workers. 


Dominion Rubber Co., 
St. Jerome, Que. 


St. Jerome Rubber Workers 
Federal Union Loc. 144 
(CLC) 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


June 5 
June 8 


Alleged failure to con- 
sider grievances ~ Re- 
turn of workers pen- 
ding negotiations. 


Brinton-Peterboro 

Carpet Co., 
Peterborough, Ont. 


Textile Wkrs. Loc. 822 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 


215 


215 


215 


June 25 
June 26 


Working conditions~ 
Return of workers 
pending further ne- 
gotiations. 


Wood Products — 
Atlas Bedding, 
Montreal, Que. 


LTpholsterers Loc. 302 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 


132 


860 


860 


June 1 
June 9 


Alleged violation of ex- 
isting agreement ~ 
Adjustments made 
according to terms of 
agreement. 


Iron and Steel Products — 
W. C. Wood Co., 
Guelph, Ont. 

John Inglis, 
Toronto, Ont. 


United Electrical Wkrs. 
Loc. 544 (Ind.) 


124 


2,725 


7,635 


Apr. 3 


Cost of living, seniority 
rates, bonus system ~ 


Steel workers Loc. 4190 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 


251 


375 


375 


June 12 
June 16 


Suspension of one work- 
er ~ Return of workers. 


Transportation Equipment 
Studebaker-Packard of 

Canada, 
Hamilton, Ont. 


Auto Wkrs. Loc. 525 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 


485 


2,425 


12,610 


May 13 

June 8 


Wages~Progressive 
w r age increase totalling 
18-26j* an hour over 
three year period. 


Canadian Vickers, 
Montreal, Que. 


Four unions (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC) 


451 


1,805 


1,805 


June 19 
June 25 


Retroactivity of wage 
increase~4j£ an hour 
retroactive to March 
6, 1959; U June 26, 
1959; 7£ November 1, 
1959; Reduction in 
hours from 42£ to 41 i, 
with same take-home 
pay August 1, 1960. 


Electrical Apparatus and 

Supplies — 
Robbins & Myers Co. of 
Canada, 


Auto Wkrs. Loc. 397 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 


128 


2,770 


3,735 


May 21 


W T ages~ 


Brantford, Ont. 






Chemical Products — 
Polymer Corporation, 
Sarnia Ont. 


Oil, Chemical Wkrs. Loc. 
16-14 (AFL-CIO/CLC) 


1,605 


27,285 


103,975 


Mar. 18 
June. 24 


Wages, working con- 
ditions~9fi an hour 
increase, retroactive 
pay, improved vaca- 
tion provisions. 


CONSTRUCTION — 

Anglin-Norcross, 
Blenheim, Ont. 


Hod Carriers Loc. 749 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 


315 


155 


155 


June 16 
June 16 


Working conditions~ 
Return of workers 
pending further negoti- 
ations. 


Plastering Contractors, 
Ottawa, Ont. 


Plasterers Loc. 124 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Teamsters Loc. 106 (CLC) 


200 


400 


400 


June 29 


Retroactive pay~ 


Lummus Co. of Canada, 
Montreal, Que. 


1,113 


2,225 


2,225 


June 29 


Union recognition ~ 



871 



TABLE G-4-STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS INVOLVING 100 OR MORE WORKERS, JUNE 1959 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 

Employer 

Location 


Union 


Workers 
Involved 


Duration in 
Man-Days 


Starting 
Date 

Termi- 
nation 
Date 


Major Issues 


June 


Accumu- 
lated 


Result 


Trade — 

Three Waste Paper Firms, 
Lakeview, Long Branch 
and Toronto, Ont. 

Service— 

City of Cornwall, 

Cornwall, Ont. 


Teamstero Loc. 938 (CLC) 

National Union of Public 
Employees Loc. 234 (CLC) 


124 
(30) 

130 


620 
195 


2,355 
195 


May 12 
June 8 

June 22 
June 23 


Wages, retroactive pay 
~Wage increase, $50.00 
retroactive pay. 

Wages ~ Increase of 10^ 
an hour retroactive to 
January 1, 1959, impro- 
ved working condition. 



Figures in parentheses show the number of workers indirectly affected. 



872 




CANADA 



THE 



ABOUR 
AZETTE 





Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LIX No. 9 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1959 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 



Official Journal 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 



Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Assistant Editor 

W. R. Channon 



Circulation Manager 

J. E. Abbey 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



of the Department of Labour, Canada 

A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Vol. LIX, No. 9 CONTENTS September 30, 1959 

Employment Review 873 

Collective Bargaining Review 886 

Notes of Current Interest 892 

Changes in Unemployment Insurance Act 899 

Equal Pay tor Equal Work 903 

Vocational Training for Commercial, Other Occupations 906 

Vocational Training in Agriculture in Canada 907 

Earnings, Education of Engineering and Scientific Manpower 908 

Are They a Better Employment Risk! 909 

Women in Trade Unions 910 

50 Years Ago This Month 911 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 912 

Conciliation Proceedings 915 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 935 

Labour Law: 

Workmen's Compsnsation Legislation, 1959 937 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 944 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 950 

Decisions of the Umpire 951 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 955 

Prices and the Cost of Living 961 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 963 

Labour Statistics 968 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing with 
subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 
25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per year, single copies 50 cents each; Send remittance by 
cheque or post office money order, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's 
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advance. Special Group Subscription Offer — Five or more annual subscriptions, $1 per 
subscription (Canada only). Send remittance, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to the 
Circulation Manager. Bound Volumes — $5 per copy delivered in Canada, $7 per copy to other 
countries. Change of Address — Please attach label showing previous address. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT REVIEW 



ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Current Situation 

The labour market was relatively stable during August. After a rise of 
more than 650,000 in the previous four months, employment showed a moderate 
decline of some 20,000 between July and August. The number of persons with- 
out jobs and seeking work increased by a little more than half this amount 
and was some 15 per cent lower than a year earlier. This reduction in work- 
seekers mainly involved males and was distributed among men of all ages. 

Those without jobs and seeking work numbered 239,000 in August, up 
from 228,000 in July. This unemployment indicator, at 3.7 per cent of the 
labour force, was still about midway between the corresponding figures of 
the last two years. 

The increase in job seekers was distributed over all regions, and originated 
chiefly in manufacturing industries. The number of married job seekers rose 
by more than 20,000, which was partially offset by a decrease in the number 
of single unemployed. 

A slight change in the over-all labour market situation is not unusual for 
this time of year. By August, most of the seasonal expansion in jobs and 
available workers has taken place and additional labour requirements (chiefly 
in agriculture and construction) are relatively small. The next seasonal move- 
ment of any consequence is the contraction of the labour force as students 
return to school in September. As usual, teen-agers began to withdraw in 
August. 

In total, the labour force was estimated to be 6,425,000 in August, 119,000 
more than a year earlier. Unlike last year, when women workers were respon- 
sible for 90 per cent of the over-all annual increase in the labour force, men 
accounted for half of the labour force growth between August 1958 and 
August this year. The number of teen-agers in the population grew at roughly 
the same rate as in the previous year, but a higher proportion of this growth 
was reflected in the labour force increase. Some 40,000 more teen-agers had 
jobs than a year earlier. In the corresponding period in 1957-58 there was a 
considerable drop in the number of teen-agers with jobs. 

Industrial employment changes during the month were relatively small. 
An increase in jobs in manufacturing and in mining and quarrying was offset 
by losses in other industries, particularly construction, transportation and agri- 
culture. Much of the decline in agricultural employment resulted from an early 
completion of some phases of the season's operations in British Columbia. 
Short-term layoffs were quite extensive in Ontario as consumer goods industries, 
particularly motor vehicle manufacturing, closed down to re-tool for the new 
production year. 

873 

74810-3—1 



__ — _ — ; — , ......,.,.,,, „ — „ — — , ....... .. , 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - CANADA 
1957-58 1958-59 

: 



6,400,000 
6,300,000 
6,200,000 
6.100,000 




J ASONDJ FMAMJ J 



In addition to those without jobs, 
there were an estimated 18,000 persons 
on temporary layoff during August. This 
number was one-third higher than a 
month earlier, Ontario accounting for all 
of the increase. 

The mid-summer slackness in manu- 
facturing was reflected in a moderate 
increase in short-time work; the number 
of workers on short-time was 32,000. 
The temporary layoff and short-time fi- 
gures together were not much more than 
half of the corresponding total last year. 

The duration of unemployment con- 
tinued to fall. In August, an estimated 
85,000 persons had been looking for 
work for less than one month, 113,000 
had been seeking work for one to six 
months and 41,000 for more than six 
months. Long-term unemployment was 
concentrated most heavily in the older 
age groups. For all job seekers, the 
average length of time looking for work 
was just over four months, down from a 
peak of 5i months in May and about 
4i months in August 1958. 



A Review of Labour Market Developments 

The middle of the third quarter, when employment is near its seasonal 
peak, is a convenient time to review the labour market developments of the 
past 12 months. At this time a year ago, it was clear that the recession was 
over and that employment had been on the upturn for some months. Up to 
that time, however, gains had been very modest, too small to make up fully 
for previous employment losses, far less to absorb the additional labour supply 
stemming from the continual growth in population. During the winter the usual 
layoffs were relatively light and in the spring of 1959, rehiring was much more 
vigorous than usual. As a result, employment recovered to its pre-recession 
peak and beyond (see chart). Unemployment dropped below the 1958 level, 
although it was still higher than in any other postwar year. 

This is approximately the position of the labour market at the present time: 
non-farm employment is 4 per cent higher than last year and about the same 
percentage (seasonally adjusted) above the pre-recession peak in the fall of 
1957. The number employed in agriculture has continued to drop in 1959 
though less rapidly than in former years. 

A brief survey of the industrial distribution of employment shows that 
all of the main groups increased to some extent this year. Impressive gains 
were made in those individual industries that experienced the heaviest layoffs 
during the recession, although in few cases has employment fully recovered. 



874 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 
Manufacturing 



Hours per Week 

43 — 



Hours per Week 
43 



1959 



1956 1957 JFMAMJJASOND 

J 



Recovery in the demand for labour in 
manufacturing over the year is reflected 
in an increase in the average hours 
worked per week. When sales and output 
rise, manufacturers not only hire more 
workers but they also eliminate short- 
time work and expand overtime. The 
increase in hours during the current year 
over 1958 is evident in both durable and 
non-durable goods manufacturing, with 
the largest gains in textile products, 
rubber products, iron and steel products, 
and electrical apparatus and supplies. 



In distribution and services, on the other 
hand, the virtually unbroken rise of the 
postwar years has continued. 

One of the main weaknesses in 
manufacturing has been the transporta- 
tion equipment industry. Employment in 
this group fell unevenly throughout 1957 
and 1958 and the first few months this 
year, a total of about 24 per cent in | 
all. The component industries — motor 
vehicles and parts, aircraft, railway roll- 
ing stock, shipbuilding — all contributed 
in some measure to the decline. This year 
automobile production and employment 
made a strong advance and some recovery 
was evident in shipbuilding and railway 
rolling stock, all of which caused some 
increases in the group as a whole. Because 
of the heavy layoffs in the aircraft indus- 
try in February, however, the gain was 
very small. 

One of the more outstanding recov- 
eries has been in the manufacture of 
iron and steel products. In this group 

the employment index (seasonally adjusted) dropped from a peak of 116 
(1949=100) in March 1958 to 104 just before the strike of steelworkers 
last fall. After the settlement of the strike in November 1958, employment 
in the industry recovered steadily, to 110 at the end of June (the latest available 
figure). Primary steel manufacturing was the leading gainer in the group, 
followed by heating and cooking appliances, agricultural implements, and iron 
castings. Even in machine manufacturing, hard hit by last year's decline in 
plant equipment purchases, employment was moderately higher at mid-year 
than six months earlier, although it had declined in the interval. 

The general expansion stemming from recovery in domestic demand has 
been supported by an upturn in exports. In the second quarter of this year 
commodity exports (seasonally adjusted) were 10 per cent above the first 
quarter and 2 per cent above the pre-recession peak in 1957. This strong 
recovery was almost entirely accounted for by increased shipments to the 
United States of uranium, iron ore, farm machinery, wood pulp and, particularly, 
of lumber. The increased sales of these commodities have played a significant 
part in the general upswing in employment during recent months. 

The trend of construction activity has been rather erratic this year, 
reflecting reduced strength in new housing and concurrent recovery in non- 
residential building. At the beginning of the year, when house builders were 
no longer able to make direct loans from the Central Mortgage and Housing 
Corporation, the number of new housing starts dropped quite sharply. In 
larger centres, housing starts in the second quarter of the year were almost 
20 per cent below the corresponding period in 1958. A moderate improve- 
ment that occurred after mid-year is expected to accelerate in the last quarter, 
when CMHC will again be making direct housing loans. Non-residential 
construction made a steady advance in the second quarter of this year, offsetting 



875 



74810-3— 1£ 



the decline in housing. The mid-year review of investment intentions revealed 
a significant upward revision among manufacturing industries, particularly the 
durable goods sector. Recent reports on building permits issued also suggest 
an expansion in non-residential construction during the last half of the year. 

Employment in forestry has shown a similar trend, but more accentuated 
than the trend in construction. During the year employment fluctuated sharply 
from month to month and from one part of the country to another. The most 
active part of the industry has been in British Columbia (and with the recent 
settlement of the strike it will undoubtedly become more active still), Quebec 
and New Brunswick. On the other hand, in Newfoundland and, to a lesser 
extent, in Ontario, employment in the woods has been even lower than the 
depressed level of last year. As a net result of these diverse trends, at mid-year 
employment in the industry as a whole was about 4 per cent higher than a 
year earlier. 






MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT 
1949 - 100 

Index Index | 
140 140 




876 



CLASSIFICATION! OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-AUGUST 1959 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




Windsor 


Quebec-Levis 
Vancouver- 
New Westminster 


Calgary 

Edmonton 

Halifax 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 






Hamilton 
Montreal 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 






Ottawa-Hull 
— >ST. JOHN'S 
Toronto 
Winnipeg 






OSHAWA -<-— 


BRANTFORD -< — 

Cornwall 

Joliette 

Lac St. Jean 

New Glasgow 


— >»CORNER BROOK 

Farnham- 
Granby 

Fort William- 
Port Arthur 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Niagara Peninsula 
Peterborough 


Guelph 
Kingston 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 60 




Rouyn-Val d'Or 


Kitchener 




per cent or more in non-agri- 




Shawinigan 


London 




cultural activity) 




Sherbrooke 
Trois Rivieres 
Victoria 


Moncton 
^SAINT JOHN 

Sarnia 

Sudbury 
— >-SYDNEY 

Timmins-Kirkland 
Lake 








Barrie 


Brandon 
Charlottetown 
Chatham 
Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 
AREAS 






North Battleford 
Prince Albert 
Red Deer 




(labour force 25,000-75.000; 40 






Regina 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






Riviere du Loup 

Saskatoon 
— >THETFORD- 
MEGANTIC- 
ST. GEORGES 

Yorkton 








Brampton 
Central Vancouver 

Island 
Drummondville 
LINDSAY -« — 
Newcastle 
Rimouski 
St. Stephen 
Summerside 

VALLEYFIELD -< — 
Victoriaville 


Bathurst 
Beauharnois 
Belleville-Trenton 
Bracebridge 
Bridgewater 
Campbellton 
Chilliwack 
Cranbrook 
Dauphin 
Dawson Creek 
Drumheller 
Edmundston 
— >FREDERICTON 
Galt^ 
Gaspe 
Goderich 
Grand Falls 
Kamloops 




MINOR AREAS 






Kentville 

Kitimat 

Lachute- 




(labour force 10,000-25.000) 














Ste. Therese 










Listowel 










Medicine Hat 










Montmagny 










North Bay 










— »-OKANAGAN 










VALLEY 










Owen Sound 










Pembroke 










Portage la Prairie 














Prince George 


(Group 3 Concluded) 








Prince Rupert 


Stratford 








Quebec North Shore 


Swift Current 








Ste. Agathe- 
St. Jerome 


Trail-Nelson 








Truro 








St. Hyacinthe 


Walkerton 








St. Jean 


Weyburn 








St. Thomas 


Woodstock 








Sault Ste Marie 


Woodstock- 








Simcoe 


Tillsonburg 








— >-SOREL 


Yarmouth 



^-The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 

moved. For an explanation of the classification system used, see page 990. 



877 



Employment Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ATLANTIC 




Employment continued at a season- 
ally high level during August. The num- 
ber of persons with jobs was estimated 
to be 535,000, some 5,000 more than 
in the previous month and 18,000 more 
than a year ago. There was no change 
in the level of farm employment between 
July and August. Forestry employment 
held up fairly well although it was still 
well down from last year's level. Most 
coal mines resumed operations after the 
vacation period, but one mine ceased 
production altogether, most of the miners 
being transferred to neighbouring collier- 
ies. On Bell Island, iron ore production 
was closed down for one week. In manu- 
facturing, employment rose seasonally in 
the iron and steel and fish processing 
plants. Construction activities were at a high level throughout the region and, 
as a result, some shortages of skilled tradesmen developed during the month. 
In recent months industrial employment has continued at a higher level 
than a year ago, although weaknesses in key industries were still in evidence. 
Forestry employment in the region remained below the level of 1958 and was 
much lower than in 1957. Most of the decline in logging was concentrated 
in Newfoundland, employment in the industry being less than three-quarters 
of that in the corresponding months of 1958 and 1957. Employment con- 
ditions changed little in the transportation equipment industry, one of the major 
sources of weakness in the region. Activity in the pulp and paper industry 
has advanced during recent months, employment now being about the same as 
last year. 

The chief strength in this region has been in construction, trade and 
services; in all of these, employment has been higher than last year in each of 
the four Atlantic provinces. Forestry in New Brunswick and fish processing 
plants in Newfoundland have also been much busier than last summer. 

Unemployment showed no appreciable change during the month and 
remained at about last year's level. At the end of August, the area classification 
was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, (3); 
in moderate surplus, 4 (7); in balance, 17 (11). 

Local Area Developments 

Halifax (metropolitan) remained in Group 3. Seasonal expansion continued 
in this area, further increases in construction activities resulting in shortages 
of some skilled tradesmen. Total industrial employment in June was about 
4 per cent higher than in 1958, a small decline in manufacturing being more 
than offset by an 1 8-per-cent gain in construction and a near 6-per-cent increase 
in transportation. 



878 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate Balance 


Labour Shortage 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 


4 




August 
1959 


August 
1958 


August 
1959 


August 

1958 


August 
1959 


August 
1958 


August 
1959 


August 
1958 




1 

1 


1 
4 

3 


2 
12 

1 
10 


4 
18 

2 
19 


9 

13 
13 

48 


7 

4 

12 

36 


- 




















Total 


2 


8 


25 


43 


83 


59 


— 









St. John's (metropolitan) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Employ- 
ment increased in the St. John's area, construction contributing much to the 
buoyancy. At the end of June, industrial employment was more than 5 per cent 
higher than the corresponding month in the previous two years. Housing and 
institutional building raised the level of construction employment 60 per cent 
above last year's. 

Sydney (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. The 
employment picture has been much brighter than last year, mainly because of 
a more normal production pattern in coal mining. Fish catches have been 
better than average. Construction activities continued to show strength. 
Corner Brook and Saint John (major industrial) and Fredericton (minor) were 
reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



QUEBEC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 

1957-58 1958-59 



1.750.000 — 
1,700,000- 



.700.000- 
.650.1. 



Employment in the Quebec region 
decreased less than usual during August. 
The number of persons with jobs was 
estimated to be 1,708,000, some 8,000 
less than in the previous month but 
33,000 more than a year earlier. An 
unusually sharp drop in agriculture was 
partly offset by continued expansion in 
most other industries. By the end of 
June forestry employment was up by 
about 7 per cent over the year, although 
still about 25 per cent less than in the 
corresponding period in 1957. The sea- 
sonal summer decline in pulp cutting 
began later this year, and the August 
trough was reached earlier in the month; 
at the beginning of August, employment 
in this industry was up about 25 per cent 
over the year. 

Both metal and non-metal mining has shown strength this year. At the 
end of June mining employment was 5.5 per cent higher than in June 1958. 
Iron ore mining contributed most to the increase but there were gains in gold 
and non-metal mining too. 




SONDJFMAMJ J 



879 



There was continuing buoyancy in the construction industry in spite of 
some weakening in the new housing sector. Industrial, commercial and institu- 
tional construction maintained a brisk pace. 

Employment in manufacturing in June was slightly higher than in June 
1958. In the food and beverage, leather and wood products industries the 
level of employment was higher than in either 1958 or 1957. Activity in the 
primary and secondary textile industry considerably exceeded the level of the 
previous year and in some instances came close to the 1957 level. 

A further seasonal expansion occurred in the iron and steel and trans- 
portation equipment industries. Employment in iron and steel continued to 
be slightly higher than last year. It was more than 8 per cent lower in 
transportation equipment but new defence orders in aircraft are expected to 
bring a substantial improvement in coming months. 

There was little change in the level of unemployment during the month. 
At the end of August, the area classification was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in substantial surplus, (1); in moderate surplus, 11 (18); in 
balance, 13 (5). 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan) remained in Group 3. There was further employment 
expansion in the area. Increased demand from the construction industry resulted 
in higher production in the manufacture of iron and steel products, building 
materials and electrical appliances. Industrial employment at the end of June 
was between 1 and 2 per cent higher than a year earlier. 
Quebec-Levis (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Construction was very 
active in the area during the month. In manufacturing, the high level of 
production continued in the leather and clothing industries. In primary textiles 
there was still a considerable number of workers on short time, contrary to 
earlier expectations. 

Thetford Mines-Megantic-St. George (major agricultural) was reclassified from 
Group 2 to Group 3. Farm employment reached its peak during the month. 
Asbestos mining showed strength. 

Sorel (minor) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Employment con- 
ditions were far better than at the same time last year, when the level of 
unemployment was one of the highest in the region. The improvement was 
widespread, construction and transportation showing the greatest gains over 
the year. 

Valleyfield (minor) was reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Unemployment 
rose during the month mainly because of slackening in construction activity. 

ONTARIO 

Employment in Ontario was estimated to be 2,287,000 in August. This 
represented a decline from July although the position relative to last year did not 
change significantly. Employment was still 3 per cent higher than in 1958, 
and higher than in 1957 by about half that amount. All of the decline from 
July occurred in non-farm activities and appeared to be of a temporary nature. 

880 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 



1958-59 




2,000,000- 

7,950,000- 



JASONDJFMAMJ J 



Over the year employment showed 
a gain of 67,000, mainly the result of a 
recovery in transportation and continued 
expansion in services and trade. Forestry 
was up slightly over the year, and mining 
was down slightly. In the last month or 
two there has been a strong advance in 
residential construction, and employment 
in the industry during August was not 
far from last year's level. The supply 
of available construction workers was 
generally adequate, but a considerable 
number of areas reported shortages of 
particular skills. 

Most of the slackness during August 
resulted from extensive shutdowns, 
especially in automobile manufacturing 
in preparation for the production of new 
models. Among some household appliance manufacturers an involuntary 
build-up of inventories caused an early reduction in output. However, in most 
consumer goods industries and in all of the iron and steel products group, 
production employment was far ahead of a year earlier. Gains in agricultural 
implement and primary iron manufacturing were particularly impressive. 

In manufacturing as a whole, employment has shown no marked improve- 
ment over the year. The main factor has been the cut-back in aircraft manu- 
facturing, which reduced employment in this industry by almost one half. 
Employment in the manufacture of railway rolling stock and heavy electrical 
appliances was also down from last year. 

Temporary shutdowns and extended vacations caused some rise in the 
level of unemployment in the region. This was reflected on the local level by 
the reclassification of three areas to categories denoting increased unemploy- 
ment. At the end of August the 34 areas in the region were classified as follows 
(last year's figures in brackets): in substantial surplus, 2 (3); in moderate 
surplus, 7 (11); in balance, 25 (20). 



Local Area Developments 

Metropolitan Areas with Classification Unchanged: Toronto (Group 3). Em- 
ployment in manufacturing was still down from last year because of the heavy 
layoffs earlier this year in the aircraft industry. Total employment, however, 
was up slightly over the year owing to expansion in other parts of manufacturing, 
construction, and distribution. There was little change in unemployment during 
the month. Housing showed a sharp pick-up in July and August, bringing 
construction employment to a level more than 10 per cent above the same 
period last year. Hamilton (Group 3). Employment is currently up 5 per cent 
over last year and unemployment is down about one third. Manufacturing 
and construction show the greatest strength; soft spots are electrical appliances 
and textiles. Windsor (Group 1). The temporary shutdown of the automobile 
industry raised the unemployment level in this area. Some improvement is 
expected during September as production of new models gets underway. Ottawa- 
Hull (Group 3). Employment has been maintained at about 3 per cent higher 
than last year. During August there was a strong advance in construction. 



74810-3—2 



881 



Oshawa (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Motor 
vehicle manufacturing was entirely responsible for the increase in unemploy- 
ment in this area. Most of those laid off are expected to be rehired in 
September. 

Brantford (major industrial) was reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. The 
general employment level in recent months has been moderately higher than 
last year. During August, the end of the production year in the agricultural 
implement industry resulted in the release of several hundred metal workers. 
Unemployment in the area was about 25 per cent below last year. 
Lindsay (minor) was reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Labour surplus 
rose to moderate proportions, mainly because of the layoff of workers living 
in the area but working in Oshawa. Some improvement was expected in 
September. 

PRAIRIE 






LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PRAIRIE 

1957-58 1958-59 




J A S N D J F M 



Employment remained stable from 
July to August in the Prairie region. The 
estimated total of persons with jobs, at 
a record 1,107,000, was 27,000 higher 
than a year earlier. 

Although harvesting was general 
throughout the region, the light crop 
combined with delays because of wet 
weather depressed the demand for farm 
labour. January- to- June farm cash income 
was 3.4 per cent higher this year than 
in the same period of 1958. Sales of 
wheat were less, but receipts from other 
field crops and livestock were higher. 
The increase in cash income was highest 
in Alberta. 

Non-agricultural industries, with an 
employment gain of 9,000 over the 
month, derived strength from manufacturing and construction. Labour require- 
ments in textile and clothing manufacturing were high; there were shortages 
of skilled sewing machine operators. Iron and steel products, especially struc- 
tural steel, were finding a ready demand so that employment in plants engaged 
in fabrication held strong. Commercial and industrial building provided the 
chief stimulus to construction. Housebuilding remained somewhat weaker than 
last year. Municipal and provincial road building programs were fully underway 
and work proceeded on gas and oil pipelines and distribution systems. 

Little change took place in forestry and metal mining during the month 
but oil drilling activity increased. In the Crows Nest Pass district one coal mine 
was reopened and a new mine was established to meet export orders to Japan. 
Local employment expanded, and there was a movement of miners from 
Drumheller to Edson, where some mines had formerly been closed down. 

Unemployment declined slightly, remaining below the level of a year 
earlier. No reclassification of labour market areas took place; in all 20 areas, 
the demand and supply of labour were in balance. At this time in 1958, two 
areas were in moderate surplus and 18 were in balance. 



882 



Local Area Developments 

Winnipeg (metropolitan) remained in Group 3. Needle workers were in short 
supply as clothing manufacturers experienced a very busy month. Farm machin- 
ery manufacturers laid off some workers on completion of their programs for 
the year. Recalls were expected when production begins on the 1960 schedule. 
Fort William-Port Arthur (major industrial) remained in Group 3. The mining 
of iron ore and its movement through the Lakehead continued at a rate well 
ahead of last year. More workers were released by the bus and aircraft plant; 
some personnel were moving to Montreal, where operations are being re-located. 
Wheat elevators were full and some men were laid off as lighter lake shipments 
reduced the movement of grain. 

Saskatoon (major agricultural) remained in Group 3. The work force at the 
site of the dam on the South Saskatchewan River was enlarged during the 
month; the increased activity will continue until freeze-up. Besides the moving 
of the earth fill and the construction of residential facilities, a short spur line 
is to be built from the nearby railroad to facilitate the movement of heavy 
equipment. 



PACIFIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 

1957-58 1958-59 



Some temporary weakening occurred 
in the employment situation in the Pacific 
region, where the number of workers on 
farms dropped sharply and industrial 
activity was slowed down by strikes. Em- 
ployment was estimated to total 549,000 
in August, down by 12,000 from the 
month before. This total, however, was 
16,000 higher than a year earlier. 

The substantial decrease in farm 
workers occurred on completion of the 
greater part of vegetable and berry har- 
vesting. The apple crop was one to two 
weeks later than usual, so that demand 
for apple pickers had not yet developed. 
Layoffs occurred in fruit and vegetable 
canneries as the processing of earlier 
crops was completed; rehiring would 
take place with the arrival of shipments of later crops. 

In non-farm industries the over- all change in employment was quite small. 
The strikes that tied up fishermen and structural steel workers ended on 
August 9 and August 12 respectively, but the strike of the International Wood- 
workers of America continued, tying up 27,000 in logging, sawmilling, and 
plywood manufacturing on the coast and on Vancouver Island. The strike 
did not extend to the interior, where the industry operated at a very high level, 
many sawmills employing two shifts. Some movement of workers inland from 
the strike-bound areas was evident. A substantial number of stevedores and 
some other transportation workers such as tugboat operators, dependent to 
a large extent on the lumber industry for work, were affected by the strike. 




JASONDJFMAMJJA 



74810-3—21 



883 



Some pulp plants, lacking chips and wood cores from mills and plywood 
plants, found their operations curtailed. Manufacturers and wholesale firms 
supplying clothing, boots and other supplies to the industry made minor 
reductions in staff. 

Manufacturing not directly affected by the IWA strike continued strong. 
Construction recovered rapidly from the effects of the steelworkers' strike; the 
large number of commercial and industrial projects underway made up for 
a lower level of housebuilding through the summer. Fish canneries also returned 
to full operation after the strike settlement. 

There was little change from July in the number unemployed, the total 
remaining well below a year earlier. One labour market area was reclassified 
into a category denoting reduced unemployment. At the end of August the 
classification of the 11 areas in the region was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in substantial surplus, (1); in moderate surplus, 3 (5); in 
balance, 8 (5). 

Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan) remained in Group 2. Construc- 
tion employment moved ahead after the return to work of the steelworkers. 
A continuing high level of employment was indicated by a rise of more than 
10 per cent in the value of building permits in the January- July period over 
the corresponding time last year. The Pacific National Exhibition provided 
short-term employment for several hundred waitresses, demonstrators, attendants 
and related occupations. Work in two tile plants near Vancouver was halted 
by a strike in the second week of August. 

Victoria (major industrial) remained in Group 2. Almost all local sawmills 
and plywood plants were strikebound. Consequently, longshoremen, yardmen 
and other casual workers were in surplus. However, increased activity in 
shipyards (mostly repair work of a temporary nature) and construction projects 
prevented unemployment from increasing during the month. 
Okanagan Valley (minor) was reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. With 
stone fruit harvested and pears and apples late in ripening, demand for orchard 
help was light, but the general demand for labour was strengthened by increased 
employment in logging, sawmilling and plywood manufacturing. Many plants 
were working double shifts. 



___ — , — . — „ : „ _ , _ — ~ 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 
1949 = 100 

§mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

Index 

140 



Index 
- 140 



1959 „ 



— » » % 120 




884 



Current Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of Sept. 10, 1959) 



Principal Items 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons with jobs 

Agriculture 

Non- Agriculture 

Paid Workers 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours, or not at 
work due to short time and turnover. . . 

For other reasons 

Not at work due to temporary layoff 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Without jobs and seeking work 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Unemployment Insurance bene- 
fit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved 

Duration in man days 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



Date 



Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 

Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 

Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 22 

Aug. 22 



Aug 20 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 



July 31 
July 

June 
June 

1st 6 mos./59 
1st 6 mos./59 



August 
August 
August 



June 

June 

June 

June 

August 

June 

June 



July 
July 
July 
July 



Amount 



6,425,000 
6,186,000 
824,000 
5,362,000 
4,968,000 



867,000 
226,000 

53,000 
570,000 

18,000 
319,000 

239,000 



26,000 
82,000 

107,200 
29,100 
34,600 

278,900 



225,945 
$14,531,393 

123.3 
114.1 

57,089 
29,535 



47 

38,656 

667,960 



$73.71 
$1.73 
41.0 

$70.71 
126.4 
134.6 
1,528 



158.6 
142.2 
148.8 
136.6 



Percentage Change 



Previous 
Month 



0.1 
0.3 
1.3 
0. 

0. 



+ 6.0 

- 2.4 
+50.0 

- 2.5 

+ 4.8 



-13.9 

- 9.2 
+ 7.2 
-17.1 

- 3.6 

- 4.3 



+ 2.4 
-20.0 



3.1 
2.1 



+ 11.9 

- 6.7 

- 2.6 



0.2 
0.0 
0.3 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
3.0 



+ 



7.6 

9.2 

8.4 

10.0 



Previous 
Year 



+ 1.9 

+ 2.7 

- 5.1 
+ 4.0 
+ 4.3 

+ 2.5 

+ 3.3 

- 22.1 
+ 1.8 

- 51.4 
+ 6.0 

- 15.0 



35.2 
20.8 
17.7 
17.6 
28.8 
22.0 



24. £ 
45.8 

1.6 



15.7 
17.4 



- 13.0 
+ 109.0< 

+ 161. a 



4.3 
3.6 

1.2 
4.8 
1.0 
4.2 
8.6 



+ 5.7 

+ 4.5 

+ 8.8 

+ 0.8 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour Force, a monthly 
publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also page 990. 

(b) See also page 990. 



885 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



During August, strike activity on the West Coast diminished somewhat 
with the settlement of the dispute in the fishing industry (described in last 
month's Review and summarized in this month's Bargaining Scene, page 891). 
The major work stoppage involving the coastal lumber industry and the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America continued in effect during the month but 
ended with a settlement in mid-September. Elsewhere, an important agreement 
was reached between the United Steelworkers of America and the Dominion 
Bridge Company affecting many plants across the country. Negotiations between 
the same union and the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation are continuing, 
after rejection by the union membership of proposed settlement terms. Agree- 
ments have recently been concluded affecting some railroad trainmen and dining 
car employees, while negotiations continue at many railway hotels. Preparations 
are underway for forthcoming negotiations between the major railway companies 
in Canada and the various unions representing non-operating railway employees. 

The strike of 27,000 coastal lumber workers in British Columbia ended 
on September 11 following mediation in the dispute between 138 logging and 
lumber processing companies, represented by Forest Industrial Relations 
Limited, and the International Woodworkers of America. The strike began on 
July 6. The parties accepted the formula proposed by the mediator, which 
provides for an increase of 10 cents an hour this year and a further 10 cents 
next year, and an additional 10 cents this year for tradesmen. The industry 
will implement a job evaluation program in the plywood section. The base rate 
of pay was $1.72 an hour and the average about $2.10. The employers had 
offered 12 cents over two years and the union's final demand before the strike 
began was for 21 cents in one year. 

An important agreement has been reached between the Dominion Bridge 
Company and the United Steelworkers of America affecting ten plants, one in 
Nova Scotia, one in Quebec, three in Ontario, three in Manitoba and two 
in Alberta. Four thousand employees are said to be affected. Provision is 
made for a general increase of 7 cents an hour, to be paid in most plants 
in two steps, 4 cents retroactive to April and 3 cents effective in August. The 
agreements will expire in most cases in April 1960. The rate for job class I 
is now $1.67 in Toronto and $1.60 in Calgary, and the increment between 
job classes 5i cents an hour in Toronto and 4i cents in Calgary, to be raised 
in the latter location to 5 cents by next March. The co-operative wage study 
program was established at Calgary and Amherst plants for the first time. 
It is now said to be in force in all Dominion Bridge plants under agreement 
with the steelworkers. (A description of the CWS program will be found in 
the July Labour Gazette, page 676). All agreements but one expired last 
April; a first agreement was being negotiated in Calgary, where the union was 
only recently certified. The union's original objective was to obtain a master 
agreement with the company affecting all plants where it was the bargaining 
agent for the employees. The company did not agree with this proposal and 

886 



subsequent negotiations have been on a plant-to-plant basis, although the 
union's bargaining committee insisted that no local agreement be signed before 
agreement was reached at all ten plants. 

Conclusion of an agreement between the United Steelworkers of America 
and the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation affecting the Sydney works has 
been reported, after an earlier rejection by a majority of the plant workers of 
a proposed basis of settlement submitted to the membership by the union 
negotiating committee. The settlement provides for a three-year agreement. 
Details are not yet available. Agreements between this union and the other two 
major Canadian basic steel companies, the Steel Company of Canada in Hamil- 
ton and the Algoma Steel Corporation in Sault Ste Marie, were reached last 
year and continue until 1960. Meanwhile, the same union continues its strike 
against the Toronto plant of the John Inglis Company, a work stoppage that 
began on July 14 and affects approximately 700 workers. 

A conciliation board recently released a report in connection with the 
dispute between the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen representing 700 dining car employees. Recommendations of the 
report are understood to closely resemble terms of final settlement in the dispute. 

The majority report suggested that the wage increase should be made up 
of 4 cents an hour effective June 1, 1958 and 3-per-cent increases on June 1, 
1958, February 1, 1959 and September 1, 1959, all based on May 31, 1958 
wage rates. The minority report written by the union nominee recommended 
improvements in working conditions in addition to these wage increases. 

Separate negotiations for the Eastern and Prairie-Pacific Regions of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway were conducted by that company with the Brother- 
hood of Railroad Trainmen, affecting conductors, baggagemen, brakemen and 
yardmen among other occupations. However, a single conciliation board was 
appointed to assist in bringing these negotiations to a conclusion. The board 
has dealt first with the eastern case, which had fewer issues in dispute. The 
recommendations include a 2. 3-per-cent wage increase retroactive to June 1, 
1958 and additional increases of 3 per cent on February 1, 1959, and September 
1, 1959, and 1.5 per cent on June 1, 1960, all based on the rates effective 
May 31, 1958. 

Meanwhile, negotiations are underway between the Canadian Brotherhood 
of Railway, Transport and General Workers and four railway hotels: the 
Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City, the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa, the Empress 
Hotel in Victoria, and the Vancouver Hotel in Vancouver. The last three cases 
are at the conciliation officer stage, while negotiations at the Chateau Frontenac 
are proceeding, for the present at least, without conciliation services. In the 
latter case, the union is seeking an increase of 20 cents an hour as well as 
certain changes in working conditions and a one-month vacation after 25 years. 
The principal aim of the CBRT is said to be to obtain similar settlements at 
all railway hotels where its agreements are open for renewal. 

Building construction in the Windsor, Ont., area was affected by a series 
of work stoppages in August. Electricians, sheet metal workers and plumbers 
went out on strike after conciliation boards failed to bring about settlements. 
Members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers struck when 
they failed to reach an agreement with the Electrical Contractors' Association. 
A 25-day strike of sheet metal workers ended when the members voted to 
accept the monetary terms of a new agreement proposed by management, 
provided the non-monetary proposals of the union were also met. The plumbers 

887 



returned to work after a 12-day strike when the Windsor Plumbing and Heating 
Contractors agreed to an increase in wages of 35 cents an hour over a two-year 
period. 

A province-wide agreement was signed in Toronto between the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and the Association of 
Millwrighting and Rigging Contractors of Ontario. The two-year agreement 
provides wage increases totalling 35 to 40 cents an hour for about 1,000 
millwrights. As in previous agreements, the province is divided into five 
different zones with separate wage scales. There will be an immediate increase 
of 15 to 20 cents an hour, according to zone, and another 10-cent increase in 
June 1960 with a further 5 to 10 cents in December 1960. This will bring 
the minimum rate to $3.00 an hour. 

Almost 10,000 workers are affected by current bargaining in the textile 
industry in the province of Quebec. In Drummondville, the newly certified 
Textile Workers' Union of America is bargaining with Canadian Celanese Ltd. 
In the same locality, the National Catholic Textile Federation is negotiating 
with the Dominion Textile Company, also affecting plants in Montmorency, 
Magog and Sherbrooke. The CCCL union is asking for a 5-cent-an-hour 
general increase plus 10 cents additional for employees not on production 
bonus and a further 10 cents for 1,100 employees at the Magog mill plus 
improved fringe benefits; negotiations are currently at the conciliation board 
stage. The United Textile Workers of America is engaged in negotiations with 
the Montreal plant of Dominion Textile and with Montreal Cottons Ltd. in 
Valleyfield, Que.; both these negotiations are also at the conciliation board 
stage. The union is requesting a "package" amounting to approximately 30 
cents an hour. 

Some 600 members of the Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Inter- 
national Union went on strike against their employer, Fry-Cadbury Limited 

in Montreal on August 1 1 , after rejection by the company of the recommenda 
tions of a conciliation board. The previous agreement expired in December 
1958 and negotiations began in October of that year. Bargaining was largely 
concerned with the questions of wages and seniority. Late in July a board o 
conciliation recommended a wage settlement consisting of a 5-cent-an-hou 
general increase retroactive to December 6, 1958, 3 cents on July 2, 1959 
and a further 6 cents on December 6, 1959. In turning down the recommenda 
tions of the conciliation board, the company proposed, as a basis of settlement, 
hourly increases of 4 cents for male and 3 cents for female employees retroactive 
to December 1958 and similar increases effective in December 1959. It is 
reported that seniority has been an important issue: the company has main- 
tained that seniority cannot be the deciding factor in determining promotion 
unless two men of equal ability are considered for an opening. 

One detail of a settlement was erroneously reported in last month's 
Labour Gazette. The two-year agreement reached between the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America and Cluett, Peabody of Stratford, Ont., provides 
a 5-per-cent increase for hourly rated employees and 2i-per-cent for piece 
workers effective August 17, 1959, with a reduction in the work week from 
44 to 42 hours on August 17, 1960 with maintenance of weekly pay, and a 
5-per-cent increase for hourly rated employees and 2i-per-cent for piece 
workers on August 17, 1961. The last provision was erroneously reported to 
be effective on August 17, 1960. The unusual feature of this settlement is 
that the final increase takes place on the last day of the present agreement. 

888 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more workers, excluding those 
in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During September, October and November 1959 

(Except those under negotiation in August) 

Company and Location Union 

City of Montreal, Montreal, Que CLC-chartered local 

City of Montreal, Montreal, Que Police Bro. (Ind.) 

City of Montreal, Montreal, Que Firefighters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Continental Can, New Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Council of Printing Industries, Toronto, Ont Printing Pressmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Crown Zellerbach, Vancouver, B.C Pulp, Sulphite Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Stores, Toronto, Ont Retail, Wholesale Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dupont, Shawinigan Falls, Que CCCL-chartered local 

Iron Ore of Canada, Schefferville, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Kelly-Douglas, Vancouver, B.C Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Lever Bros., Toronto, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Locomotive Works, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

North American Cyanamid, Niagara Falls, Ont. Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Northern Electric, Toronto, Ont Communications Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Orenda Engines, Malton, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Page-Hersey Tubes, Welland, Ont United Electrical Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Quebec Natural Gas, Montreal, Que Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Shawinigan Water and Power, Montreal, Que Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Stanleigh Uranium Mining, Elliot Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Thompson Products, St. Catharines, Ont Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Toronto Star, Toronto, Ont Newspaper Guild (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During August 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Alberta Government Telephones (province-wide) Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bindery Room Employers, Toronto, Ont Bookbinders (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Electric, Vancouver, B.C Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cab cos. (various), Vancouver, B.C Teamsters (CLC) 

Cdn. Aviation Electronics, Montreal, Que United Electrical Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Cdn. Broadcasting Corp. (company- wide) Stage Empl., Moving Picture Operators (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Celanese, Drummondville, Que Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. General Electric, Montreal and Quebec, 

Que Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Marconi, Montreal, Que Salaried Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Cdn. Pacific Airlines, Vancouver, B.C Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Steel Foundries, Montreal, Que Steel and Foundry Wkrs. (Ind.) 

City of Edmonton, Alta Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (outside empl.) 

City of Edmonton, Alta Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

City of Edmonton, Alta Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp, Paper Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Consumers Glass, Montreal, Que Glass Bottle Blowers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

de Havilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Distillers Corp., Montreal, Que Distillery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Bridge, Vancouver, B.C Bridge, Structural Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Glass, Montreal, Que Glass, Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel and Coal, Sydney, N.S Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Donohue Bros., Clermont, Que Carpenters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dress Mfrs. Guild, Toronto, Ont Int. Ladies' Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fraser cos., Cabano, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Hotel Chateau Frontenac (CPR), Quebec, Que. Bro. R.R. Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Mount Royal, Montreal, Que Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hotel Queen Elizabeth, Montreal, Que Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Meat cos. (various), Vancouver, B.C Meat Cutters (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

John Murdoch, St. Raymond, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Northspan Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont CLC-chartered local 

Saskatchewan Government, Regina, Sask Sask. Civil Service Assoc. (CLC) 

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Regina, Sask Wheat Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

St. Raymond Paper, Desbiens, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Taverns and hotels (various), Toronto, Ont Hotel, Restaurant Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

889 



Conciliation Officer 

Company and Location Union 

L'Association Patronale du Commerce, Quebec, 

Que. Commerce Empl. (CCCL) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec, 

Que Services Fed. (CCCL) (female) 

L'Association Patronale des Hospitaliers, Quebec, 

Que Services Fed. (CCCL) (male) 

Can. Cement, Montreal, Que Cement Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Calgary, Alta Nat. Union of Pub. Empl. (CLC) (clerical 

empl. ) 
Communaute des Soeurs de Charite de la Pro- 
vidence, Montreal, Que Services Fed. (CCCL) 

Consumers Gas, Toronto, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Crane Ltd., Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Wabana Ore, Bell Island, Nfid Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Duplate Canada, Oshawa, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hamilton General Hospitals, Hamilton, Ont Nat. Union of Pub. Empl. (CLC) 

Hotel Chateau Laurier (CNR), Ottawa, Ont Bro. R.R. Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Empress (CPR), Victoria, B.C Bro. R.R. Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Vancouver (CNR & CPR), Vancouver, 

B.C Bro. R.R. Transport, Gen. Wkrs. (CLC) 

Fairey Aviation, Dartmouth, N.S Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

North American Cyanamid, Niagara Falls, Ont. United Electrical Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Manitoba Rolling Mill, Selkirk, Man Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Okanagan Federated Shippers' Assoc, Kelowna, 

B.C Okanagan Fed. of Fruit and Vegetable Wkrs. 

(CLC) 

Price Bros., Kenogami, Que Cath. Union of Farmers (Ind.) 

Walter M. Lowney, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Conciliation Board 

Algom Uranium Mines, Elliot Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Atlas Asbestos, Montreal, Que Asbestos Wkrs. (CLC) 

Bicroft Uranium Mines, Bancroft, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Acme Screw and Gear, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Industries Ltd., New Haven, Ont Oil, Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (western region) Montreal, 

Que Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Pacific Railway (eastern region) Montreal, 

Que Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

City of Calgary, Alta Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) (outside empl.) 

City of Hamilton, Ont Nat. Union Pub. Empl. (CLC) 

Dom. Textile, Montmorency, Magog, Sherbrooke, 

Drummondville, Que Textile Wkrs. (CCCL) 

Dom. Textile, Montreal, Que United Textile Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dunlop of Canada, Toronto, Ont Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Cottons, Valleyfield, Que United Textile Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Normetal Mining, Normetal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Quemont Mining, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Trans Canada Air Lines (company-wide) Air Line Pilots (Ind.) 

Post-Conciliation Bargaining 

Garment Mfrs.' Assoc, of Western Canada, 
Winnipeg, Man Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Arbitration Board 

(no cases this month) 

Work Stoppage 

Fry-Cadbury, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

John Inglis, Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Lumber cos. (various), B.C. coast Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part III— Settlements Reached During August 1959 

(A summary of the major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Coverage 
figures are approximate.) 

Aluminum Co. of Can., Kingston, Ont. — Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,200 empl.— 50-an-hr. general increase eff. July 1, 1959, 4$ eff. April 1, 1960; 3-wk. 
vacation after 10 yrs. service (formerly 3 wks. after 15 yrs.); 100% employer contribution to 
Blue Cross and PSI. 

Atlas Steel, Welland, Ont. — Cdn. Steelworkers (Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 2,000 empl.— 
11.90-an-hr. increase in labour rate 1959, 6.60 increase in labour rate August 17, 1960 (average 
increase 150 over 2-yr. period). 

890 






Automatic Electric, Brockville, Ont.—Int. Union Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. 
agreement covering 800 empl. — 70-an-hr. increase for male and 40 for female empl. in 1959, 
60-an-hr. increase for male and 30 for female empl. August 14, 1960; starting rate increased 
50-an-hr.; 4-wk. vacation after 25 yrs. service (formerly no 4-wk. vacation provision). 

British Rubber, Lachine, Que. — CLC-chartered local: 2-yr. agreement covering 700 empl. — 
10-an-hr. general increase retroactive to Jan. 1959; 20 Jan. 1960; 3-wk. vacation after 11 yrs. 
service (formerly 3 wks. after 15 yrs.), 4-wk. vacation after 25 yrs. service (formerly no 4-wk. 
vacation provision). 

Fish canning cos. (various), B.C. coast — United Fishermen (Ind.) (cannery wkrs.): 2-yr. agree- 
ment covering 3,000 empl. — increase in the $1.60 hourly minimum for men of 120-an-hr. for 
the 1959 season, 50 during 1960 season; increases in the $1.32 hourly minimum for female empl. 
of 100 during 1959 season and 50 during 1960 season. 

Fish canning cos. (various), B.C. coast — United Fishermen (Ind.) (salmon tendermen): 2-yr. 
agreement covering 750 empl. — $20-a-mo. increase 1959, and $10 in 1960 over previous wage 
rates ranging from $290 to $390 a mo. 

Fish canning cos. (various), B.C. coast — United Fishermen (Ind.) (fishermen): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 5,000 men — increase in sockeye salmon prices over 1958 price of 280-a-lb. to 310 during 
1959 season and 320 during 1960; increase in cohoe salmon prices over 1958 price of 160-a-lb. to 
210 during 1959 season and 220 during 1960. 

Int. Harvester, Chatham, Ont. — Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 
650 empl. — increases of 180-an-hr. for skilled trades, 120 for moving lines, 80 for production 
wkrs. during 1959; 80-an-hr. general increase in 1960, and 70 general increase in 1961; 2-wk.-and- 
3-day vacation after 10 yrs. service (formerly 2 wks. and 2 days after 10 yrs.). 

Manitoba Telephone System (province-wide) — Man. Tel. Wkrs. (Ind.) (plant empl): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 900 empl — 5% increase eff. April 1, 1959. 

Manitoba Telephone System (province-wide) — Man. Tel. Wkrs. (Ind.) (Traffic empl.): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 900 empl. — 5% increase eff. April 1, 1959. 

Manitoba Telephone System (province-wide) — Tel. Assoc. (Ind.) (operators and clerks): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 750 empl. — 5% increase eff. April 1, 1959. 

Metro. Board of Commissioners of Police, Toronto, Ont. — Metro. Police Assoc. (Ind.): 
agreement expiring Dec. 31, 1959, covering 2,100 empl. — 3.28% general increase; officers now 
paid for court appearances. 

New Brunswick Telephone, N.B Bro. Electrical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 

eff. Aug. 1, 1959 covering 700 empl. — wage increases ranging from 750 to $1.50 a wk.; 500-a-wk. 
increase in differential for supervisors, observers and clerks. 

Rowntree Co. Toronto, Ont.— Retail Wholesale Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 520 empl. — 3% increase across the board, and additional 3i% to all "A" rated empl. 
(lead hands); 3 days' bereavement pay; portal-to-portal travelling time; employer contribution of 
50% to Ont. Hospital Plan. 



Late Report: August Settlement 

Bell Telephone, company-wide (chiefly Ontario and Quebec) — Cdn. Telephone Empl. Assoc. 
(Ind.) (equipment salesmen): 15-mo. agreement eff. Aug. 31, 1959, covering 520 empl. — wage terms 
not available; 4-wk. vacation after 30 yrs. eff. 1960 (currently 4 wks. after 35 yrs.). 



4 New Publications in "Canadian Occupations" Series 

Four publications in the "Canadian Occupations" series, prepared by the Economics 
and Research Branch of the Department of Labour, were released last month. Teacher 
and Physical and Occupational Therapist are two new titles in the series; Forge Shop 
Occupations and Tool and Die Maker are revisions of earlier monographs. 

The release of these four publications is in line with the Department's policy of 
adding new titles to the series and keeping existing publications up to date. 

The monographs are available from the Queen's Printer, Ottawa, at 10 cents a copy. 

"Canadian Occupations" monographs cover many trades and professions. They are 
designed to meet the demand for up-to-date information on Canadian occupations from 
youth, vocational guidance counsellors, employment service officers, personnel directors, 
union officials, immigrants, and government agencies at home and abroad. 

The release of new filmstrip, in full colour, "Medical Laboratory Technologist," also 
is announced. This is the 15th in a series of filmstrips based on "Canadian Occupations" 
monographs. 

Each filmstrip provides a visual presentation of the essential facts contained in the 
monograph and is useful for classroom guidance. 

Prints are available from the National Film Board, Box 6100, Montreal. 

891 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Minister Describes Steps Taken 
To Increase Efficiency of NES 

Steps taken by the federal Government 
to make the National Employment Service 
"an efficient job-finding agency whose func- 
tion will be to bring the right worker in 
touch with the right employer" were 
described by Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 
of Labour, in an address to the 46th annual 
convention of the International Association 
of Personnel in Employment Security. 

He was speaking after his acceptance of 
the Association's Citation of Merit, awarded 
to the Minister for "his perception of legis- 
lative, administrative and promotional needs 
in the employment security field and his 
follow-through; as a great promoter for the 
advancement of workers; and as a fine 
representative of his country and his 
people". 

Listing the deficiencies he thought existed 
in Canada's employment service, Mr. Starr 
mentioned first the inadequacy of staff, both 
in quantity and quality. 

"If an employment officer is going to 
spend virtually all his time in simply regis- 
tering applicants who come to the office, 
or in doubling in claims work, he is not 
fulfilling his proper functions. He is not 
organizing any market, the market is 
organizing him," the Minister said. 

Mr. Starr said that one of the first steps 
taken was to increase staff. 

Commenting on salaries, Mr. Starr said 
he recognized that many NES workers 
could earn more elsewhere and that in 
Canada presently a salary policy is being 
implemented that will be rewarding both 
to the service and to old and new em- 
ployees "who have the required enthusiasm, 
resourcefulness and initiative". 

Noting the need for a clearer understand- 
ing by all the staff of the objectives of both 
job and organization, Mr. Starr observed: 

"It is inevitable that any large organiza- 
tion will, over the years, acquire a good 
sprinkling of pedestrian types — those who 
do not see beyond the edge of their desks; 
those who resist any change simply because 
it may call for additional effort on their 
part; those who have lost their enthusiasm; 
and those who never had enthusiasm. 

"The first step was to have a restatement 
of objectives and to let the staff know 
about them. This step was taken in the 



National Employment Service under the 
heading 'Re-emphasis of the Employment 
Program'." 

An intensive program to this end, Mr. 
Starr noted, was developed and applied at 
all levels. It has proved its merit both in 
theory and fact. 

As a result of the program, an immediate 
upturn in placements was noted. 

Mr. Starr is the fifth Canadian and the 
second Minister of Labour to receive the 
Association's Citation of Merit since it was 
inaugurated in 1947. Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Mr. Starr's predecessor, was awarded the 
citation in 1953. 

Other Canadians who received the award 
were Arthur MacNamara, former Deputy 
Minister of Labour, cited in 1950; the late 
V. C. Phelan, then Director, Canada Branch, 
ILO (1951); and R. L. Campbell, former 
employer member of the Unemployment 
Insurance Advisory Committee (1956). 

The Citation of Merit was established 
to recognize outstanding achievement and 
contribution to employment security by 
persons other than those directly connected 
with the program. 



Growth of White-Collar Staffs 
Double That of Plant Workers 

During the past 10 years the number of 
white-collar workers (administrative, tech- 
nical and clerical employees) in manufac- 
turing industries in the United Kingdom 
has increased twice as fast as the number 
of plant workers, according to the Ministry 
of Labour Gazette for July. 

During the period 1948-58, white-collar 
workers in manufacturing increased by 
600,000, while plant workers increased by 
300,000. As a result of these increases, the 
proportion of white-collar workers to the 
total number of employees rose from 16 
per cent to 21 per cent. 

The largest proportional increase in the 
number of administrative, technical and 
clerical workers occurred in the non-metalli- 
ferous mining products industry (from 10.9 
to 15.3 per cent of total employees), the 
metal manufacture industry (13.7 to 18.9 
per cent), and in the textiles industry (8.8 
to 12.2 per cent). 

In terms of absolute numbers, however, 
the largest increase was in the engineering, 
shipbuilding and electrical goods, and the 



892 



vehicles groups. In these industries the 
increase in the proportion of white-collar 
workers coincided with a big increase in 
the total number of workers employed. In 
textiles, on the other hand, the increase, 
from 9 per cent to 12 per cent, coincided 
with a fall of about 100,000 in the total 
number of employees: there was a very 
small increase in the number of white- 
collar workers and a drop of more than 
100,000 in the number of plant workers. 



Little Success in Organizing 
U.S. White-Collar Workers ** 

Union efforts to organize white-collar 
workers in the United States during the first 
half of 1959 were intensified, but met with 
less success than ever before, according 
to National Labor Relations Board records. 

Of 116 representation elections the Board 
conducted in white-collar units during the 
first six months of the year, unions won 51, 
involving 1,905 white-collar employees, and 
lost 65, involving 4,255 employees. Though 
the unions won about 43 per cent of the 
elections in the first half of 1959, the 
victories represent only about 31 per cent 
of the number of votes involved. 

The leader in organizing activity in the 
white-collar field, the Office Employees' 
International Union, again heads the NLRB 
list in the number of elections; but it won 
only 13 out of 32 polls and netted only 
about 500 new or potential members while 
failing to organize units with 1,825 em- 
ployees. 

Unionist for 57 Years, Leader 
For 43, Silby Barrett Dies 

Silby Barrett, the man who organized the 
United Steelworkers and the United Mine 
Workers in Canada, helped found the Cana- 
dian Congress of Labour and subsequently 
became a vice-president of that organization, 
died in Toronto August 9 at the age of 74. 

A native of Newfoundland, Mr. Barrett 
moved to Nova Scotia in 1902 and became 
a member of the Coal Miners' Union. He 
continued to be a member of the trade 
union movement until his death. 

Mr. Barrett helped to organize the Nova 
Scotia miners in the United Mine Workers 
in 1909-10. He became the first President 
of District 26, UMW when the union 
obtained its first contract in the fall of 1916. 
In 1919 he was elected a member of the 
UMW Board. 

In 1918, Mr. Barrett helped to organize 
the National Steel and Tin Workers Union 
in the steel plant in Sydney. 



In 1936, he was appointed by CIO 
President John L. Lewis to organize the 
steelworkers in Canada. He carried on 
organization in Sydney and New Glasgow 
successfully and the contract obtained from 
the steel company was the Steelworkers' 
first on the North American Continent. He 
was appointed Canadian Director of the 
Mine Workers, from which office he resigned 
in May 1942. 

At the founding convention of the Cana- 
dian Congress of Labour in 1940, Mr. 
Barrett was elected an Executive Com- 
mittee member, a position he held until 
1951, when he was elected a Vice-President. 

In 1945 Mr. Barrett was appointed by 
John L. Lewis as Director in Canada for 
District 50 of the United Mine Workers 
of America. 

In 1951 he was appointed Director of the 
United Construction Workers in Canada, 
a unit of the United Mine Workers. In 
1955 he was promoted to the post of 
assistant to the president of District 50, 
UMW. 

Robert J. Barnett 

Robert J. Barnett, a past president of the 
Ottawa Building and Construction Trades 
Council, died August 31 at the age of 79. 

Mr. Barnett, a member of the Ottawa 
and District Trades and Labour Council 
for almost 40 years, was the business 
agent for an Ottawa local of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. He 
was also a member of the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission's Board of Referees 
in his locality. 



Only 30 Years Old, President 
Of Flight Engineers Resigns 

George R. Petty Jr. resigned last month 
as President of the 3,500-member Flight 
Engineers' International Association. 

Mr. Petty, 30 years old, was one of the 
youngest presidents of an international 
union. 

Ron Brown, Executive Vice-President of 
the Association, has assumed the presi- 
dency pending an election at the union's 
convention next spring. 

The Association has one local in Canada, 
at Montreal, with a membership of 35. 

1959 Canada Handbook Issued 

The 1959 Canada Handbook, English 
edition, containing up-to-date facts on the 
country's economy and political, social and 
cultural development has been released. 
Thirtieth in the series, the new edition 
contains more than 300 pages and is pro- 
fusely illustrated. 

It sells at $1 per copy. 



893 



Negotiate Schemes in Britain 
For Paying Displaced Workers 

During the past few months unions and 
employers in Britain have negotiated several 
important agreements providing compensa- 
tion for workers who lose their jobs through 
no fault of their own. The British term 
for such workers is "redundant". 

One was in the cotton industry; others 
cover workers in gas, railway workshops 
and the engineering and maintenance serv- 
ices of British Overseas Airways Corpora- 
tion. 

Impact of Automation 

The issue of compensation for redundant 
workers — in North America, severance 
pay — arose for various reasons, but the 
most important was the impact of automa- 
tion. 

The compensation agreements reached so 
far are of two types. The first provides that 
workers shall receive a fixed sum — often a 
week's pay — for every year of service if 
they are forced off the job; the second 
provides a long period of notice of dismissal 
so that he can look for another job. Another 
scheme is to pay the redundant worker the 
surrender value of his policy under the 
plant pension scheme. 

The scale of compensation payments in 
the cotton industry agreement is calculated 
on a worker's normal weekly earnings. It 
varies according to age, beginning with the 
equivalent of one weeks wages at age 21 
and rising to the equivalent of 30 weeks 
wages at 65 and over. 

The agreement provides that where alter- 
native employment at about the same level 
of earnings is available after a period that 
is shorter than the period over which a 
worker is entitled to receive compensation, 
the worker will receive only proportionate 
compensation. 

A worker for whom employment is avail- 
able only in a lower but "suitable" grade 
will receive "an appropriate share of com- 
pensation". 

Qualifying Period 

Sometimes there is a qualifying period 
before the compensation provisions apply. 
In gas, five years in the industry are neces- 
sary; in coal the minimum period is two 
years. 

Redundant workers may get their com- 
pensation either in a lump sum or in weekly 
payments while they are looking for a new 
job. In gas, where two-thirds the normal 
weekly wage is paid for each year of service 
up to a maximum of 13 weeks, workers 
receive a lump sum with additions for the 
over-45's. 



U.S. Agreement Provides for 
Sharing of Productivity Gains 

A collective agreement signed last month 
in San Francisco makes provision for long- 
shoremen and stevedores to share in pro- 
ductivity gains stemming from labour-saving 
devices. 

The International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union agreed it would not 
oppose introduction of new machines and 
techniques that would reduce man-hours 
spent in loading and unloading ships. 

In return, the employers' Pacific Mari- 
time Association have set up a fund to 
"guarantee the fully registered work force 
a share in the savings effected by labour- 
saving machinery, changed methods of 
operations, or changes in working rules . . . 
resulting in reduced manpower . . ." The 
employers agreed also to "maintain the 
1958 fully registered work force, with 
allowance for normal attrition". 

During the first year of the three-year 
agreement, the employers will contribute 
$1,500,000 to the fund. 



AFL-CIO Executive Council Votes 
To Re-Admit I LA on Probation 

The AFL-CIO Executive Council at its 
mid-summer meeting last month voted to 
re-admit, on probation, the International 
Longshoremen's Association, which was ex- 
pelled in 1953 from the old AFL on charges 
of corruption. The Council's action is 
subject to ratification by the AFL-CIO 
biennial convention this month. 

It was the first time the AFL-CIO has 
decided to take back a union that was 
expelled for corruption. 

George Meany, Federation President, said 
that the Council's decision was a result of 
the conviction of the AFL-CIO leaders 
that the ILA has made substantial progress 
in ridding itself of "hoodlums" and correct- 
ing corrupt conditions. 

The probationary period is to last two 
years, until the AFL-CIO convention in 
1961. 

The ILA's readmission is conditional on 
the achievement of a merger or working 
agreement between it and the International 
Brotherhood of Longshoremen, chartered 
by the AFL at the time of the ILA expul- 
sion. 

There are a number of other conditions 
attached to the ILA's admission. One is 
that Mr. Meany be given power to supervise 
the workings of the union to make sure 
that it lives up to the AFL-CIO ethical 
practices codes. Besides this, the ILA will 
be subject to suspension or expulsion by a 



894 



majority vote of the Executive Council at 
any time between the 1959 and the 1961 
AFL-CIO convention, if the Council decides 
that the union has again become corrupt. 

One consideration that influenced the 
Council's decision was the ILA's rejection 
a short time before of a proposal made by 
James Hoffa, President of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, for an alliance 
between the ILA and the International 
Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 
on the West Coast. The ILA convention, 
at which the proposal was considered, 
passed a strongly worded statement of policy 
against any alliance with unions whose 
leadership is under Communist influence or 
domination. 

At the end of the month, leaders of the 
ILA and the IBL were meeting to work 
out a unity agreement. 

At its mid-summer meeting, the AFL- 
CIO Council, acting on a proposal by five 
clothing, textile, hat and leather goods 
unions for establishment of an import quota 
system, instructed its staff economists to 
meet with representatives of all affiliated 
unions and seek a "meeting of minds" on 
how protection could be provided for work- 
ers in industries hurt by low-wage imports 
without undermining labour's adherence to 
the principles of free trade. 

Walter Reuther, Chairman of the Federa- 
tion's Economic Policy Committee, held 
that the import question must be solved 
without a reversion to high tariffs and other 
obstacles to maximum trade. 



CLC Delays Action on Application 
For Affiliation by Mine-Mill 

The Executive Council of the Canadian 
Labour Congress, meeting last month in 
Winnipeg, endorsed a strike, dealt with an 
application for affiliation, and appointed a 
vice-president. 

The Council pledged "full moral support" 
to members of the International Wood- 
workers of America on strike in British 
Columbia, and instructed the Executive 
Committee to consider issuing a national 
appeal for assistance to the IWA. 

On a conditional application for affilia- 
tion from the Canadian section of the 
International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, the Council instructed the 
Committee to take note of developments 
at the next Mine-Mill convention. Further 
steps will be considered by the CLC after 
that convention. 

J. Harold D'Aoust, Canadian Director 
and an International Vice-President of the 



Textile Workers Union of America, has 
been elected a Vice-President of the Cana- 
dian Labour Congress. 

Mr. D'Aoust succeeds Paul Swaity of 
the same union, who resigned from the 
CLC position because of his assignment to 
other duties in his own union. 

The Council also approved a statement 
calling on the Government to "voice its 
determined opposition to the resumption of 
nuclear tests" and another urging the Prime 
Minister to raise at the forthcoming meet- 
ing of the heads of Commonwealth nations 
the question of South Africa's policy of 
apartheid. 



U.N. Conference Studies Ways to 
Combat Prejudice, Discrimination 

Recommendations on the most effective 
ways in which education, the community, 
and the law can help to combat prejudice 
and discrimination were discussed at the 
Second United Nations Conference of Non- 
Governmental Organizations interested in 
the Eradication of Prejudice and Discrimin- 
ation. More than 100 organizations were 
represented by some 250 delegates. 

The recommendations were made by three 
working groups at the conference which 
examined various techniques for combatting 
prejudice and discrimination. 

Among the recommendations were: 

— Education against prejudice and hos- 
tility is more likely to be successful when 
it is conducted for groups rather than for 
separate individuals; 

— The programs should be offered mainly 
to teams of key individuals in organizations 
and communities; 

— Textbook revisions should be under- 
taken to eliminate "inaccurate statements 
about minorities, or peoples of other lands 
and cultures, . . . 

Employment Field 

In the field of employment some dele- 
gates reported a measure of success in 
efforts by their organizations to have ques- 
tions concerning religion and race deleted 
from application forms. Some organizations 
conducted investigations that discovered 
"valuable opportunities for minorities" 
because of local shortages of certain types 
of workers. It was pointed out, however, 
that it was not considered desirable in 
general "that minorities should be content 
with jobs that no one else was willing to 
do". 

On the international leevl, stress was 
placed on the "primary importance" of 
conventions and similar instruments for 
combatting prejudice and discrimination. 



895 



U.N. Technical Assistance Plan 
Ten Years Old Last Month 

The United Nations Expanded Program 
of Technical Assistance was inaugurated 
ten years ago last month. Last year Canada 
contributed $2,000,000 to the Program. 

Canada, along with Britain, the United 
States and France, has been one of the 
largest contributors to the plan. In 1958, 
some $30,000,000 was contributed by 86 
governments. 

Seven Commonwealth countries during 
1958 contributed 18 per cent of the total 
pledge. 



UIC Booklet Urges Employers 
To Consider Older Workers 

A new booklet that urges employers to 
give fair consideration to the employment 
of older workers has just been published 
by the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion. 

The booklet, How Old Is Old?, subtitled 
A Study of the Older Worker Problem, 
points out that in some important respects, 
older workers are superior to younger em- 
ployees. It is directed mainly to employers 
in the hope that they will examine their 
hiring practices to ensure that they are 
giving consideration to the advantages of 
employing experienced, mature workers. 

"The belief held by many employers that 
when a worker has passed the age of 40 he 
is no longer able to maintain production 
standards is a fallacy," the pamphlet states. 
It points out that in engaging the services 
of a professional man, such as a doctor, a 
lawyer or a dentist, the very employers 
who are unwilling to employ older workers 
"prefer the hoary head of the mature man 
for the reason that it represents experience, 
judgment and wisdom". 

It maintains that older workers attend to 
their work better, are less frequently absent, 
and "often turn out a better quality product" 
than the younger workers. 

"The employer who takes advantage of 
the professional, business and technical 
skills of the older worker is making a 
wise financial investment on behalf of his 
organization — an investment that pays rich 
dividends," the booklet says. 

The contribution that older workers can, 
if employed, make through their purchasing 
power to the economy of Canada is also 
mentioned. 

The supposedly serious obstacles to the 
employment of older workers presented by 
pension plans are dealt with in the pamph- 
let. Although some types of pension schemes 



do present difficulties affecting the employ- 
ment of older workers, "nevertheless, when 
viewed in their proper perspective they are 
not as serious as they might at first appear," 
the booklet asserts. 

The booklet describes the flexible policy 
of the federal Government regarding the 
hiring and retention of older workers in 
the public service, and the efforts being 
made by the National Employment Service 
to increase employment opportunities for 
such workers. 

The pamphlet is published in both 
English and French versions. 



More Persons Receiving Old Age 
Assistance, Disabled Allowance 

The number of persons receiving old age 
assistance in Canada increased from 97,836 
at March 31, 1959 to 98,560 at June 30, 
1959. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$7,609,958.91 for the quarter ended June 
30, 1959, compared with $7,593,917.93 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has 
contributed $166,659,272.08. 

At June 30, 1959, the average monthly 
assistance in the provinces ranged from 
$48.83 to $53.19 except for one province 
where the average was $44.36. In all 
provinces the maximum assistance paid was 
$55 a month. 

Blind Persons' Allowances 

The number of blind persons in Canada 
receiving allowances under the Blind Per- 
sons Act decreased from 8,747 at March 31, 
1959 to 8,735 at June 30, 1959. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the under the federal-provincial 
scheme totalled $1,052,163.68 for the quar- 
ter ended June 30, 1959, compared with 
$1,060,388.70 in the preceding quarter. 
Since the inception of the Act, the federal 
Government has contributed $24,247,991.53. 

At June 30, 1959, the average monthly 

allowance in the provinces ranged from 

$50.69 to $54.39. In all provinces the 

maximum allowance paid was $55 a month. 

Disabled Persons' Allowances 

The number of persons in Canada receiv- 
ing allowances under the Disabled Persons 
Act increased from 48,040 at March 31, 
1959 to 48,476 at June 30, 1959. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$3,967,455.21 for the quarter ended June 
30, 1959, compared with $3,939,969.95 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $43,641,285.69. 



896 



At June 30, 1959, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$51.28 to $54.69. In all provinces the maxi- 
mum allowance paid was $55 a month. 



More Plans Now than in '52 
Contain Vesting Provision 

A considerable increase in the prevalence 
of vesting provisions in pension plans sub- 
ject to collective bargaining in the United 
States is shown by a new study, a report of 
which is published in the Monthly Labor 
Review of the U.S. Department of Labor 
for July. 

The report shows that 58 per cent of 
300 pension plans studied late in 1958 pro- 
vided for vesting; in a similar study con- 
ducted in 1952 only 25 per cent contained 
vesting provisions. 

Vesting was provided in 174 plans, or 
almost three out of five. Of these, 154 
provided full vesting, 19 deferred graded 
vesting, and one immediate full vesting. 
Deferred full vesting constituted a some- 
what larger proportion of the total than 
in 1952. 

Of the 231 single-employer plans studied, 
more than two thirds (162) contained vest- 
ing provisions, as against 12 of the 69 
multi-employer plans. About four out of 
five contributory plans vested in the quali- 
fied worker all or part of the employer's 
contributions, and slightly more than half 
of the 249 non-contributory plans contained 
such provisions. In 1952 only 10 per cent 
of the non-contributory plans contained 
such provisions. 

Under deferred full vesting the worker 
retains a right to all accrued benefits if his 
employment terminates after he reaches a 
certain age, or after a certain period of 
service or of participation in the plan. 

Under deferred graded vesting the worker 
acquires a right to a certain percentage of 
accrued benefits when he meets specified 
requirements. The percentage vested in- 
creases as additional requirements are 
fulfilled, until full vesting is reached. 

Immediate full vesting gives the worker 
a vested right as soon as he comes under 
the pension plan. 

In the 300 plans studied early retirement 
provisions were found to be much more 
prevalent than vesting provisions — 218 plans 
compared with 174 plans. Both early retire- 
ment and vesting provisions were found 
in 163 plans. 

In order to qualify under early retire- 
ment provisions the employee usually has 
to meet certain age or service requirements, 
as in the case of vesting. Fifteen years of 
service was the most common requirement, 



and 10 and 20 years were often required. 
Minimum age requirements for early retire- 
ment were generally decidedly higher than 
those for vesting. All but 17 plans stipulated 
age 55 or higher. Age 60 was the minimum 
age in more than half of the plans. 



Sweden Adopts Program for 
Supplementary Old Age Pensions 

A new supplementary old age pension 
scheme that covers all Swedish citizens over 
the age of 16 years who are employers, 
self-employed or in gainful employment will 
come into effect next January 1. 

The workers' pensions are to be paid 
for by contributions from the employers, 
who will also have to contribute to a fund 
out of which their own pensions will be 
paid. The pensions of self-employed per- 
sons will likewise come out of a fund 
financed by their own contributions. 

An employee's pension will be assessed 
on the amount by which his annual income 
exceeds 4,000 kroner (Kr. 5.18 equals $1) 
up to a maximum of Kr. 30,000. For em- 
ployers and self-employed persons it will 
be the amount by which their income 
exceeds Kr. 4,000 up to Kr. 8,000, plus two 
thirds of any income over Kr. 8,000 up 
to the same ceiling of Kr. 30,000. The 
pension is calculated on the basis of the 
most favourable 15 years in a person's 
working life, with a device to compensate 
for inflationary changes. 

Although the scheme comes into force 
on January 1, 1960, as far as contributions 
are concerned, there will be a short transi- 
tional period before it is on a sound 
actuarial footing, and no benefits will be 
paid until the beginning of 1963. For the 
first 20 years the pension will amount to a 
fraction of the full pension, and once the 
scheme is fully under way (by 1990) it 
will be necessary to have a pensionable 
income for 30 years or more to qualify for 
the full pension. 

The normal pensionable age, as under the 
existing scheme which the new one supple- 
ments, will be 67; but a reduced supple- 
mentary pension may be drawn at any time 
after the age of 63. 

It appears that under the scheme, when 
a married man who has been earning an 
average of Kr. 6,000 a year retires, he and 
his wife will receive in normal old age 
pension and supplementary pension taken 
together Kr. 600 more than the man 
has been earning during the best years of 
his working life. A more typical case 
would be that of a man earning Kr. 10,000. 
His pension, including his wife's, would 
come to Kr. 9,000. 



897 



Coal Mine Operating Costs Drop; 
Labour Component Declines Most 

Nine components of the operating costs 
of Canadian coal mines decreased in 1958 
from the 1957 averages, it is reported in 
the annual survey of costs and revenues by 
the Dominion Coal Board. The component 
showing the greatest decrease was Labour 
and Workmen's Compensation. 

Expenditures for labour and workmen's 
compensation totalled $32,579,000, an aver- 
age of $3.27 a ton, a decrease of 36 cents 
a ton from 1957. 

Operating costs for the industry as a 
whole decreased 58 cents a ton, a 7.7-per- 
cent decline to $6.96 a ton. Revenue from 
coal sales, at $6.24 a ton, decreased 82 
cents, or 11.6 per cent. 

The industry realized a profit of 21 cents 
per net ton on its combined underground 
and stripping operations. In 1957, average 
profit was 16 cents a ton. 

The loss on the actual production and 
sales of coal before miscellaneous income 
and stock adjustments amounted to 72 cents 
compared with 48 cents a ton in 1957. 

Three areas reported increases in per 
man-day production: Saskatchewan, 8.1 per 
cent; Nova Scotia, 4.9 per cent; and New 
Brunswick, 0.5 per cent. The industry as 
a whole showed a 13-per-cent increase in 
per man-day production. 



Median Wage Increase in U.S. 
9.8 Cents in Second Quarter 

The median wage increase obtained in 
collective bargaining in the United States 
during the second quarter of this year was 
9.8 cents an hour, according to a survey 
conducted by the Bureau of National 
Affairs, Inc. This is the same as in the 
second quarter of 1958, whereas in the 
fourth quarter of 1958 and the first quarter 
of 1959 it had dropped to 8.4 cents. 

The increase in the median during the 
second quarter of this year was attributed 
partly to a seasonal concentration of settle- 
ments in the high-wage construction indus- 
try. The median in non-manufacturing 
industry excluding construction, however, 
was 10.1 cents; while in manufacturing it 
was 8.5 cents. Both medians were half a 
cent above those of the first quarter of 
the year. 

The median increase in the construction 
industry during the first half of the year 
was 14.6 cents an hour, which was half 
a cent below the median for the industry 
in 1958. The median increase in the textile 
industry, where increases for the past few 
years have been small, was up to 8.2 cents 
during the first half of this year. 



U.S. Publishes 1955-75 Projection 
Of Labour Force, Population 

By 1965, there may be a shortage in the 
United States of men in the age group 
25-44, the ages between which many skilled 
workers gain their experience, it is predicted 
in a report by the U.S. Department of 
Labor projecting developments between 
1960 and 1975. 

As a result of this shortage, the report 
points out, rapid advancement will be pos- 
sible for workers with good preparation 
for their jobs. But at the same time, 
increased competition for "entry" jobs 
among inexperienced new workers will 
make it more difficult for young people to 
find employment. 

The 55-page study, Population and Labor 
Force Projections for the United States, 
1960 to 1975, estimates that the country's 
labour force will reach 95,000,000 by 1975. 

Between 1955 and 1965, it is estimated, 
there will be an increase of 11,000,000 in 
the work force, but only about 2,500,000 
will be in the 25-and-over age group. More 
than 4,000,000 will be between 14 and 24, 
while another 4,000,000 will be adult 
women. 

Between 1965 and 1975 there will be an 
increase of almost 15,000,000, of whom 
young workers will number about 5,000,- 
000 and adult women about 2,000,000. 

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
which prepared the report, foresees that the 
addition of large numbers of young people 
and married women to the labour force 
will mean an annually large increase in 
the number of part-time workers, and that 
employers will have to find additions to 
their skilled staffs from among these young 
workers and adult women. 



57,000 Immigrants in First Half 

Immigration to Canada dropped by more 
than 10,000 in the first six months of this 
year, amounting to 57,089 compared with 
67,744 for the same period in 1958, the 
Department of Citizenship and Immigration 
has reported. Both figures were far behind 
the 182,416 immigrants who arrived during 
the first six months of 1957. 

In the second quarter of 1959, a total 
of 40,134 immigrants entered Canada, com- 
pared with 46,501 for the same period in 
1958. 

Of the 57,089 immigrants who arrived 
in the rst six months of this year, 29,535 
were destined to the labour force. The 
occupational group of 7,478 was listed as 
"manufacturing, mechanical and construc- 
tion"; of 5,372, labourer; of 5,192, service; 
of 3,065, professional; of 3,021, clerical. 



898 



Changes in Unemployment Insurance Act 

Changes made by Second Session of Twenty-Fourth Parliament raise salary limit 
of insurable employment, increase employer and employee contribution rates, 
raise allowances for allowable earnings, extend maximum duration of benefits 



Important changes in the Unemployment 
Insurance Act were made during the Second 
Session of the Twenty-Fourth Parliament. 

On April 27, the Minister of Labour 
gave notice of his intention to introduce a 
measure to amend the Unemployment In- 
surance Act. On May 5, the House went 
into committee to consider the resolution 
and the Minister outlined the main features 
of the proposed changes. He explained 
that the amendments would raise the salary 
limit of insurable employment, increase the 
rates of contributions payable by employers 
and employees, raise allowances for inci- 
dental earnings, extend the maximum dura- 
tion of regular benefits from 36 to 52 weeks, 
and liberalize some of the provisions of the 
Act dealing with the qualifying period for 
unemployment insurance benefits. 

The raising of the limit of insurable em- 
ployment of salaried employees brings 
"under the umbrella of unemployment in- 
surance protection persons making up to 
$5,460 as compared with only $4,800 under 
the present Act," he said. The change is 
related to the continuing increase in salaries. 
When the Unemployment Insurance Act 
came into force in 1941, the ceiling was 
set at $2,000 per year. Because of the 
rising levels of wages and salaries, the 
ceiling applicable to the salaried group has 
had to be adjusted from time to time in 
order to maintain the coverage for the same 
classes of employees. Such adjustments 
were made in 1943, 1946 and in 1950, when 
the ceiling was raised to $4,800. 

The raising of the limit to $5,460 had 
been recommended both by the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Commission and the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Advisory Committee as 
a measure to restore the shifting balance 
between average weekly earnings and the 
maximum coverage. The amendment does 
not affect the principle that employees paid 
at hourly, daily, piece or mileage rates are 
covered by the insurance irrespective of the 
amount of their earnings. 

Another amendment, which is closely 
related to this one, revises the schedule of 
rates of benefit; the change in the schedule 
of benefit rates was also made in the light 
of changes in wage levels in the past four 
years. The Unemployment Insurance Com- 
mission and the Unemployment Insurance 
Advisory Committee had concurred in 
recommending an amendment which would 
again make the rates of benefits equal to 



approximately 50 per cent of the recent 
wages earned by claimants. The amend- 
ment adds two new classes of benefit, with 
the result that eventually the maximum 
weekly benefit that will be payable under 
the Act will be $36 for a person with a 
dependent instead of $30 as at present. 

A new schedule of allowable earnings is 
provided for by another amendment. Since 
the allowable earnings principle was first 
introduced in the Act in 1955, experience 
has shown that the amount of earnings 
allowed should be higher if the claimant is 
to have adequate incentive to take on casual 
work. The amendment increases allowable 
earnings to one half of the claimant's bene- 
fit rate, rounded to the nearest dollar. A 
new schedule for allowable earnings pro- 
vides, in addition, for somewhat higher 
allowable earnings for the person with a 
dependent, thus recognizing the greater 
responsibilities of those with dependents. 

Another amendment, which sets out the 
grounds on which the period of qualification 
may be extended, adds to these grounds 
time served in penitentiary up to two years. 
Under the Act, prior to this amendment, a 
person who had spent up to two years in 
penitentiary would lose the benefit of his 
unemployment insurance contributions. 

The maximum duration of benefits was 
also increased, from 36 to 52 weeks. This, 
explained the Minister, "is being introduced 
in answer to many representations and 
reverts to the situation that existed back in 
1955". When the Act was amended in 1955, 
the maximum duration was decreased on 
the ground that only a very small per- 
centage of claimants required protection be- 
yond 36 weeks. Since that time, the Gov- 
ernment has received many representations 
to the effect that the 52-week maximum 
duration should be restored. 

Another important change was the in- 
crease in the rates of contributions to the 
Unemployment Insurance Fund by Govern- 
ment, employers and employees. In regard 
to the new and higher contribution rates, 
the Minister observed that extensions of 
coverage and the adoption and extension of 
seasonal benefits had resulted, over the 
years, in a steady increase in payments out 
of the Unemployment Insurance Fund. The 
reasons for the increase in contributions is 
to maintain the Fund in a situation of stab- 
ility over the next few years. 



899 



The Minister explained that it was not 
the Government's intention to adopt an in- 
flexible attitude in this regard. "I hope," he 
said, "that the situation will be reviewed 
from time to time in the light of the re- 
quirements of the Fund and, should it be 
possible, as an example, a year from now 
to look at the situation and find it possible 
to reduce the rates, then most certainly that 
action would be taken". 

Specific increases in contributions are 
prescribed for both employers and em- 
ployees and the schedule of contributions is 
changed accordingly. As far as the Govern- 
ment's contribution is concerned, the 
formula remains unchanged. It provides 
that the employers pay 5/12 of the total, 
the employees 5/12 and the Government 
2/12. Although the amendment does not 
affect the ratio of the Government's con- 
tribution to the Fund, increasing contribu- 
tions made by employers and employees 
automatically increases the absolute amount 
the Government would have to pay to pro- 
vide for its 2/12 of the total. 

The amendments summarized above are 
the more important provisions of the bill. 
At second reading, an amendment was 
moved and defeated on division. The 
amendment called for not proceeding with 
a bill "the terms of which do not provide 
that the contribution from the Government 
to the Fund be made equal to one-half that 
of the existing contributions from employers 
and employees". 

The bill was read the second time on 
May 14, and referred to the House of 
Commons Standing Committee on Indus- 
trial Relations. 

The Committee heard a number of wit- 
nesses, including representatives of the 
Canadian Congress of Labour, and exam- 
ined the provisions of the bill clause by 
clause. 

The Canadian Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, which presented its views on May 21, 
found the majority of amendments proposed 
by the bill acceptable in principle. How- 
ever, the proposed increase in contribution 
rates and the increase in the maximum 
duration of benefit from 36 to 52 weeks 
were not justified, the Association thought. 
An increase in contribution rate of not 
more than 20 per cent would not be opposed 
by the Association but "if employers and 
employees are expected to contribute more 
to the Fund, it is all the more reason that 
the Government should increase its own 
rate of contributions". 

The view of the Association was that 
"there should be no amendments apart 
from those already accepted in principle, 



until there has been a complete review and 
re-examination of the Act and scheme by 
some independent body and competent 
authority such as a Royal Commission". 

The Canadian Labour Congress repre- 
sentatives, who submitted their brief on 
May 22, agreed with the major provisions 
of the bill but criticized the amendment 
dealing with the increase in the weekly 
contribution rate. The brief expressed the 
view that the Government's contribution to 
the Fund should be made to equal one half 
of the combined contributions from em- 
ployers and employees. 

As to the raising of the ceiling on insur- 
able employment, the Canadian Labour 
Congress approved the amendment and at 
the same time stressed the importance of 
reviewing the level of earnings of salaried 
employees at regular intervals. The Con- 
gress thought that the ceiling of insurable 
employment should be adjusted "as often 
as appears necessary and regulatory powers 
in this respect should be given to the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission". 

Other organizations of employers and 
employees which testified before the Com- 
mittee were the Canadian Construction 
Association, the Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce, Canadian and Catholic Con- 
federation of Labour, the Canadian Retail 
Federation, Canadian Bankers' Association, 
the Interprovincial Farm Union Council and 
The Board of Trade of Metropolitan 
Toronto. 

Detailed consideration of the bill in the 
Standing Committee began on June 2 and 
ended on June 9. On June 10 the bill was 
reported to the House with one amendment, 
deletion of a clause dealing with a minor 
technical matter. The deletion had the effect 
of leaving Section 40 unchanged. It deals 
with employee contributions held in trust 
for Her Majesty in the event of liquidation, 
assignment or bankruptcy of an employer. 

The bill was considered in Committee of 
the Whole from June 15 to 18, a minor 
amendment was agreed to, and on June 19 
the bill was read the third time and passed. 
It received Royal Assent on July 8 and 
went into effect on September 27. 

Detailed Analysis " 

A more detailed analysis of some of the 
major provisions and a short account of 
minor changes are given below: 

The changes in the rates of contributions, 
the raising of the upper limit of insurable 
employment of salaried employees and a 
partial revision of the rates of benefit are 
reflected in the new schedules of earnings, 
contributions and benefit rates. 



900 



As may be seen from Table 1, there is 
no change in the earning ranges at the 
lower end of the scale. At the upper end, 

TABLE 1.— NEW SCHEDULE OF CON- 
TRIBUTIONS BY EMPLOYERS AND 
EMPLOYEES 



Range of Weekly Earnings 
Dollars 



Weekly Contri- 
butions in Cents 



Old 



New- 



Less than 9 
9 and under 15 



15 
21 
27 
33 
39 
45 
51 
57 and over 



No change 



57 and under 63 
63 " 69 
69 and over 



Old 



New 



there are two new classes of earnings. The 
highest, open-end class of earnings ($57 
and over) has been converted into a new 
class ($57 and under $63) and another new 
class ($63 and under $69) has been added. 
The new open-end class covers earnings of 
$69 and over. 

The changes in the range of weekly earn- 
ings are related to the new rates of 
contributions. 

The new rates of contributions show an 
over-all increase of about 30 per cent over 
the previous rates. 



New Rates of Benefit 

A new scale of average weekly contribu- 
tions serves as a basis for determining the 
weekly rate of benefit for persons without 
dependents and those with dependents. 

The new rates of benefit are, in turn, 
related to the ranges of earnings and thus 
the new and old benefit rates can be 
compared. 

TABLE 2.— RATES OF BENEFIT 



Range of Average 
Weekly Contributions 



Weekly Rate of Benefit 



Cents 
Less than 
25 and under 
34 
42 
50 

57 " 
63 
60 
75 
82 
90 and over 



Person Without 
Dependent 



Person with 
Dependent 



28 



As the new benefit schedule adds two 
new rates of benefit at the top of the 
schedule, persons earning $63 and more 
will receive a higher benefit rate than prev- 
iously. Thus, the claimant earning $57 
and over was eligible for the benefit of $23 
if he was without dependents, and for $30 
if he had dependents. His new benefit will 



TABLE 3.— NEW AND OLD BENEFIT RATES COMPARED 



Range of Average Weekly Earnings in Dollars 



Old 



New 



Less than 


9 


9 and under 


15 


15 


21 


21 


27 


27 


33 


33 


39 


39 


45 


45 


51 


51 


57 



No change. 



57 and over 57 and under 63 . 

63 and under 69. 
69 and over 



Weekly Rate of Benefit in Dollars 



Person Without 
Dependent 



Old 



New 



6 


No change 


6 


" 


9 


" 


11 


" 


13 


" 


15 


" 


17 


" 


19 


" 


21 


" 


23 


" 


23 


25 


23 


27 



Person with 
Dependent 



Old 



New 



6 


No change 


8 




* 


12 




' 


15 




< 


18 




' 


21 




' 


24 




' 


26 




' 


28 




1 


30 


" 


30 


33 


30 


3 


6 



be higher than formerly, and will depend 
on the range of his earnings up to $69. A 
person in the class of earnings between 
$63 and $69 will receive $25 ("without 
dependents" rate) or $33 ("with dependents" 
rate). 

A person who claims benefit on the basis 
of earnings of $69 and more in the past 30 
weeks will receive ("without dependents" 
rate) $27 or ("with dependents" rate) $36. 
Formerly, the rates of $23 and $30 were 
applicable at the level of earnings of $57 
and over. 



Although the rates of benefit in the other 
groups of earnings have not been changed, 
the ratio of the benefit to earnings continues 
to be favourable to claimants in the lower 
groups of earnings. 

Protection of Benefit Rate on Second Claim 

Prior to the present amendment, a claim- 
ant who established a second or subsequent 
benefit period on the basis of contributions, 
some or all of which were made during a 
period when the claimant was working less 
than his normal full working week, may 



901 



have been entitled to a lower rate of benefit 
than that he received on his immediately 
preceding claim. 

The amendment aims, by adding a new 
provision to the Act, at minimizing the effect 
of a reduction in earnings and consequently 
in benefits caused by a shortened work 
week. Where successive benefit periods occur 
within two years, the rate of benefit during 
the new benefit period will not drop more 
than one class below that of the immediately 
preceding benefit period. As a result of the 
amendment, a claimant who, for example, 
was receiving his previous benefit at the 
rate of $25 and whose subsequent rate of 
earnings would entitle him to the benefit of 
$21 would, by the application of this rule, 
now be eligible for the benefit of $23. 

Relating Benefit Rates to Prior Contributions 

As prior to the amending Act the rate of 
benefit was based on a different scale of 
contributions, it was necessary to clarify 
the position of claimants who had contrib- 
uted to the Fund on the basis of the old 
schedule. 

The rate of contributions of persons 
whose benefit period is established on or 
after the date of coming into force of this 
amendment and who contributed to the 
Fund under the previous schedule of con- 
tributions is to be reckoned on the basis of 
a subsidiary schedule, shown on Table 4. 

The range of contributions listed in col- 
umn 1 refers to the actual contributions of 
claimants. The amounts shown in column 2 
are set out for the purpose of determining 
the rates of benefit for those claimants who 
are within the scope of this transitional 
provision. 

Extension of Qualifying Periods 

The basic requirement of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act is that an insured per- 
son must have to his credit at least 30 
contribution weeks in the period of two 



TABLE 4.— SCHEDULE FOR DETERMIN- 
ING BENEFIT FOR CONTRIBUTORS TO 
FUND PRIOR TO AMENDMENT 

Range of Average Weekly Weekly Contributions 

Contributions 

Cents Cents 

Less than 20 20 

20 and under 27 30 

27 " 33 38 

33 " 39 46 

39 " 45 54 

45 " 50 60 

50 " 54 66 

54 " 58 72 

58 and over 78 

years immediately preceding his claim for 
benefit. Out of this total of two years, at 
least eight weeks have to be in the year 
immediately preceding the claim. This basic 
requirement is made less stringent by a 
provision of the Act which allows the period 
of two years and one year to be extended 
by the duration of incapacity to utilize 
contributions acquired during periods of 
employment prior to periods of illness, non- 
insurable employment or absence from 
work because of a stoppage arising from a 
labour dispute. 

The present amendment adds additional 
grounds for extension of the qualifying 
periods so as to cover persons serving a 
sentence of imprisonment in any peniten- 
tiary or other place of confinement. 

As the result of the amendment, relatively 
short-term prison inmates will not lose 
the unemployment insurance contributions 
earned in the two years prior to beginning 
their terms. 

New Schedule of Allowable Earnings 

The provision in respect to allowable 
earnings determines the amount of earnings 
which the claimant is allowed to earn at 
casual work without causing any reduction 
to be made in benefit. 

Under the new schedule, allowable earn- 
ings have been increased to one half of the 
claimant's benefit rate, rounded to the 



TABLE 5. 

Old Allowable Earnings Rates 



OLD AND NEW ALLOWABLE EARNINGS 

New Allowable Earnings Rates 







Single 






Dependency 


Weekly Benefits 


Earnings not 


Weekly 


Earnings not 


Weekly 


Earnings 


Single Dependency 


Deducted 


Bene fits 


Deducted 


Benefits 


not 
Deducted 


$ $ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


6 8 


2 


6 


3 


8 


4 


9 12 


3 


9 


5 


12 


6 


11 15 


4 


11 


6 


15 


8 


13 18 


5 


13 


7 


18 


9 


15 21 


6 


15 


8 


21 


11 


17 24 


7 


17 


9 


24 


12 


19 26 


9 


19 


10 


26 


13 


21 28 


11 


21 


11 


28 


14 


23 30 


13 


23 


12 


30 


15 






25 


13 


33 


17 






27 


14 


36 


18 



902 



nearest dollar. Slightly higher allowable 
earnings are applicable in the case of 
claimants with dependents. 

Other Amendments 

One of the amendments not directly re- 
lated to unemployment insurance repeals a 
provision of the Act which provided for 



the control and licencing of private employ- 
ment agencies. The repeal of this provision 
places the matter of licensing or otherwise 
controlling private employment agencies 
outside the scope of the federal legislation. 
A number of minor amendments clarify 
some of the provisions of the Act and bring 
the text in line with the major changes 
discussed above. 



Equal Pay for Equal Work 



New Women's Bureau publication traces development of idea that women should 
receive same pay as men for doing same work, measures taken to put idea into 
practice, and the demands this makes on women who wish to take advantage of it 



The development of the idea that women 
should get the same pay as men if they are 
doing the same or equivalent work — "equal 
pay for equal work" — the measures that 
have been taken to put it into practice, 
and the demands it makes on women who 
wish to take advantage of it, are described 
in a new publication just issued by the 
Women's Bureau of the Department of 
Labour. 

The bulletin, Equal Pay for Equal Work, 
The Growth of the Idea in Canada,* 
describes equal pay for equal work as "a 
principle of remuneration in which wage 
rates are based on job content without 
regard to sex. It requires that a job be 
evaluated according to the work entailed 
and the skill and training needed and then 
that the worker be recompensed accord- 
ingly." 

Although this principle would seem to be 
fair and reasonable, the bulletin says, the 
practice of paying women less than men 
for doing the same work remains wide- 
spread. One main argument commonly 
advanced in support of the practice is 
that a man is usually a family bread- 
winner, whereas a woman, it is assumed, 
has no such responsibilities and conse- 
quently is willing to take lower pay. 

"A more significant reason for this prac- 
tice, however, is the economics of the labour 
market, in particular, the law of supply and 
demand," the report says. "Since women 
move in and out of the labour force with 
greater frequency than men, there are 
usually enough or more than enough of 
them available for any particular type of 
employment at any particular time. If the 

♦Obtainable from the Queen's Printer, Ottawa, at 
25 cents a copy. 



supply of men runs out, therefore, em- 
ployers know that they can find women 
to take the available jobs." 

Other reasons for the lower wages paid 
to women are: that women usually have 
less job training and experience than men, 
that their employment is often cut short 
by marriage, that women are usually less 
interested than men in improving their 
qualifications and conditions of employment, 
and that most working women in Canada 
are not organized. 

However, the bulletin points out, "The 
changing role of women in the economy, 
particularly since the end of the Second 
World War, has strengthened the case for 
equal pay. Women have become a more 
stable element in the labour force of 
Canada. Nowadays one worker in four is 
a woman. 

"Experience has made it clear that the 
industrial output and efficiency of women 
workers can be as satisfactory as those of 
men. 

"Also the pattern of work in women's 
lives has changed radically. Most women 
now expect, and indeed are expected, to 
work for pay at some time in their lives. 
More and more of them are remaining in 
jobs after marriage . . . 

"Also, women, though still in by no 
means large numbers, more often are found 
working alongside men in occupations for- 
merly staffed exclusively by men." 

One manifestation of this change in the 
role of women is that the principle of equal 
pay for equal work has been recognized 
by federal law and by the laws of seven 
provinces, and that it is commonly the 
subject of collective bargaining and has 
become an important aim of the trade 
unions. 



903 



History 

Although occasional instances of support 
for the principle of equal pay for equal 
work in Canada have been recorded since 
as far back as 1882, it was during the First 
World War that it became a live issue, the 
bulletin says. This came about through the 
employment of women in factories and by 
the railways, where after gaining skill and 
experience they were sometimes paid the 
same rate as had been paid to men who 
had been doing similar work. 

During the last year of the war a 
government declaration of labour policy 
gave support to the principle of equal pay. 
At about the same time the McAdoo Award 
applying to the United States railways, 
which was made applicable to the Canadian 
railways by the Canadian Railway War 
Board, laid down the principle of equal 
pay for equal work. 

During the postwar depression, however, 
the report says, the question fell into the 
background and no action was taken con- 
cerning it until the Second World War. 
The Wartime Wages Control Order of 1941, 
however, made no distinction between the 
sexes in the matter of wages. Notwith- 
standing this, two years later a report by 
the National War Labour Board expressed 
misgivings about the practicability of apply- 
ing the principle of equal pay for equal 
work. 

As in the first war, the bulletin reports, 
the extensive employment of women in 
men's work aroused in the minds of trade 
unionists "the fear that inequality of wage 
rates between men and women might 'con- 
stitute an undermining of the wage rates 
and standards won by the trade unions over 
a long period of time'." Some unionists 
favoured legislation, but others thought that 
recruiting women as trade unionists in larger 
numbers would be a more effective safe- 
guard. 

At the end of the war, returned members 
of the Armed Forces were faced with 
"unfair competition" by women working at 
the same jobs as men for less pay. Con- 
cern over this competition led the labour 
movement to request federal and provincial 
legislation to enforce the equal pay prin- 
ciple. 

The Government's Advisory Committee 
on Reconstruction also interested itself in 
the question of women's employment, and 
a subcommittee appointed by it favoured 



the principle of equality of pay, working 
conditions and opportunity for advancement 
for women. 

"The idea of equal pay for equal work 
had taken hold," the report says. "Cam- 
paigns on behalf of legislation on the sub- 
ject gathered strength from many quarters. 
Some of the political parties made it a 
plank in their platforms. The National 
Council of Women strongly reiterated its 
support of the principle." 

In 1951 the International Labour Organi- 
zation adopted the Convention on Equal 
Remuneration for Men and Women Work- 
ers for Work of Equal Value. This had 
the effect of greatly increasing the pressure 
for legislation. 

Legislation 

Since 1951 seven provinces, Alberta, 
British Columbia, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, 
Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskat- 
chewan, have enacted equal pay laws. The 
federal Parliament passed equal pay legisla- 
tion in 1956. 

The report outlines the scope and provi- 
sions of the federal and provincial laws, 
including the coverage of the acts, what 
they describe as constituting "equal work," 
methods prescribed for making complaints 
under the acts, how complaints are dealt 
with, protection provided to the complain- 
ants against reprisals, and penalties provided 
for breach of the law. 

Minimum Wage Orders and Equal Pay 

All the provinces have passed laws 
guaranteeing minimum wages to women em- 
ployees, usually with the exception of 
agricultural workers and domestic servants 
in private homes. In some of the provinces 
the minimums are set for women only. 

"For some 20 years in the province of 
Quebec identical minimum rates have been 
set for men and women workers. The 
same is true of Saskatchewan. In British 
Columbia most minimum wage orders cover 
both men and women employees, although 
there are a few covering only men or only 
women. All but two of the orders which 
cover both men and women set the same 
rates for workers of both sexes," the report 
says. 

Some of the provinces set lower minimum 
rates for women than for men but there 
has been a tendency for the differential to 
be reduced during the past few years. 



904 



Equal Pay Provisions in Collective Agreements 

Anticipating increased employment of 
women, after the Second World War the 
unions gave higher priority to the equal 
pay issue in collective bargaining than 
they had before the war. 

In bargaining, different unions approach 
the question of equal pay in different ways. 
Some have bargained to secure equal pay 
provisions in collective agreements, although 
such provisions are not frequent. Some 
contract provisions merely recognize the 
"principle of equal pay for equal work" 
without further defining it. Some clauses 
say that the woman must be doing a job 
"formerly done by a man" or must be 
given the same rate of pay for work 
described as a "male classification". Other 
stipulations are that the woman must be 
doing, or be capable of doing, the work 
"without assistance"; or that she must "ren- 
der equal service" or "obtain approximately 
equal results in quality and quantity of 
production with adult male employees". 

However the provisions are worded, the 
report remarks, the intention is to ensure 
that where men and women are doing the 
same jobs they are to receive the same pay. 

Job Evaluation Programs 

"The practice of job evaluation in a 
growing number of industries has contri- 
buted to the acceptance of the principle of 
equal pay for equal work," the report says. 
It points out that, "Strictly speaking it is 
not possible to introduce equal pay without 
adequate appraisal of jobs on the basis 
of the work to be done, the skills required 
for its performance and the conditions under 
which it is performed. The principle is 
implicit in the process of determining with- 
out regard to personality the worth of one 
job in relation to another." 

A Challenge to Women 

Under the heading, "A Challenge to 
Women," the report states that, "Acceptance 
of the principle of equal pay for equal 
work is fundamental to the improvement 
of women's economic status. It is a goal 
that challenges women to responsible par- 
ticipation in the working world." 

The bulletin mentions three ways in which 
women can take advantage of the favourable 



attitude towards equal pay for equal work 
in Canada: by acquiring suitable vocational 
training, by participating in trade union 
activity, and by making use of equal pay 
legislation. 

For several reasons, the report says, 
women have been inclined to be apathetic 
towards making use of vocational training. 
The need, for financial reasons, to get work 
without waiting for training, the "lingering 
antipathy towards their sex in fields of 
work in which men predominate," and the 
likelihood that marriage will cut short their 
employment are all given as reasons for 
this apathy. 

"Where women are organized and take 
an active part in labour matters, their 
chances of obtaining better working condi- 
ditions, including equal pay for equal work, 
are greatly improved," the report states. 
"Comparatively few women workers in 
Canada, however, are members of unions. 
There are many reasons for this, the chief 
one being that most women are in occupa- 
tions that are poorly organized, for exam- 
ple, personal service occupations and 
white-collar jobs. What is more, even 
women who are union members are often 
indifferent about their membership and 
reluctant to put forward their point of view. 

"Their apathy towards the labour move- 
ment stems partly from the fact that until 
recently women were not expected to be 
continuing members of the labour force, 
and were therefore not encouraged to take 
office or become active in union affairs." 

The bulletin warns that the fear or 
reluctance shown by women to make com- 
plaints of breaches of equal pay laws is 
"an attitude that must be overcome if equal 
pay legislation is to be effectively applied". 

The final chapter, "International Action 
on Behalf of Equal Pay," touches on the 
influence on the question of equal pay that 
has been exercised by the International 
Labour Organization, the United Nations, 
the United Nations Commission on the 
Status of Women, the European Economic 
Community, and other international organi- 
zations. 

The provisions of ILO Convention 100 
and Recommendation 90 concerning the 
question are briefly described. 



The number of married women in New 
Zealand increased by some 90 per cent 
between 1926 and 1956, but the number of 
married women gainfully employed in- 
creased during the same period by 588 per 
cent, according to Labour and Employment 
Gazette, quarterly publication of the New 
Zealand Department of Labour. In the 

74810-3—3 



30-year period the increase in population 
alone, the article says, might have added 
about 8,100 married women to the labour 
force, but the actual increase was 53,000. 
About 85 per cent of this increase was 
therefore due to a higher measure of par- 
ticipation. 

905 



Vocational Training for Commercial, 

Service Trades and Other Occupations 



with high school graduation qualifications. Uni- 
versity courses leading to a degree, or courses 
leading to recognized professional status (e.g., 
registered nurse) are not included. 

The high school group consists of high 
school courses with a definite occupational 
objective. The courses include a study of 
mathematics, science, language, and social 
studies, along with training in specific occupa- 
tional skills and theory. 

The trade or occupational programs are 
designed to prepare youths and adults who 
have left the regular school system for entry 
into employment, or to help those already 
employed to advance in their jobs. The skills 
required in specific occupations, as well as 
such knowledge of theory as may be directly 
related to those occupations, form the main 
content of the courses. 



Greatest growth in programs for training skilled manpower will be in post-high 
school courses, Department's second bulletin on vocational training predicts 

Education at the high school level will 
continue to expand, particularly in rapidly 
growing urban areas, but the greatest 
development and growth will be in the 
post-high school and trade and occupational 
training programs, it is predicted in the 
second report on vocational training pro- 
grams in Canada in the series published 
under the Research Program on the Train- 
ing of Skilled Manpower.* 

"It is anticipated that the demand for 
technicians and other highly skilled work- 
men will increase for some years to come 
and consequently educational authorities 
are making preparations to increase present 
training facilities to accommodate additional 
applicants and to open new courses where 
the demand justifies the expense involved," 
reports the bulletin, which is based on a 
survey by the Canadian Vocational Training 
Branch of the Department of Labour in 
co-operation with the Vocational Training 
Section, Education Division, Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics, provincial Departments 
of Education and other provincial depart- 
ments concerned. 

The actual survey and preparation of the 
report were carried out by Dr. W. A. 
McWilliams, former Principal of H. B. Beal 
Technical and Commercial High School, 
London, Ont., and J. M. Grandbois of the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. The research 
program of which the survey formed a part 
is under the direction of the Interdepart- 
mental Skilled Manpower Training Research 
Committee, of which George V. Haythorne, 
Assistant Deputy Minister of Labour, is 
Chairman. 

Bulletin 5B reports on publicly operated 
programs in commercial, home economics, 
art, service trades, fishing, forestry, land- 
scaping, marine engineering, and navigation. 

The courses described in the pamphlet 
are classified broadly as post-high school, 
high school and trade or occupational 
courses. In explaining these classifications 
the report says: 

The post-high school group includes advanced 
courses having the occupational objective of 
employment in a general or specific field at a 
higher level than that which could be attained 



*Vocational Training Programs in Canada— Com- 
mercial, Service and Other Occupations, Publicly 
Operated, Bulletin 5B. For a review of Bulletin 5A, 
dealing with technical and trade training, see L.G., 
Nov. 1958, p. 1252, and for a review of Bulletin 5C, 
dealing with vocational education in agriculture, see 
page 907 of this issue. 

906 



The main body of the report describes 
the courses that are available in each of 
the provinces. The authors point out that 
"the pattern of vocational education in 
Canada varies from province to province. 
It should therefore not be assumed that 
all the courses listed under any of the 
headings in this report provide training at 
the same level or for the same purpose. 
Courses of the same name in different 
provinces may not be equivalent in content 
or duration." 

In general, the report states, the post- 
high school training programs and trade 
and occupational training programs are 
operated by provincial government depart- 
ments while vocational training at a high 
school level is under municipal direction 
with supervision by the provincial depart- 
ment of education. "The provincial govern- 
ments, recognizing the extra cost of 
providing vocational training programs as 
compared with costs for most other high 
school courses, regularly make payments 
towards capital costs for buildings and 
equipment and also pay higher grants 
towards the maintenance costs of approved 
vocational courses. 

"As terms of the British North America 
Act make public education a provincial 
responsibility, the federal Government does 
not operate any vocational training pro- 
grams, apart from special training given 
federal employees. However, under a series 
of federal-provincial agreements, it does 
provide financial assistance to provincial 
governments, towards expenditures made to 
operate or support vocational education." 

A large amount of factual and statistical 
information is furnished in tables contained 
in an appendix to the report. 






Vocational Training in Agriculture in Canada 

Every province provides education in agriculture, reports newest bulletin in 
series under Department's Research Program on the Training ot Skilled Manpower 



Provision for education in agriculture 
exists in every province in Canada, it is 
reported in a bulletin* published last month 
by the Department of Labour and based 
on a survey made last fall and winter of 
publicly operated technical and other voca- 
tional training programs in agriculture. 
Professional or degree programs were not 
included in the survey. 

But the provincial programs have tended 
to develop independently "in response to 
different conditions and needs throughout 
the country," the bulletin points out. 

The survey was made by the Canadian 
Vocational Training Branch of the Depart- 
ment in co-operation with provincial Depart- 
ments of Education and Agriculture under 
the general direction of the Interdepart- 
mental Skilled Manpower Training Research 
Committee, of which George V. Haythorne, 
Assistant Deputy Minister of Labour, is 
Chairman. The survey was carried out and 
the report prepared by Newcombe Bentley 
of the Alberta Department of Agriculture, 
who was released temporarily by that 
Department to undertake the study. 

The survey concerned training for engage- 
ment in agricultural production, and did 
not include professional or degree programs 
at universities, nor the training of persons 
for employment in jobs relating to agricul- 
ture such as sales or services to farmers 
or the processing of farm products. 

Provision for education in agriculture 
exists in every province of Canada but 
there is no federal agency nor any national 
organization of personnel engaged in this 
field of training, the bulletin reports. Some 
exchanges of information among the respon- 
sible provincial agencies is encouraged 
through the Vocational Training Branch 
and the National Vocational Training 
Advisory Council of the federal Department 
of Labour. 

Vocational Training Program in Canada: Voca- 
tional Education in Agriculture, Publicly Operated, 
Bulletin 5C in the series prepared under the Depart- 
ment's Research Program on the Training of Skilled 
Manpower. Bulletin 5 A deals with technical and trade 
training (L.G., Nov. 1958, p. 1252) and Bulletin 5B 
(see page 906) with vocational training for com- 
mercial, service and other occupations. 



"The provincial programs have, how- 
ever, tended to develop independently in 
response to different conditions and needs 
throughout the country." 

The first part of the report deals briefly 
with: agricultural extension, educational 
programs for farm women and girls, the 
National Farm Radio Forum, and training 
for employment on farms. This section is 
followed by detailed reports of programs 
in each province. 

The programs of education in agriculture 
in effect in each province are reported under 
three main headings: (1) Diploma courses 
in agriculture, (2) Agriculture education in 
high schools, and (3) Short courses, study 
groups and clubs. 

The diploma courses in agriculture include 
those provided in Schools of Agriculture 
established specifically to provide vocational 
training for farming as well as those con- 
ducted in association with degree courses. 

Reports on agriculture education in high 
schools cover all courses or subjects offering 
specific education in agriculture whether the 
objective is general education, exploratory, 
pre-vocational or vocational. 

Agricultural short courses include planned 
programs in instruction dhected towards 
farmers or prospective farmers where the 
subject matter has to do primarily with 
agricultural production practices and related 
problems. The bases of operation vary from 
full-time programs conducted over several 
months to once-a-week night classes. 

An appendix contains notes on the need 
for improved vocational education in agri- 
culture, objectives of the schools of agricul- 
ture in Alberta, suggested home farm 
projects — Ontario, extracts from 4H Beef 
Calf Club Regulations — Alberta, extracts 
from 4H Club brochure — Nova Scotia, 
Summary — Enrolment in 4H Clubs in 
Canada, Sample program — night school 
classes — B.C., trends towards farm business 
management studies, vertical integration and 
contract farming, and sample student time- 
tables — diploma courses. 



74810-3— 3i 



907 



Earnings, Employment and Education, 1957 

of Engineering and Scientific Manpower 

Department issues seventh bulletin in professional manpower series, based on 
survey of the second third of the Scientific and Technical Personnel Register 



The latest report on professional man- 
power in Canada by the Economics and 
Research Branch of the Department of 
Labour, Engineering and Scientific Man- 
power Resources in Canada: Their Earnings, 
Employment and Education, 1957, Profes- 
sional Manpower Bulletin No. 7, which has 
just been issued, is based on information 
received from 10,633 professional persons 
enrolled in the Scientific and Technical 
Personnel Register of the Department. The 
bulletin is obtainable from the Queen's 
Printer, Ottawa, at a price of 25 cents 
a copy. 

The Personnel Register was started dur- 
ing the Second World War on a compulsory 
basis and has been continued since the war 
on a voluntary footing. To meet the de- 
mand for up-to-date information on the 
nation's scientific and technical manpower 
resources, the Department has developed a 
program under which a third of the Register 
is surveyed each year; the latest report con- 
tains some of the results of a survey of the 
second third made in 1958. 

The survey covers representatives of every 
branch of engineering, architecture and the 
following fields of science: agriculture, 
biology, chemistry, forestry, geology and 
geophysics, mathematics, physics and vet- 
erinary medicine. Engineers are the largest 
group, comprising 55 per cent of the total, 
while architects make up 4 per cent. The 
natural sciences are represented by 38 per 
cent of the returns, and veterinary medicine 
by about 3 per cent. 

The bulletin is divided into four chapters. 
The first deals with earnings of professional 
persons, the second gives details of their 
employment, the third traces the relation 
between their employment and their educa- 
tional attainments, while the fourth deals 
with their education, particularly with post- 
graduate studies. Statistical information is 
contained in 24 tables. 

Salaries 

Median salaries in 1957 for engineers 
with a bachelor's degree only, including 
those with some postgraduate training but 
without a graduate degree, ranged from 
$4,600 for 1957 graduates to a peak of 
$10,600 for 1920-24 graduates, the survey 
found. The median 1957 salary for scientists 
with a bachelor's degree ranged from $4,400 

908 



for 1957 graduates to $8,600 for those who 
graduated before 1915. 

"Engineers with postgraduate degrees did 
not appear, on the average, to have reached 
salary levels as high as those with under- 
graduate degrees only," the bulletin states. 
"Scientists with postgraduate degrees, on 
the other hand, had reached considerably 
higher salary levels than those holding only 
an undergraduate degree. 

"In general the salaries of both engineers 
and scientists increased quite rapidly during 
the first dozen years of experience, then 
less rapidly, until a plateau was reached 
after about 20 years of experience." 

There was not sufficient information to 
explain fully why older engineers with 
undergraduate degrees earned more than 
those with postgraduate degrees, while with 
scientists the opposite was true, the report 
says. Some explanations are offered, 
however. 

There were found to be a greater propor- 
tion of both engineers and scientists with 
single degrees than with postgraduate 
degrees employed in industry, where salaries 
were generally higher than elsewhere. One 
of the main reasons why this did not work 
to the advantage of single-degree scientists 
as it did for single-degree engineers ap- 
peared to be "that there was less shift of 
scientists with single degrees, as experience 
increased, into functions where earnings 
were relatively higher than was the case 
for single-degree engineers". 

The concentration of older engineers with 
single dergees in highly paid administrative, 
management and executive functions tended, 
the report suggests, to raise their salaries 
above those of their fellows who had higher 
degrees. "In contrast, the higher concentra- 
tion of scientists in jobs outside industry 
meant that those in administrative func- 
tions tended to exercise a less buoyant in- 
fluence on general salary levels." 

According to Kind of Employer 

Industry paid the highest salaries in 1957 
to engineers at all levels of training and 
experience. Government came next, while 
universities paid the lowest salaries. Median 
salaries paid in industry ranged from $6,900 
to $11,500, governments paid from $6,300 
to $8,700, and universities from $5,600 to 
$8,500 (in a few cases). 

(Continued on page 949) 






Older Workers 



Are They a Better Employment Risk? 



Reprint of latest issue of "2 Minutes of Employment Facts," regularly issued 
folder that is widely distributed by the Department to the employers of Canada 



The hiring policies of most employers 
go farther than just finding people with the 
skills or the potential required for specific 
jobs. They are concerned also with build- 
ing a stable work force — with cutting down 
the risk of loss and inefficiency caused by 
high rates of labour turnover, from absen- 
teeism, or from poor morale and lack of 
harmony among his staff. 

One of the factors considered by most 
employers is the job applicant's age. Often 
he must decide, other things being equal, 
whether an older or a younger worker is 
the better employment risk. 

Youth certainly has many qualities that 
should be valuable in an employee. The 
younger worker, for instance, is likely to 
enjoy good health, physical strength and 
endurance. He should have mental flexibility 
and adaptability, with no preconceived ideas 
on how the job should be done. He has 
left school more recently, retains more of 
what he has learned and can be expected 
to welcome further training. He will likely 
have vitality, ideas and enthusiasm. 

On the face of it, youth seems to give 
the job applicant a real advantage for many 
kinds of employment. What can the older 
worker offer to set against it? 

First, since the older worker has a longer 
work history, it is much easier for an em- 
ployer to know what kind of person he 
is hiring. His experience, his skills, his 
success and his suitability for the job are 
all on the record. And in the less tangible 
area of human relations he is likely to be 
a good risk, since maturity normally brings 
tolerance and understanding of others. Most 
older workers will have learned to get along 
with people — to take orders without resent- 
ment and to give orders with consideration. 

The older worker is a better risk on 
the score of labour turnover. He has 
learned the kind of work he likes and can 
do and when he finds a suitable job he 
will probably want to remain in it. This 
makes it worthwhile to train an older worker 
for a new job or process, even though he 
has a shorter potential working career. On 
the score of absenteeism and industrial 
accidents the older worker is at least as 
good a risk as any other worker and very 
often a much better risk — a fact attested 
over and over again by employers. And 
although the older worker may not have 
the strength or agility of youth, most jobs 



today demand skill or knowledge rather 
than strength. 

The enthusiasm of youth tends to become 
tempered by realism. As a man grows older 
he no longer believes he is going to make 
a million dollars — he becomes more con- 
cerned with a decent standard of living and 
a measure of satisfaction in his work, he 
has a stake in his community and he looks 
for stability. The elderly worker in the 
higher age brackets, near the end of his 
working career, may find all that he is 
looking for in so-called dead-end jobs which 
do not lead to promotion, or in repetitive 
jobs which put a premium on patience — 
the jobs in which young people become 
restless. 

Youth is considered to be the time of 
enthusiasm and ideas — valuable qualities in 
any business. But youth has no monopoly 
of ideas and older persons have a larger 
measure of the experience and judgment 
that are equally important in the day-to- 
day work of industry. As some employers 
have pointed out, a well-balanced and suc- 
cessful working team should contain younger 
and older workers and take advantage of 
the qualities of both. 

Whether or not an older worker is old 
in years depends as much on the hiring 
policies of the employer to whom he is 
applying as on any quality he may possess. 
An older worker is anyone who has diffi- 
culty in finding employment because of his 
age, and this includes people as young as 
40 — sometimes younger. The employer 
whose policy does not even allow examina- 
tion of the qualifications of workers beyond 
an arbitrary hiring age narrows his field 
of choice and risks eliminating the very 
workers who perhaps could best perform 
his jobs. 



The Department's weekly radio program, 
"Canada at Work," during the week of 
September 6 began a five-week series of 
broadcasts on the older worker problem. 
The program is carried by 71 independent 
radio stations from St. John's, Nfld., to 
Vancouver. 

Speakers on the five broadcasts are: 
Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator of 
Civilian Rehabilitation, and Chairman, 
Interdepartmental Committee on Older 
Workers. 

(Continued on page 916) 



909 



Women's Bureau 



Women in Trade Unions 



CLC Ontario summer school holds special course on women's participation in 
trade unions. British conference of unions catering to women workers sees 
women workers as one of major groups among which union membership can expand 






A special course for discussion of the role 
of women in trade unions was held for 
the first time this year at "Whitesands," 
the Canadian Labour Congress Ontario 
Summer School. 

The school, which has been held annually 
since the TLC-CCL merger in 1956, offers 
executive members of local unions courses 
in collective bargaining procedures and 
union administration. It also introduces 
them to the wider role of the trade union 
movement in community services, political 
action, international affairs, labour legisla- 
tion and public relations. 

Whitesands is one of five schools held 
each summer in different parts of the coun- 
try, the others being located in Quebec, 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Northwestern 
Ontario. 

Five weeks of union leadership training 
were held at Whitesands this year, with a 
total attendance of 350 registered in 25 
different courses; each course runs for a 
week. Local unions elect representatives 
to participate in the school and pay their 
wages during the week of absence from 
regular work. The CLC provides room 
and board. 

Women compete on the same basis as 
men for the right to attend, and each year 
the number of women enrolled in the 
various courses has increased. It was hoped 
that the new course on women's participa- 
tion in trade unions would be of interest 
not only to the women officers but also to 
men on the executives of locals containing 
many women members. However, the 
enrollment was made up entirely of women. 
Most of them were clerical or stenographic 
workers; there were some plant workers, 
and several were wives of men attending 
other courses. 

The sessions were informal, sometimes 
aided by a "true-false" questionnaire filled 
in by the members of the group and then 
discussed. The women proved to be keen 
students. They brought up interesting prob- 
lems that arise in their own work and 
showed an eagerness to talk about the 
special concerns of women in employment. 

At one session, the purpose and program 
of the Women's Bureau of the federal 
Department of Labour were described by 






a representative of the Bureau. Other sub- 
jects discussed in the course were labour 
legislation in Canada, particularly minimum 
wages and equal pay and other laws of 
special interest to women; attitudes towards 
women workers and some of the reasons 
why they do not participate more fully in 
union affairs; and the history of women's 
place in the trade union movement. 

The group also dealt with the broader 
question of the structure of the Canadian 
labour movement and the relationship 
between the different units from the indiv- 
idual local union to the Canadian Labour 
Congress. For one session, the women 
joined forces with the "Building Your 
Union" group to see a film on parliamentary 
procedure for use in union meetings. 

The Director of the summer school anti- 
cipates that courses dealing with questions 
relating to women workers and their jobs 
will be held annually. Believing that the 
special interests of women workers should 
be related to the larger concerns of the 
labour movement as a whole, he hopes that 
some of the men at the school will include 
this course in their studies and that women 
will continue to participate in other courses 
of interest to all workers. 

Women Trade Unionists in Britain 

There are about 1.4 million women trade 
unionists in Great Britain among the 8.4 
million members affiliated with the Trade 
Union Congress, according to a report pre- 
sented at the 29th Annual Conference 
of Representatives of Unions Catering for 
Women Workers. This means that even 
in a long-industrialized country such as 
Britain, four women workers in every five 
are still outside the labour movement. 

The Conference agreed that women work- 
ers, together with men in commerce, dis- 
tribution and banking, are the main groups 
among whom trade union membership can 
be extended in Britain. 

The Conference unanimously passed a 
resolution urging that "trade unionists, 
whose wives and daughters enter industry, 
should see that they do so with a trade 
union card; and that women who join trade 
union branches in which most members are 
men should be welcomed and encouraged to 
play a responsible part." 



910 



From the Labour Gazette, September 1909 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Board of Conciliation under Industrial Disputes Act submits report three days 
after appointment and settles strike of freight handlers at Fort William. The 
Deputy Minister of Labour, sent to scene, advised strikers to apply for board 



On August 14, 1909, Hon. W. L. Mac- 
kenzie King, Minister of Labour, received 
a telegram from the secretary of the Trades 
and Labour Council in Port Arthur which 
read as follows: "Strike Committee of 
freight-handlers, Fort William, request your 
presence here to hear their grievances and 
effect settlement. Wire reply." 

The Minister replied that the Deputy 
Minister, F. A. Acland, was leaving for 
Fort William immediately "to lend the good 
offices of the Department towards effecting 
a settlement,,. He added, "I bespeak for 
him the confidence of each of the parties." 

Mr. Acland, reporting on August 26, 
stated that he had arranged for a formal 
application for a conciliation board to be 
made on August 18. This board reported 
on August 24. Mr. Acland remarked that 
this showed "with what expedition the 
machinery of the Act may be worked when 
there is a special urgency for the same". 

The Deputy Minister's report, the text of 
which was published in the Labour Gazette 
of September 1909, showed that the strike, 
which involved 700 freight handlers at the 
freight sheds of the CPR at Fort William, 
had begun suddenly on August 9, "without 
any formal warning to the company". The 
result had been to "to derange the shipping 
facilities of Fort William". 

The dispute mainly concerned wages, 
although there was some complaint of harsh 
treatment of employees by some of the 
foremen. The rate of wages paid had been 
17i cents an hour for day work and 20 
cents for night work, with an additional 
cent an hour which was given as a bonus 
at the end of the season "to the men who 
remain on duty until that time arrives," 
according to Mr. Acland's report. 

On August 10 the Mayor of Fort Wil- 
liam received a deputation of several of the 
strikers, which set forth their demands. 
The Mayor promised to try to bring about 
a settlement. 

On August 12, however, a clash occurred 
between the strikers and about 30 special 
constables brought from Winnipeg by the 
company, in which firearms were used and 
"many persons were severely injured". The 
Deputy Minister's report stated that "11 
constables were wounded and taken to the 



hospital, and several of the strikers are 
believed also to have been wounded and 
taken away by their comrades; no wounded 
strikers were taken to the hospital." 

The Mayor went to the scene of the 
outbreak, read the Riot Act, and called 
for the militia. "A detachment 150 strong 
of the 96th Regiment located in Fort Wil- 
liam and Port Arthur were soon on duty 
and order was restored." Seventy-five men 
of the Canadian Mounted Rifles were also 
sent from Winnipeg. 

There was no further violence, but the 
next day more than 100 men were brought 
in by the company from the East, and work 
was partially begun again at the freight 
sheds. 

The Mayor resumed his negotiations for 
a settlement, and as a result of his efforts 
and "of the knowledge obtained by the 
strikers of the nature of the Industrial 
Disputes Act," of which it appeared they 
had hitherto known nothing, an agreement 
was reached to apply for an investigation 
under its provisions. On this understanding 
the men returned to work on August 16. 

On August 14 the military had been with- 
drawn, and during the next day, the report 
said, "the city police had arrested a number 
of men believed to have been implicated 
in the affair of the 12th, and the men 
arrested were taken to Port Arthur for 
trial". 

The first act of the Deputy Minister on 
his arrival in Fort William was to arrange 
for a formal application to be made for 
a conciliation board. This board was set 
up on August 21, and immediately began 
an inquiry. 

The board, in its report dated August 24, 
recommended that the rate of pay be 
increased to 201 cents an hour for day work 
and 23| cents for night work, effective 
August 16 — the day the men returned to 
work. The men had asked for 22i cents 
and 25 cents, respectively. They also recom- 
mended the abolition of the bonus system, 
with payment of the bonus to be made up 
to date. Complaints of ill treatment the 
board held to be unsupported by evidence. 

"This report was understood to be accept- 
able to both parties to the dispute," Mr. 
Acland said. 



911 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for two days during July. The Board issued 
seven certificates designating bargaining 
agents, ordered one representation vote, 
rejected three applications for certification, 
and rejected one application for revocation 
of certification. During the month the Board 
received eleven applications for certification 
and allowed the withdrawal of one applica- 
tion for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of unlicensed personnel employed 
by Foundation Maritime Limited, Halifax. 
The Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, intervened 
(L.G., Aug., p. 829). 

2. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a system-wide unit of operating and 
maintenance employees of The St. Law- 
rence Seaway Authority. The Dominion 
Canals Employees' Association and the 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, intervened 
(L.G., Aug., p. 829). 

3. Canadian Air Line Pilots Association, 
on behalf of a unit of pilots employed by 
Pacific Western Airlines Ltd., Vancouver 
Airport, B.C. (L.G., July, p. 718). 

4. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of drivers, helpers, and ware- 
housemen employed by Thompson's Trans- 
fer Company Limited, operating in and 
out of Middleton and Halifax, N.S. (L.G., 
July, p. 719). 

5. United Steelworkers of America, Local 
5826, on behalf of a unit of stevedores 
employed by H. J. O'Connell Limited, in 
its wharf and yard departments at Port 
Cartier (Shelter Bay), Que. (L.G., Aug., 
p. 830). 

6. Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers, Local 880 of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 



feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of J. Sherman & Sons employed in trucking 
operations in and out of Leamington and 
Kingsville, Ont. (L.G., Aug., p. 830). 

7. National Association of Marine En- 
gineers of Canada, on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers employed by Shell Cana- 
dian Tankers, Limited, aboard the MV 
Tyee Shell operating on the West Coast 
(L.G., Aug., p. 830). 

Representation Vote Ordered 

United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant, Consolidated Denison Mines Limited, 
Spragge, Ont., respondent, and International 
Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
(Canada), intervener (L.G., Aug., p. 830). 
The Board directed that the names of both 
the applicant and intervener be placed on 
the ballot (Returning Officer: A. B. Whit- 
field). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, and 
Northern Transportation Company, Limited, 
Edmonton, Alta., respondent (Western Arc- 
tic) (L.G., Dec. 1958, p. 1397). The appli- 
cation was rejected for the reason that it 
was not supported by a majority of the 
employees affected in the representation 
vote conducted by the Board. 

2. Internatinal Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 796, applicant, Pronto 
Uranium Mines Limited, Algoma Mills, 
Ont., respondent, and United Steelworkers 
of America, intervener (L.G., July, p. 719). 
The application was rejected as premature 
in view of the fact that the United Steel- 
workers of America had been certified for 
the same unit of employees on April 9, 
1959, and the Board was not prepared, in 



This section covers proceedings under the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, involving the administrative serv- 
ices of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department. 



912 



the circumstances, to grant consent to the 
making of the application. 

3. International Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 796, applicant, Consolidated 
Denison Mines Limited, Spragge, Ont., 
respondent, International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers, intervener, and 
United Steelworkers of America, intervener 
(hoistmen and compressor operators) (L.G., 
Aug., p. 831). The application was rejected 
for the reason that the Board considered that 
the unit of hoistmen was not appropriate 
for collective bargaining in the uranium 
mining industry, in which such employees 
have been included in production units of 
employees for bargaining purposes. 

Application for Revocation Rejected 

The Board rejected an application for 
revocation of certification affecting John 
Wood on behalf of J. S. Broda, et al, appli- 
cants, the National Association of Marine 
Engineers of Canada, Inc., respondent, and 
Northland Navigation Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 



B.C., respondent (L.G., July, p. 719) (See 
"Reasons for Judgement" below). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Leal 505, on behalf 
of a unit of Longshoremen employed by 
Northland Navigation Co. Ltd., at Prince 
Rupert, B.C. (Investigating Officer: G. R. 
Currie). 

2. North Shore Railway Association, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of the Quebec 
North Shore and Labrador Railway Com- 
pany, Seven Islands, Que. (Investigating 
Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

3. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc. (Eastern Branch), on behalf of a unit 
of masters and mates employed aboard 
tugs owned and operated by McAllister 
Towing, Ltd., Montreal. (Investigating Offi- 
cer: Remi Duquette). 

4. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 510, on 
behalf of a unit of first aid attendants 



Scope and Administration of Industrial 

Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The Branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and, international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satsfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for applications for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 

the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of two officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the provinces of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; three officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; three 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



74810-3—4 



913 



employed by various ship owners, agents 
and stevedoring companies represented by 
the Shipping Federation of British Columbia 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

5. Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers, Local 565 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Bucking- 
ham Transportation, Inc. operating in and 
out of Regina, Sask. (Investigating Officer: 
W. E. Sproule). 

6. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of typewriter mechanics employed 
by the Canadian National Railways at Win- 
nipeg. (Investigating Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

7. Office Employees' International Union, 
Local No. 15, on behalf of a unit of office 
clerks employed by Sea-Van Express Limited 
at North Burnaby, B.C. (Investigating Offi- 
cer: G. R. Currie). 

8. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 505, on 
behalf of a unit of longshoremen employed 
by the West Coast Stevedoring Co. Ltd., at 
Prince Rupert, B.C. (Investigating Officer: 
G. R. Currie). 



9. National Harbours Board Group, 
Churchill, Man., of the Civil Service Asso- 
ciation of Canada, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of the National Harbours Board 
at Churchill, Man. (Investigating Officer: 
G. A. Lane). 

10. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of unlicensed personnel employed 
by The British Yukon Navigation Company, 
Limited, aboard the MV Clifford J. Rogers 
operating on the West Coast (Investigating 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

11. International Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 115, on behalf of a unit of 
construction equipment operators employed 
by the Ken Magehey Construction Co., 
Whitehorse, Y.T. (Investigating Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe). 

Appli